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THE 


UNITED   SERVICE 


JOURNAL 


AND 


Jlabai  antr  JWiiftara 


1830.     PART    I. 


LONDON: 

HENRY  COLBURN  AND  RICHARD  BENTLEY, 

NEW  BURLINGTON  STREET, 


LONDON  I 

PRINTED    BY    SAMUEL  BENTLEY, 
Dorset  Street,  FIc-et  Street. 


CONTENTS 


OF    THE 


FIRST     PART     OF     1830. 


1'AOE 

SKETCH  of  the  Battle  of  the  Pyrenees         .  .  .  1 

Service  Afloat  during  the  late  War.  .  9,  173,  294,  538,  704 

Arnold  and  Andre       .  .  .  .  .  .15 

Traits  of  Admiral  Byng       .  .  .  .  .19 

Biographical  Sketch  of  General  the  Earl  of  Harrington,  G.C.H.  .       24 

On  the  Russian  Conquest  in  Asia       .  .  .  .28 

Biographical  Memoir  of  the  late  Capt.  Richard  Sainthill,  R.N.  .    .  32 

Remarks  on  the  Military  Surveying  Systems      ...  38 

Suggestions  in  Naval  Economy.  .  .  .  41,  197 

Proposition  for  Employing  Men-of-War  as  Transports       .  .  46 

A  Popular  View  of  Fortification  and  Gunnery,  No.  I.  49,  No.  II.  316,  No.  III.  586 
Preliminary  Naval  Education  ...  .  .  59 

Law  by  which  the  Recruiting  of  the  French  Army  is  now  Regulated         .       62 
Naval  Gunnery  .....  69 

Royal  Military  College,  Sandhurst  .  .  .  .76 

East  India  Company's  Military  Seminary  ...  83 

Aphorisms  of  Sir  Philip  Sidney  .  .  .  .84 

Foreign  Miscellany  '.  .  .  85,  214,  346,  617,  746 

Breaking  the  Line      .  ,  .  .  .  .93 

Indian  Army        ......  95 

Naval  Surveys  .  .  .  .  .  .96 

Saving's  Banks  .....  97,  365 

Minor  Punishments  in  the  Army  .  .  .  .97 

Second  Masters  in  the  Navy  .  .  .  .  98 

Chronometers  .  .  .  .  .  .98 

Macintosh's  Water-proof  Cloth  ....  98 

Pensions  to  Widows  of  Naval  Officers        .  .  .  .99 

Employment  of  Half-pay  Officers  on  the  Recruiting  Service  .  99 

"  J.  M."  on  Albuera  .....     loo 

The  Editor's  Portfolio  .     100,  233,  369,  502,  634,  762 

A  2 


iv  CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

General  Orders,  Circulars,  &c.  to  the  Army  103,  244,  373,  505,  638,  765 

Courts  Martial  ....  119,507,765 

Monthly  Naval  Register  .  .  120,  246,  378,  508,  639,  766 

Annals  of  the  British  Fleet,  from  the  Year  1793  .  122,  254,  384 

Distribution  of  the  Army  .  .  .  .  .125 

Annals  of  the  British  Army,  from  the  Year  1793  128,  256,  381,  511,  642 

Gazettes  .  .  .  131,  260,  387, 516,  644,  770 

Births,  Marriages,  and  Deaths  ..  .     134,262,389,518,645,770 

Meteorological  Register  .  .  136,  264,  392,  520,  648,  772 

The  Maroon  War  .  .  .  .  .137 

A  Visit  to  the  Island  of  Johanna  .  .  .  .144 

Account  of  the  Annual  French  Cavalry  Camp  of  Exercise  at  Luneville, 

1829  .  .  .  .  .  .153 

Priority  of  Services  in  the  European  Armies       .  .  .  160 

Notes  from  the  Unpublished  Journal  of  a  late  Naval  Officer      .  .161 

Death  of  a  Corsican  Chief  .  .  .  ,166 

My  First  Affair — Storming  of  the  Redoubt  .  .180 

The  late  Rear- Admiral  Chambers        .  .  .  .184 

African  Travellers        .  .  .  .  .  .187 

A  Perpetual  Log  .  .  .  .  .193 

Sketch  of  the  Services  of  the   late  Lieut.-Gen.  Sir  Miles  Nightingall,      * 

K.C.B.andM.P.         .....  195 

Annals  of  the  Peninsular  Campaigns  .  .  .  201 

The  Life  of  Sir  Thomas  Munro  ....     208 

The  Royal  Naval  College  at  Portsmouth  .  .  .  220 

Notes  on  Military  Pensions        .  .  .  .  .221 

Colonel  Napier  in  reply  to  General  Brenier        .  .  .  223 

J.  M.  on  Military  Science           .  .  .  .  .223 

Sam  Sprit  to  the  "  Heditur"  ....  226 

Colonel  Evans  and  India  .....     229 

Equipment  and  Qualities  of  Eighteen-Gun-Brigs  .  .  230 

Correction  of  an  Error  in  the  "Annals  of  the  Peninsular  Campaigns"       .     231 
Occupations  of  Stars  .  .  .  .  .231 

Royal  Marine  Artillery  .....     232 

Changes  in  the  Stations  of  Corps        .  .  246,  387,  510,  641,  769 

Distribution  of  the  Royal  Navy  in  Commission,  Jan.  1830.       .  .     249 

Prize  Money       ......     253,  644 

Colloquies  with  Folard  .  No.  I.  265,  No.  II.  450,  No.  III.  670 

Memoir  of  Sir  Charles  Vinicombe  Penrose,  K.C.B.  Vice-Admiral  of  the 

White  ......     275 

The  Calmuc  Battle-Song  .  .  .  .  286 

Two  Months  Recollections  of  the  late  War  in  Spain  and  Portugal          287,  415 
Sketch  of  the  Services  of  the  late  Lieut.-Gen.  Sir  Henry  Clinton,  K.C.B.       303 


CONTENTS.  v 

PAGE 

Scenery  in  the  St.  Lawrence       .  .  .     306 

A  Day's  Journal  on  Board  a  Transport  .  .  311 

A  Tale  of  the  Spanish  War        .  .  .  .313 

Anecdote  of  his  late  Majesty  and  General  Picton  .  .  315 

Thoughts  on  the  Classification  of  Ships      .  .  .  .     324 

Great  Guns  on  a  Novel  Construction  .  .  .  329 

On  the  Diminution  of  Expenditure  without  Impairing  the  Efficiency  of 

the  Naval  and  Military  Establishments        .  .  .  332 

Recollections  in  Quarters  ....  340,  610 

Naval  Reminiscences  .....    343,  613 

Sir  Charles  Dashwood  in  Reply  to  the  Quarterly  Review  on  Breaking  the 

Line  ......  352 

Sir  Howard  Douglas,  ditto         .  .  .  .  .353 

System  of  the  Coast  Blockade  ....  358 

Our  Military  Establishments,  present  and  former      .  .  .     360 

Commanders  of  Packets  and  Freights  .  .  .     360,  361 

The  Bengal  Army       .  .  .  .  .  .361 

American  Ships  of  War        .....  362 

Case  of  the  Half-pay  by  Reduction  ....     363 

Colonel  Denham  .  .  .  .  364 

Naval  Uniform  .  .  .  .  .  .365 

Preliminary  Naval  Education  ....  366 

Defence  of  India  .....     366 

The  United  Service  Museum  .  .  .  .  367 

Parliamentary  Papers  .  .  .  .  .376 

Personal  Narrative  of  Capt.  Glasspoole,  of  the  Hon.  Company's  Ship 

Marquis  of  Ely  .....  393 

Song  .  .  .  .  .  .     403 

The  Rogniat  Controversy    .....  404 

Song  of  Mina's  Soldiers  .....     414 

Letters  from  Gibraltar         .  .  .  No.  I.  423,  No.  II.  579 

Biographical  Sketch  of  the  late  Major  Taylor,  of  the  Royal  Artillery         .     432 
The  Story  of  Ja'far,  Son  of  the  Sultan  of  Wadai  .  435,  547,  682 

Border  Incursion         ......     445 

Extracts  from  a  Cruiser's  Log  .  .  ...  446 

A  Commander's  Petition  on  the  Present  Naval  Uniform  .  .     449 

Navarin  in  1825  .  .  .  .  .461 

Remarks  on  Military  Punishments  ....     465 

Narrative  of  the  War  in  Germany  and  France    .  .  .  471 

Adventures  in  the  Rifle  Brigade  ....     478 

Letters  from  Nova  Scotia  .  .  .  480 

Cheap  Living  for  Half-pay  Officers  ....     485 

Late  Board  of  Longitude — Admiral  Brooking's  Rudder     .  .  486 


VI  CONTENTS. 

PA0E 

Appointments  to  the  Command  of  Ships    ....  490 

Rectification  of  an  Error  in  the  "  Annals  of  the  Peninsular  Campaigns"  491 

Overland  Invasion  of  India         .....  492 

Naval  Board  to  Investigate  Plans  and  Inventions               .                 .  494 

Clarence  Medal          .                 .                 .                 .                 .                 .  495 

The  Madras  Army'              .....  495 

Regimental  Subscriptions            .....  497 

On  the  Charging  and  Capture  of  Gvms                .                 .                 .  498 

Former  and  Present  Rate  of  Pay                 ....  499 

Naval  Occurrences  near  Patras,  in  October  1827                 .                 .  499 

Sale  of  Unattached  Commissions                ....  500 

Employment  of  Frigates  to  convey  Specie  from  Vera  Cruz                 .  501 

Parliamentary  Proceedings          ....     504,  636,  764 

Regulations  for  the  Entry  and  Rating  of  Young  Gentlemen  on  board  His 

Majesty's  Ships,  &c.                             .                 .                  .                 .  506 

Memoranda  relative  to  the  Lines  thrown  up  to  cover  Lisbon  in  1810  521 

Lines  on  the  Death  of  Major-Gen.  David  Stewart,  Governor  of  St.  Lucia  546 

Vox  Populi         ......  558 

A  Visit  to  the  Island  of  Anticosti                ....  559 

Sierra  Leone  in  1827           .....  564 

Parker,  the  Mutineer                   .....  572 

On  the  Capture  of  Curacoa,  1st.  Jan.  1807         .                 .                 .  574 

Algiers        .                 .                 .                 .                 .                                  .  575 

Additional  Statement  of  Facts  on  Breaking  the  Line  .  .  595 
On  the  Diminution  of  Expense,  and  the  Increase  of  Efficiency  attainable 

by  the  Improvement  of  the  Materiel  of  the  Navy  .  .  603 

Ancient  and  Modern  Tactics  .....  624 

Disadvantages  of  an  Invariable  System  of  Promotion  by  Seniority  .  627 

Succession  of  Captains  of  the  Navy  to  Increased  Rates  of  Half-pay  .  6*28 

Relative  Pay  of  Colonels  in  the  Army  and  Captains  in  the  Navy  .  629 

Colloquies  with  Folard — Fire  Arms  ....  629 

Naval  Commands  and  Appointments  .  .  .  630 

Military  Medical  Department  .  '  .  .  .  631 

Regimental  Staff  Officers  ....  632 

Oldest  Record  existing  of  the  British  Naval  Uniform  .  .  633 

New  Zealand,  in  1829  .....  649 
Sharp-shooting  at  Woolwich  .  .  .  .  .658 

Warfare  of  the  North  American  Indians  .  .  .  659 
Canadian  Loyalty  .  .  .  .  .681 

A  Cruise  up  the  Saguenay  .  693 

Farewell  to  India  ...  .  697 

General  Sir  Hew  Dalrymple,  Bart.  .  .  698 

Cavalry  Tactics — Movements  by  Threes  ,  .  . "  .  713 


CONTENTS.  vfi 

PACK 

An  Address  to  Military  Messes                   .                 .                 .  .716 
Memoranda  on  Reduction                    .                                                    .717 

The  King's  Own         ....  .724 

Military  Surgery — Dr.  Ballingall's  Lectures       .                 .                 .  733 

Naval  Administration  of  Great  Britain  since  1815     .                  .  .     738 

$.  51.  to  Miles  Minden       .....  751 

Importance  of  maintaining  a  Defensive  Force  on  an  adequate  footing  .     754 

Administration  of  the  Medical  Department  of  the  Army     .                 .  757 
Brevet  Rank  in  the  Navy            .....     758 

The  Lieutenant-Colonels  of  the  Army                 .                 .                 .  760 

Conveyance  of  Troops  in  Government  Vessels            .                 .  .     760 

Position  of  the  "  Devil's  Rock."                           .                                .  760 

King's  Packet  Service                 .                 .                 .                 .  .761 

Tardy  Promotion  in  the  Marines — Review  on  Blackheath                 .  762 

SUPPLEMENT. — Letter  from  Toulon                                        .  .       773 


ERRATA. 
1829,  PART  II. 

Page  696,  third  stanza,  4th  line,  for  "  The"  read  "  She." 

716,  line  12  from  bottom,  for  "  designed"  read  "  deigned." 

744,  line  8,  third  paragraph,  for  "  mountain-traches"  read  "  mountain  tracts." 

767,  line  12  from  bottom,  for  "  is"  read  "  as." 

767,  2d  line  from  bottom,  dele  "  and"  and  inseit  "  to  be." 

781,  dele  the  paragraph  at  bottom  of  page  under  the  head  of  "  Royal  Engineers." 

1830,  PART  I. 

In  the  Explanation  of  Fig.  2,  read  N.  "  palisading  at  the  foot  of  the  interior  slope  of  the  Glacis," 
instead  of  "  palisading,  at  the  foot  of,  in  the  interior  slope  of  the  Glacis." 

Fig.  3.    The  scale  is  a  scale  of  feet. 

Fig.  4.    In  the  Explanation  of  this  figure,  instead  of  "  99  cap."  read  "  99  caponnicre." 

Page  82,  third  line  from  bottom,  for  "  en  cremaitli^re"  read  "  en  cremailli<jre." 
125,  for  "  Dragroons"  read  "  Dragoons." 

Page  187,  a  mistake  occurs  in  the  note  referring  to  a  publication  by  Capt.  W.  F.  Beechey,  R.  N. 
The  work  referred  to  in  the  text  is  entitled,  "  Proceedings  of  the  Expedition  to  explore  the  Northern 
Coast  of  Africa,  from  Tripoly  eastward,  in  1821  and  1822  ;  comprehending  an  Account  of  the  Greater 
Syrtis  and  Cyrenaica,  and  of  the  Antient  Cities  composing  the  Pentapolis,  by  Capt.  F.  W.  Beechey, 
and  H.  W.  Beechey,  Esq.  F.S.A." — published  in  1828. 

Page  230,  last  line  but  one  from  the  bottom,  for  "  the  boom  main-sail  varying  ever  from,"  &c. 
read  "  the  boom  main  sail  drawing,  even  from,"  &c. 

Page  225,  second  line  from  top,  for  "  pardonable"  read  "  unpardonable." 
298,  line  12  from  the  top,  for  "  hawser"  read  "  horse." 

529,  line  14  from  the  bottom,  for  "  defences  of  the  second  line"  read  "  defences  of  the  first, 
or  advanced  line." 


THE 


UNITED  SERVICE  JOURNAL, 


AND 


' 

NAVAL  AND  MILITARY  MAGAZINE. 


SKETCH    OF    THE    BATTLES    OF    THE    PYRENEES. 

THE  Duke  of  Dalmatia,  on  the  25th  of  July,  1813,  assaulted  the 
passes  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Roneesvalles,*  and  the  Count  d'Erlon 
that  of  Aretesque,  four  miles  in  front  of  Maya.  The  result  of  this  day's 
combat  obliged  Generals  Sir  L.  Cole,  Byng,  and  Morrillo,  to  fall  back 
from  Roncesvalles  ;  owing  to  this  retrograde,  the  British  army  were 
taken  in  reverse.  The  fifth  division  at  daybreak  had  stormed  the 
breaches  of  St.  Sebastian  without  success,  two  thousand  men  had 
fallen,  or  were  made  prisoners  at  the  various  points  of  contest  ;  and 
Lord  Hill  fell  back  during  the  night  from  the  pass  of  Maya.  So  far 
every  thing  seemed  propitious  to  the  views  of  the  French  Marshal. 
Under  all  these  circumstances,  Gen.  Campbell,  (who  was  stationed 
with  a  Portuguese  brigade  at  the  pass  of  Los  Alduides,)  finding  his 
flanks  laid  bare,  retired  from  that  post,  and  during  the  26th  formed  a 
junction  with  Gen.  Sir  T.  Picton,  who,  by  a  flank  movement  to  the 
right,  had  marched  from  Olacque  to  Lizoain,  for  the  purpose  of  suc- 
couring the  troops  falling  back  from  Roncesvalles. 

During  these  operations,  Lord  Hill  had  taken  up  a  strong  position  at 
Irrueta,  sixteen  miles  from  the  pass  of  Aretesque,  where  he  opposed 
for  the  time  being  the  farther  progress  of  the  Count  d'Erlon.  This 
position  covered  the  flank  of  Sir  T.  Picton's  column  retrograding  from 
Zubiri,  and  prevented  the  Count  d'Erlon  from  uniting  with  the  Duke 
of  Dalmatia,  and  also  enabled  the  sixth  division  to  march  direct  to  the 
rear  from  San  Estevan,  and  to  unite  at  the  well-arranged  point  d'appui. 

Five  miles  in  front  of  Pamplona,  where,  on  the  27th,  the  General-in- 
chief  joined  those  troops  which  had  retired  from  Zubiri  under  the  com- 
mand of  Sir  T.  Picton,  Generals  Sir  L.  Cole,  Byng,  Campbell,  and  Mor- 
rillo, were  drawn  up  on  a  strong  ridge  in  front  of  Pamplona,  and  flanked 
by  the  rivers  Arga  and  Lanz.  Sir  T.  Picton  was  in  a  manner  thrown 
back  on  the  left  of  the  Arga,  in  front  of  Olaz,  and  supported  by  Lord 

*  Pamplona  is  thirty-five  miles  from  the  extremity  of  the  principal  pass  at  Ronces- 
valles, forty-five  from  that  of  Aretesque  in  front  of  Maya,  and  fitty-five  miles  from  the 
pass  of  Vera  :  all  these  points  it  was  necessary  to  occupy  on  the  right  of  the  Bidassoa, 
which  clearly  demonstrates  the  advantage  the  enemy  possessed  by  attacking  princi- 
pally at  Roncesvalles. 

U.  S.  JOURN.  No.  13.  JAN.  1830.  B 


2  SKETCH    OF   THE 

Combermere,  with  the  cavalry  in  reserve,  for  the  purpose  of  preventing 
the  enemy  from  taking  the  right  of  the  army  in  reverse  by  the  road  from 
Zubiri.  The  enemy,  who  had  followed  the  march  of  the  troops  by  that 
road,  had  no  sooner  arrived  opposite  the  third  division,  than  by  an  oblique 
prolongation  to  their  right,  they  began  to  extend  their  line  across  the  front 
of  the  General-in-chief  under  a  fire  of  small-arms,  by  which  manoeuvre 
they  succeeded  in  cutting  off  Lord  Hill's  retreat  by  the  Maya  road  run- 
ning through  Ortiz ;  he  therefore,  having  passed  through  Lanz,  edged 
off  diagonally  in  a  westerly  direction,  and  by  an  oblique  march  formed  a 
junction  with  the  seventh  division  (from  St.  Estevan)  at  Lizasso,  thence 
to  co-operate  if  possible  with  the  left  of  the  General-in-chief,  whose 
position  in  front  of  Pamplona  was  about  eighteen  miles  from  that  place. 
During  these  various  movements,  Lord  Lynedoch,  with  the  first  and 
fifth  divisons  and  a  corps  of  Spaniards,  remained  stationary  on  the  left 
bank  of  the  Bidassoa,  for  the  double  purpose  of  covering  St.  Sebastian, 
(the  siege  of  that  place  was  now  converted  into  a  blockade,  and  the  bat- 
tering train  embarked  at  the  port  of  los  Passages)  and  watching  Gen.Vil- 
late,  who  lined  the  opposite  bank  of  the  river,  to  be  in  readiness  to  as- 
sume the  offensive,  for  the  purpose  of  raising  the  siege  of  St.  Sebastian,  or 
hanging  on  Lord  Lynedoch's  rear,  in  the  event  of  the  Duke  of  Dalmatia 
gaining  a  victory  at  Pamplona,  or  succeeding  in  cutting  off  in  detail  the 
various  divisions  of  the  British  army,  now  thrown  into  echelon,  and  ex- 
tending from  the  banks  of  the  Bidassoa  in  front  of  Irun,  to  seven  miles 
in  an  easterly  direction  beyond  Pamplona ;  a  distance  of  at  least  seventy 
miles  for  the  army  to  unite  to  either  flank,  (between  two  fortresses, 
whose  ramparts  were  garnished  with  the  cannon  and  small-arms  of  the 
enemy)  on  an  irregular  quarter  circle :  amid  multifarious  barren  rocks, 
towering  mountains,  and  extensive  forests,  over  whose  inhospitable  re- 
gions it  was  necessary  amongst  other  things  to  convey  provisions,  am- 
munition, and  biscuit  bags,  for  the  daily  consumption  of  the  moveable 
divisions,  an  operation  attended  with  great  difficulty  under  such  cir- 
cumstances. Although  the  right  of  the  army  had  been  retiring  for  two 
days,  the  light  division  still  tranquilly  remained  unmolested  in  front  of 
Vera  ;  but  on  the  morning  of  the  27th,  on  finding  that  the  seventh 
division  had  quitted  the  heights  of  Echalar  and  uncovered  our  right 
flank,  the  first  brigade  quietly  descended  from  the  heights  of  Santa 
Barbara,  and  the  whole  division  concentrated  behind  the  defile  on  the 
road  to  Lazaca,  the  pickets  being  left  to  mask  this  movement  and 
form  the  rear-guard.  As  soon  as  the  division  had  got  clear  off,  the 
pickets  evacuated  the  farm-houses  in  succession  from  the  right,  and 
lastly,  at  ten  o'clock,  A.M.  quitted  the  town  of  Vera  within  pistol-shot 
of  the  enemy's  sentinels ;  who  pretended  not  to  notice  this  retrograde, 
probably  being  apprehensive  of  bringing  on  an  action  without  being 
able  at  this  point  to  display  a  sufficient  force  to  assume  offensive  move- 
ments, and  also  conjecturing  that  the  division  might  meet  with  a  recep- 
tion little  anticipated  on  reaching  the  neighbourhood  of  Pamplona. 
The  Duke  of  Dalmatia  at  this  moment  was  still  pursuing  the  troops 
from  Roncesvalles  and  Zubiri,  and  actually  within  a  few  hours  of  the 
vicinity  of  Pamplona,  two  days  march  behind  the  second  and  seventh 
divisions,  and  three  in  rear  of  the  light  division,  and  even  threatening  to 
intercept  the  sixth  division  from  St.  Estevan. 

As  I  was  left  with  the  pickets  at  Vera,  I  had  a  good  opportunity  of 


BATTLES    OF    THE   PYRENEES.  3 

witnessing  the  sangfroid  of  the  French  outposts,  they  made  no  forward 
movement,  and  as  I  was  loitering  behind  within  a  short  distance  of 
the  bridge  of  Lazaca,  over  which  the  troops  had  crossed  to  the  left  bank 
of  the  Bidassoa,  I  observed  the  Spanish  family,  (with  whom  I  had  re- 
cently become  acquainted,)  with  rapid  strides  trudging  along  the  flinty 
road,  having  rushed  from  their  only  dwelling  through  fear  of  the 
French,  the  instant  they  perceived  the  sentries  retiring  from  their 
posts.  They  now  presented  real  objects  of  commiseration,  clad  in 
thin  shoes  and  silk-stockings ;  the  glossy  ringlets  were  blown  from 
off  the  forehead  of  La  Senorita  Ventura,  and  a  tear  from  her  dark  blue 
eye,  (shaded  with  raven  eyelashes,)  rolled  down  her  flushed  cheek,  into 
the  prettiest  pouting  lips  to  be  imagined  ;  a  mantilla  loosely  hung  across 
her  arm,  fluttering  in  the  breeze,  and  a  black  silk  dress  hanging  in 
graceful  folds  around  her  delicate  form,  gave  her,  with  all  her  troubles, 
a  most  enchanting  appearance.  El  Padre  accepted  the  offer  of  my 
horse,  and  sticking  his  short  legs  into  the  stirrup  leathers,  composedly 
smoked  a  cigar.  The  mother  took  my  arm,  the  other  I  offered  to 
Ventura,  who  smilingly  declined,  saying,  "  It  is  not  the  fashion  for 
las  Senoritas  to  take  the  arms  of  los  Caballeros,"  but  politely  offered 
her  hand ;  while  crossing  the  bridge,  here,  said  the  little  heroine, ' '  Why 
do  you  not  call  back  los  Soldados,  and  tell  them  to  lirdr  las  bdlas  a  este 
puente?"  I  endeavoured  to  explain  that  our  flank  was  turned,  and  all 
the  grand  manoeuvres  of  an  army;  little  to  her  satisfaction,  for  she 
could  not  comprehend  any  other  than  the  front  attack. 

On  entering  the  town,  the  family  stopped  at  a  large  stone  mansion 
of  a  relation,  where  they  intended  to  take  up  their  abode  for  the  pre- 
sent :  the  parents  urged  my  departure,  through  fear  that  I  might  fall 
into  the  hands  of  the  enemy.  I  then  took  my  farewell  of  them,  as  I 
thought  for  the  last  time,  and  galloping  through  the  town,  soon  came 
within  sight  of  the  division,  threading  its  march  up  a  steep  defile,  en- 
closed on  all  sides  by  an  extensive  forest.  Towards  evening  we  en- 
camped, one  league  and  a-half  W.N.W.  of  San  Estevan,  on  the  moun- 
tain of  Santa  Cruz,  from  whence  we  still  commanded  a  view  of  the 
French  bivouack.  Here  we  halted  during  the  night.  On  the  follow- 
ing day,  the  battle  of  Pamplona  took  place  thirty  miles  in  our  rear,  and, 
being  entangled  amongst  the  mountains,  we  did  not  hear  of  the  event 
until  three  days  afterwards.  The  combat  began  in  a  singular  manner : 
the  sixth  division,  under  Gen.  Pack,  while  on  its  march  over  a  rough 
country,  intersected  by  stone  walls,  within  a  few  miles  of  Pamplona, 
suddenly  encountered  the  grey-coated  French  columns  in 'full  march, 
debouching  from  behind  the  village  of  Sauroren  for  the  purpose  of  out- 
flanking the  left  of  the  fourth  division.  The  consequence  of  these  two 
hostile  bodies  clashing  was,  that  the  enemy's  van  were  driven  back  by 
a  hot  fire  of  musketry.  The  French,  being  foiled  in  this  manoeuvre, 
turned  their  grand  efforts  against  the  front  of  the  heights  on  which  the 
fourth  division  was  stationed.  The  valour  of  the  red  regiments  shone 
transcendant,  and  the  Duke  of  Wellington  repeatedly  thanked  the  va- 
rious corps,  while  recovering  breath  to  renew  fresh  efforts  with  the 
bayonet,  in  driving  the  enemy  headlong  from  the  crest  of  the  ragged 
heights  j^thus  forcing  them,  after  a  most  sanguinary  and  furious  contest, 
to  desist  from  farther  offensive  movements  on  that  position. 

The  General-in-chief  could  only  collect,  at  the  end  of  three  days, 

B   2 


4  SKETCH    OF    THE 

two  brigades  of  the  second  division,  Gen.  Morillo's,  and  part  of  the 
Count  d'Abisbal's,  Spaniards,  and  the  three  reserve  divisions,  to  oppose 
the  Duke  of  Dalmatia,  which  clearly  demonstrates  the  great  difficulty 
of  occupying  such  a  vast  and  difficult  range  of  country.  The  Jirst,  se- 
cond, fifth,  seventh,  and  light  divisions,  were  too  far  distant  to  join  in 
the  action  of  the  28th ;  and  even  the  third  division,  only  a  few  miles 
to  the  right  of  the  field  of  action,  could  not  take  part  in  it,  as  the  ene- 
my had  a  corps  of  observation  opposite  Sir  T.  Picton,  backed  by  a  nume- 
rous train  of  artillery  and  a  large  body  of  cavalry,  in  readiness  to  en- 
gage him,  should  the  sixth  and/owr/A  divisions  lose  the  day. 

The  light  division  continued  in  position  at  Santa  Cruz  during  the 
whole  of  the  28th,  having  completely  lost  all  trace  of  the  army ;  and 
during  these  doubtful  conjectures,  at  sun-set  we  began  to  descend  a 
rugged  pass,  near  Zubieta,  to  endeavour  to  cut  in  upon  the  road  be- 
tween Pamplona  and  Tolosa,  as  it  was  impossible  to  know  whether 
Lord  Lynedoch,  by  this  time,  was  not  even  beyond  the  latter  town;  and 
to  add  to  our  difficulties,  the  night  set  in  so  extremely  dark  that  the 
soldiers  could  no  longer  see  each  other,  and  began  to  tumble  about  in 
all  directions ;  some  became  stationary  on  shelvings  of  rock,  or  so  en- 
veloped in  the  thicket,  that  they  could  no  longer  extricate  themselves 
from  the  trees  and  underwood.  The  rocks  and  the  forest  resounded 
with  many  voices,  while  here  and  there  a  small  fire  was  kindled  and 
flared  up,  as  if  lighted  in  the  clouds  by  some  magic  hand.  For  myself, 
I  at  length  became  so  exhausted  and  out  of  temper,  at  the  toil  of  lug- 
ging along  my  unwilling  steed,  that  in  a  fit  of  despair  I  mounted  and, 
keeping  a  tight  rein,  permitted  the  animal  to  pick  its  own  steps.  The 
branches  of  the  trees  so  continually  twisted  round  my  head  that  I  ex- 
pected every  minute  to  find  myself  suspended ;  at  last  the  trusty  horse 
made  a  dead  stop,  having  emerged  from  the  forest  into  a  small  hamlet, 
where  I  encountered  a  few  harassed  soldiers,  inquiring  of  each  other 
where  the  main  body  had  vanished  to,  or  what  direction  to  pursue,  for 
they  no  longer  knew  whether  they  were  advancing  or  retiring ;  and, 
without  farther  ceremony,  began  to  batter,  with  the  butt-end  of  their 
firelocks,  the  strong  and  massive  doors  of  the  slumbering  inhabitants, 
demanding,  with  stentorian  voices,  if  any  troops  had  passed  that  way ; 
a  difficult  question  for  people  to  answer  who  had  just  risen  from 
their  mattresses,  and  now  timidly  opened  their  doors,  in  considerable 
alarm,  being  apprehensive  that  we  had  come  at  midnight  hour  to  rob 
and  plunder  them.  At  last  a  resolute  Spaniard*  threw  a  large  capote 
over  his  shoulder,  and  stepping  forward  said,  "  Senores  Caballeros, 
only  inform  me  whence  you  came  or  whither  you  are  going,  and  I  will 
be  your  guide ;"  but  we  were  so  bewildered,  owing  to  the  crooked  path, 
and  the  intricate  windings  of  the  forest,  that  no  one  could  take  upon 
himself  to  point  towards  the  direction  of  the  bleak  mountain  we  had 
come  from,  or  the  name  of  the  place  we  were  going  to ;  as  a  matter  of 
expediency,  therefore,  we  patiently  awaited  the  coming  morn. 

*  On  the  29th,  at  the  end  of  four  days'  fighting,  both  Marshals  desisted  from  hostili- 
ties in  front  of  Pamplona.  The  French  employed  themselves  in  edging  off  to  their 
right  to  assist  the  Count  d'Erlon,  who  had  followed  the  march  of  Lord  Hill  by  Lanz. 
The  Duke  of  Wellington,  on  the  other  hand,  was  drawing  in  the  seventh  division  to  in- 
sure a  communication  with  Lord  Hill,  and  also  watching  his  adversary's  movements,  to 
take  advantage  of  wliat  might  accrue  on  the  morrow. 


BATTLES    OF   THE     PYRENEES.  5 

At  daybreak,*  a  scene  of  complete  confusion  presented  itself,  the 
greater  part  of  the  division  being  scattered  over  the  face  of  a  steep  and 
woody  mountain,  and  positively  not  half  a  league  from  whence  they 
had  started  on  the  previous  evening.  As  soon  as  the  various  corps  had 
grouped  together,  they  followed  the  only  road  in  sight,  and  soon  met 
a  mounted  officer,  who  directed  them  towards  Leyza :  near  that  place 
one-half  of  the  division  were  already  bivouacked,  having  reached  the 
valley  before  the  pitchy  darkness  had  set  in.  It  was  now  the  third  day 
since  we  had  retired  from  Vera,  and  Gen.  Baron  C.  Alten  became  so 
uneasy,  that  he  ordered  some  of  the  best-mounted  regimental  officers 
to  go  in  various  directions  to  ascertain,  if  possible,  some  tidings  of  the 
army,  with  which  lie  had  no  communication  for  three  days,  and  were 
now  isolated  amongst  the  wilds  of  the  Pyrenees,  on  the  left  of  the 
river  Bidassoa,  half-way  between  St.  Sebastian  and  Pamplona.  At  six 
o'clock  the  same  evening  we  again  broke  up  and  marched  two  leagues 
in  the  direction  of  Arressa,  and  then  bivouacked  in  a  wood,  with  an 
order  not  to  light  fires,  to  prevent  any  of  the  enemy's  scouts  or  spies 
ascertaining  our  route.  Two  hours  after  nightfall,  the  troops  were  again 
put  in  motion,  and  I  was  left  in  the  forest,  with  directions  to  continue 
there  all  night,  to  bring  off  in  the  morning  any  baggage  or  stragglers  that 
might  happen  to  go  astray.  At  daylight  on  the  30th,  having  collected 
together  a  few  women  who  dared  not  again  encounter  another  toilsome 
night-march  along  the  verge  of  precipices ;  it  was  a  droll  sight  to  see 
this  noisy  group  defiling  from  the  forest,  many  dressed  in  soldiers' 
jackets,  battered  bonnets,  and  faded  ribbons,  with  dishevelled  locks 
hanging  over  their  weather-beaten  features,  as  they  drove  along  their 
lazy  borricas  with  a  thick  stick ;  and  when  the  terrific  blows  laid  on 
ceased  to  produce  the  desired  effect,  they  squalled  with  sheer  vexation, 
lest  they  might  be  overtaken,  and  fall  into  the  hands  of  the  enemy's 
light  horse.  Having  travelled  for  two  hours  as  a  sort  of  guide  to  these 
poor  women,  I  perceived  an  officer  at  some  distance  in  front,  and  on 
overtaking  him,  he  expressed  the  greatest  joy  at  seeing  me,  and  declared 
that  he  had  been  wandering  for  some  hours  in  the  most  agitated  state  of 
mind,  not  knowing  whither  to  bend  his  footsteps.  The  division  had  drawn 
up  again  during  the  night,  and  having  laid  down  on  the  flank  of  the 
column,  he  had  fallen  into  a  profound  slumber,  out  of  which  he  had 
awoke  at  broad  daylight,  with  the  rays  of  the  sun  shining  full  on  his 
face,  and  when  somewhat  recovering  his  bewildered  recollections,  he 
wildly  gazed  around  for  the  column  which  had  vanished,  and  springing 
on  his  feet,  halloed  with  all  his  might ;  but  no  answer  was  returned,  a 
solemn  silence  reigned  around,  save  the  fluttering  of  the  birds  amongst 
the  luxuriant  foliage  of  the  trees,  the  morning  dew  no  longer  bespan- 
gled the  sod,  nor  did  the  print  of  a  single  footstep  remain  to  guide  his. 
course  :  at  length,  in  a  fit  of  desperation,  he  hastily  tore  a  passage 
through  the  thicket,  and  luckily  reached  the  road,  and  at  random  saun- 
tered along  in  no  very  pleasant  mood,  until  I  overtook  him.  Soon  after 

*'  It  was  a  frequent  custom,  when  in  want  of  a  guide,  to  employ  a  peasant,  who  re- 
ceived a  dollar  at  the  end  of  his  day's  journey.  These  Pizanos,  being  accustomed  to 
pastoral  lives,  were  well  acquainted  with  every  inch  of  ground  or  by-path  for  leagues 
around  their  habitations,  as  well  as  the  various  fords  across  rivers  and  tributary 
streams  ;  which  depend  on  the  season  of  the  year,  or  the  quantity  of  rain  that  might  hap- 
pen to  fall  at  uncertain  periods  on  these  mountains. 


6  SKETCH    OF   THE 

this  we  heard  to  our  left  sounds  like  those  of  distant  thunder  j  as  the 
sky  was  perfectly  serene,  we  concluded  that  the  noise  must  be  caused 
by  a  heavy  firing  of  musketry.*  On  reaching  Arriba  we  found  most  of 
the  doors  closed ;  however,  we  succeeded  in  purchasing  a  loaf,  and  then 
seated  ourselves  on  the  margin  of  a  clear  mountain-stream,  where  we 
devoured  it,  and  then  solaced  ourselves  with  a  hearty  draught  of  the 
refreshing  beverage  ;  this  stream  looked  so  inviting,  that  we  threw  off 
our  clothes  and  plunged  into  it.  Notwithstanding  the  cooling  effects  of 
the  bathe,  the  feet  of  my  companion  were  so  much  swollen,  owing  to 
previous  fatigue,  that  with  all  his  tugging  he  could  not  pull  on  his  boots 
again ;  fortunately  mine  were  old  and  easy,  so  we  readily  effected  an 
exchange,  and  then  followed  the  road  across  a  high  mountain,  from 
whose  summit  we  saw  the  division  bivouacked  to  the  right  of  the  broad 
and  well-paved  road  (near  Lecumberri)  which  leads  from  Pamplona  to 
Tolosa ;  from  this  position  we  could  march  to  either  of  those  places, 
being  half-way  between  them  ;  here  the  division  awaited  the  return  of 
its  scouts  the  whole  of  the  following  day. 

The  French  army  being  completely  worn  out,  and  having  suffered 
terribly  in  killed  and  wounded,  continued  to  retreat  during  the  31st, 
followed  by  five  divisions  of  the  British  in  three  columns,  by  the  roads 
of  Roncesvalles,  Maya,  and  Donna  Maria.  On  the  evening  of  the  same 
day,  although  obliquely  to  the  rear  of  the  pursuing  columns,  we  receiv- 
ed orders,  if  possible,  to  overtake  the  enemy,  and  attack  them  wherever 
they  might  be  found.  Accordingly,  in  the  middle  of  the  night  we  got 
under  arms  and  began  our  march ;  towards  the  middle  of  the  following 
day,  (the  1st  of  Aug.)  having  already  marched  twenty-four  miles,  we 
descended  into  a  deep  valley  between  Ituren  and  Elgoriaga,  where  the 
division  drew  up  in  column  to  reconnoitre  the  right  flank  of  the  enemy, 
who  were  still  hovering  in  the  neighbourhood  of  San  Estevan.  After 
an  hour's  halt,  we  continued  our  movement  on  the  left  of  the  Bidassoa, 
and  for  three  hours  ascended,  or  rather  clambered,  the  rugged  asperities 
of  a  prodigious  mountain,  the  by-path  of  which  was  composed  of  over- 
lapping slabs  of  rock,  or  stepping-stones  ;  at  four  o'clock  in  the  afternoon 
a  flying  dust  was  descried,  glistening  with  the  bright  and  vivid  flashes  of 
small-arms,  to  the  right  of  the  Bidassoa,  and  in  the  valley  of  Lerin. 
A  cry  was  instantly  set  up  "  the  enemy  !"  the  worn  soldiers  raised 
their  bent  heads  covered  with  dust  and  sweat :  we  had  nearly  reached 
the  summit  of  this  tremendous  mountain,  but  nature  was  quite  ex- 
hausted ;  many  of  the  soldiers  lagged  behind,  having  accomplished  more 


*  This  firing  was  near  Lizasso,  where  the  enemy  endeavoured  to  turn  Lord  Hill's  left 
flank  by  the  road  to  Buenzu,  and  while  the  Count  d'Erlon  was  striving  to  execute  this 
movement,  the  light  division,  unknowingly,  were  marching  on  his  right  flank  :  however, 
the  General-in-chief  being  still  in  position  in  front  of  Pamplona,  finding  that  the  Duke 
of  Dalmatia  had  weakened  his  left  and  centre,  to  support  the  Count  d'Erlon,  immedi- 
ately countermanosuvred,  and  attacked  the  right  of  his  opponent  with  the  sixth  and  se- 
venth divisions,  the  left  with  the  third  division,  and  then  pierced  the  centre  of  the  ene- 
my with  the  fourth  division  and  Gen.  Byng's  brigade  of  the  second  division,  and  before 
sun-set  pushed  back  the  enemy  beyond  Olacque  :  by  this  attack  the  left  flank  of  the 
Count  d'Erlon  became  uncovered,  and  obliged  him  to  fall  back,  during  the  night,  to- 
wards the  pass  of  Donna  Maria,  to  avoid  falling  into  the  snare  originally  intended  for 
his  adversary. 


BATTLES   OF    THE    PYRENEES.  7 

than  thirty  miles  over  the  rocky  roads  intersected  with  loose  stones, 
many  fell  heavily  on  the  naked  rocks,  frothing  at  the  mouth,  black  in 
the  face,  and  struggling  in  their  last  agonies,  whilst  others,  unable  to 
drag  one  leg  after  the  other,  leaned  on  the  muzzles  of  their  firelocks, 
looking  pictures  of  despair,  muttering  in  disconsolate  accents  that  they 
had  never  fallen  out  before. 

The  sun  was  shining  in  full  vigour,  but  fortunately  numerous  clear 
streams  bubbled  from  the  cavities  and  fissures  of  the  rocks,  (which 
were  clothed  in  many  places  by  beautiful  evergreens,)  and  allayed  the 
burning  thirst  of  the  fainting  men; — the  hard  work  of  an  infantry  sol- 
dier at  times  is  beyond  all  calculation,  and  death  by  the  road-side  fre- 
quently puts  an  end  to  his  sufferings, — but  what  description  can  equal 
such  an  exit  ?     At  seven  in  the  evening,  the  division  having  been  in 
march  nineteen  hours,  and  accomplished  nearly  forty  miles,  it  was  found 
absolutely  necessary  to  halt  the  second  brigade  near  Aranaz,  as  a  rallying 
point ;  being  now  parallel  with  the  enemy,  and  some  hours  a-head  of  the 
van-guard  leading  the  left  column  of  our  army,  our  right  brigade  still 
hobbled  onwards ;  at  twilight  we  overlooked  the  enemy  within  stone's 
throw,  and  from  the  summit  of  a  tremendous  precipice,  the  river  sepa- 
rated us  ;  but  the  French  were  wedged  in  a  narrow  road,  with  inacces- 
sible rocks,  enclosing  them  on  one   side,  and  the  river  on  the  other  : 
such  confusion  took  place  amongst  them  as  is  impossible  to  describe ; 
the  wounded  were  thrown  down  during  the  rush  and  trampled  upon, 
and  their  cavalry  drew  their  swords,  and  endeavoured  to  charge  up  the 
pass  of  Echalar,  (the  only  opening  on  their  right  flank,)  but  the  in- 
fantry beat  them  back,  arid  several  of  them,  horses  and  all,  were  pre- 
cipitated into-  the  river ;  others  fired  vertically  at  us,  whilst  the  wound- 
ed called  out  for  quarter,  and  pointed  to  their  numerous  soldiers  sup- 
ported on  the  shoulders  of  their  comrades  in   bearers,    composed   of 
branches  of  trees,  to  which  were  suspended  great  coats  clotted  with 
gore,  or  blood-stained  sheets,  taken  from  various  habitations,  to  carry 
off  their  wounded,  on  whom  we  did  not  fire.     Our  attention  was  soon 
called  from  this  melancholy  spectacle  to  support  the  Rifle  corps*  while 
they  repulsed  the  enemy  who  had  crossed  over  the  bridge  of  Yanzi  to 
attack  us,  to  enable  the  tail  of  their  column  to  get  off :  night  closed  on 
us,  and  the  firing  ceased ;  but,  owing  to  our  seizing  the  bridge,  we  cut 
off  the  whole  of  their  baggage,  which  fell  into  the  hands  of  the  column 
of  our  army  following  from  St.  Estevan. 

In  this  way  ended  the  most  trying  day's  march  I  ever  remember. 
On  the  following  morning,  soon  after  daylight,  we  filed  across  the 
bridge  of  Yarizi,  held  by  our  pickets,  and  detached  a  small  force  to 
guard  the  road  towards  Echnlar,  until  the  troops  came  up  from  the  di- 
rection of  San  Estavan,  which  had  hung  on  the  enemy's  rear  for  the 
then  three  previous  days.  Continuing  our  march,  we  once  more  de- 
bouched by  the  defile  opposite  Vera,  where  the  French  sentinels  were 
still  posted,  as  if  rooted  to  the  rocks  on  which  they  were  stationed  the 


*  One  of  the  first  I  saw  wounded  was  Capt.  Perceval,  of  the  Rifle  corps.  "  Well," 
said  he,  "  I  am  a  lucky  fellow,  with  one  arm  maimed  and  useless  by  my  side  from  an 
old  wound,  and  now  unable  to  use  the  other." 


8  SKETCH    OF    THE    BATTLES    OF    THE   PYRENEES. 

day  we  had  taken  our  departure.  As  soon  as  the  second  brigade  came 
up,  we  again  ascended  the  heights  of  Santa  Barbara,  where  we  found 
a  French  corporal,  with  a  broken  leg,  his  head  resting  on  a  hairy  knap- 
sack, and  supported  in  the  arms  of  a  comrade,  who  generously  remain- 
ed behind  to  protect  the  life  of  his  friend  from  the  cuchillo  of  the  Spa- 
niards. As  soon  as  he  had  delivered  him  to  the  care  of  the  English 
soldiers,  he  embraced  the  corporal,  saying,  "  Au  revoir,  bon  camarade 
Anglais,"  and  throwing  his  musket  over  his  shoulder,  with  the  butt-end 
en  I'air,  he  descended  the  mountain  to  rejoin  the  French  army  on  the 
opposite  range  of  heights.  Of  course,  no  one  offered  to  molest  this 
simple  soldat,  who  easily  effected  his  escape.  As  our  pickets  could  not 
enter  the  valley  until  our  right  was  cleared,  and  the  enemy  pushed  from 
the  mountain  of  Echalar,  as  soon  as  another  division  attacked  those 
heights,  the  first  Rifles  moved  on  and  clambered  the  mountain  of  St. 
Bernard,  supported  by  five  companies  of  our  regiment.  The  soldiers 
had  been  for  two  days  without  any  sustenance,  and  were  so  weak  that 
they  could  hardly  stand  ;  however,  an  excellent  commissary  had  ma- 
naged to  overtake  us,  and  hastily  served  out  half-a-pound  of  biscuit  to 
each  individual,  which  the  soldiery  devoured  while  in  the  act  of  prim- 
ing and  loading  as  they  moved  on  to  the  attack. 

The  summit  of  the  mountain  was  wrapped  in  a  dense  fog ;  an  invi- 
sible firing  commenced;  it  was  impossible  to  ascertain  which  party 
was  getting  the  best  of  the  fight ;  the  combatants  were  literally 
contending  in  the  clouds.  When  half-way  up  the  side  of  the  moun- 
tain,, we  found  a  man  of  the  Rifles  lying  on  his  face,  and  bleed- 
ing so  copiously  that  his  haversack  was  dyed  in  blood :  we  turned  him 
over,  and  being  somewhat  recovered  before  he  was  carried  off,  he  told 
us,  in  broken  monosyllables,  that  three  Frenchmen  had  mistaken  him 
for  a  Portuguese,  laid  hold  of  him,  thrust  a  bayonet  through  his  thigh, 
smashed  the  stock  of  his  rifle,  and  then  pushed  him  from  off  the  ledge 
of  the  precipice  under  which  we  discovered  him.  The  second  French 
light  infantry  were  dislodged  before  twilight  from  the  top  of  this 
mountain  ;  but  the  sparkling  flashes  of  small-arms  continued  after 
dark  to  wreath  with  a  crown  of  fire  the  summits  of  the  various  rocks 
about  Echalar.  Thus,  after  a  series  of  difficult  marches,  amongst  a 
chaotic  jumble  of  sterile  mountains,  the  enemy  were  totally  discomfited, 
with  an  enormous  loss,  by  a  series  of  the  most  extraordinary  and  brilli- 
ant efforts  during  the  Peninsular  war.  For  three  days  the  French  had  the 
vantage  ground,  owing  to  their  superiority  of  numbers  at  a  given  point ; 
but  on  the  fourth  day,  the  same  divisions  which  had  so  heroically 
fought  while  falling  back,  sustained,  with  their  backs  to  a  hostile  for- 
tress, (whence  the  enemy  sortied  during  the  battle,)  a  most  desperate 
assault  made  by  the  Duke  of  Dalmatia,  over  whom  the  Duke  of  Wel- 
lington gained  a  memorable  victory,  and  ceased  not  in  turn  to  pursue 
the  French  Marshal,  until  he  was  glad  to  seek  shelter  from  whence  he 
came.  The  standards  of  Britain  again  waved  aloft  and  flapped  in  the 
gentle  breeze  over  the  fertile  fields  of  France, 


9 


SERVICE   AFLOAT. 

BEING    THE    PERSONAL    NARRATIVE    OF    A    NAVAL    OFFICER 
DURING    THE  LATE    WAR. 

» 

I  WAS  not  quite  fifteen,  when  I  made  my  debut  in  the  nautical  world 
as  a  midshipman  in  the  East  India  Company's  service.,  and  on  the  23d 
of  Jan.  18 — ,  embarked  on  board  the  Boddam,  an  old  ship  on  her  last 
voyage  to  Madras  and  China,  then  lying  at  Long  Reach. 

The  events  of  my  first  essay  on  the  briny  element  were  by  no  means 
calculated  to  furnish  the  most  favourable  impressions  of  the  profession 
I  had  chosen ;  and  had  I  been  less  fond  of  a  life  of  adventure  and  ex- 
citement, my  first  voyage  would  probably  have  been  also  my  last. 

This  was  the  first  ship  I  had  ever  seen,  consequently  I  had  hitherto 
formed  but  a  very  imperfect  idea  of  the  service  or  way  of  life  of  a 
sailor.     At  first,  I  by  no  means  relished  those  practical  parts  of  the 
duty  peculiar  to  midshipmen  in  the  Company's  service,  the  frequent 
mounting  aloft  to  box  about  the  mizen  top-gallant-yard,  or  the  mizen- 
top-sail ;  above   all,  those    confounded  futtock-shrouds,  by  which  one 
remains   so  unnaturally  suspended,  like  a  spider,  between  heaven  and 
earth,  puzzled  me  exceedingly ;  and  for  a  few  days,  until  quizzed  out 
of  it,  I  was  fain,  like  other  lubbers,  to  take  the  shorter  and  more  easy 
road,  and  creep  into  the  top  through  Lubber's  Hole.     However,  I  was 
soon  a  match  for  the  most  adventurous  of  my  young  messmates ;  and 
one  evening,  not  long  after  I  joined  the  ship,  I  was  very  near  paying 
dearly  for  my  imprudence  while  vying  with  these  in  feats  of  agility. 
As  usual  with  youngsters  on  first  joining  a  ship  until  the  novelty  is 
exhausted,  we  had  been  chasing  each  other  up  and  down  the  rigging, 
successively  scaling  every  mast  in  the  ship,  from  the  mizen-peak  to  the 
fore-top-gallant-mast,  when,  as  a  Jinale,  I  must  needs  take  it  into  my 
head  to  descend  from  the  fore-top-mast-head  by  tile  stay  :  this  would 
have  been  easy  enough,  had  not  the  stay,  which  I  was  not  aware  of, 
been  recently  tarred.     I  had  only  proceeded  a  few  feet,  when  I  would 
have  given  worlds  to  get  back,  but  this  was  now  as  impracticable  as  to 
proceed.     It  being  nearly  dark,  and  few  persons  on  deck,  no  one  wit- 
nessed my  perilous  situation,  and  I  dreaded  too  much  the  ridicule  of 
my  companions  to  call  out  for  assistance,  and  which  I  felt,  moreover,  it 
would  be  difficult  to  afford  me.    Thus  suspended,  eighty  feet  above  the 
deck,  in  almost  an  inverted  position,  my  hands  and  feet  alternately 
glued  to  the  stay,  from  which  it  required  every  time  a  fresh  effort  to 
release  them,  I  persevered  until  I  became  almost  exhausted,  and  ex- 
pected every  moment  to  be  obliged  to  forego  my  hold,  and  to  be  dashed 
to  pieces.     At  length,  by  the  most  painful  exertions  and  perseverance, 
I  reached  the  bowsprit,  and  felt  like  a  fellow  reprieved ;  and  in  future 
my  mounting  ambition  was  tempered  with  a  little  more  prudence. 

We  were  detained  nearly  two  months  at  the  Motherbank  collecting 
the  fleet  and  waiting  a  favourable  wind :  at  length  we  put  to  sea  under 
convoy  of  the  Cambrian  frigate  and  one  or  two  other  ships  of  war, 
but  scarce  had  we  cleared  the  Channel,  when  a  malignant  fever,  with 
scurvy  and  dysentery,  broke  out  among  the  crew,  and  in  a  short  time 
made  such  an  alarming  progress,  that  ere  we  reached  the  latitudes  of 
the  Cape  of  Good  Hope,  we  could  not  in  cases  of  exigency  muster  a 


10  SERVICE    AFLOAT. 

sufficient  number  of  men  to  perform  the  required  duty.  The  crew  on 
leaving  England  consisted,  officers  included,  of  about  one  hundred  and 
forty ;  but  besides  these  we  carried  out  three  hundred  troops,  princi- 
pally raw  recruits  of  the  Scotch  brigade,  and  it  was  among  the  latter 
the  first  fatal  symptoms  of  disease  made  their  appearance.  At  one 
period  of  the  voyage,  we  had  upwards  of  two  hundred  in  the  sick  list ; 
and  at  this  crisis  the  melancholy  spectacle  daily  presented  itself  of  the 
consignment  to  the  deep  of  the  remains  of  four  or  five  of  its  unfortu- 
nate victims. 

On  crossing  the  equator,  the  usual  ceremony,  with  all  the  rude  cha- 
racteristics of  the  barbarous  times  from  which  it  dates  its  origin, — 
which  can  only  plead  custom,  and  one  which,  as  it  is  liable  to  much 
licence  and  abuse,  would  be  infinitely  "  more  honoured  in  the  breach 
than  the  observance,"  for  its  toleration, — was  performed,  with  all  the  • 
dripping  magnificence  befitting  such  a  solemnity.     The  Ocean  God, — 
one  of  the  captains  of  the  forecastle, — with  Mrs.  Neptune  by  his  side, 
in  appropriate  paraphernalia,  the  former  with  his  trident,    the  ship's 
harpoon,  and  other  symbols  of  his  nautical  attributes,  drawn  in  a  car, 
and  surrounded  by  a  motley  crew  of  veritable  sea-monsters,  personat- 
ing tritons,  &c.  proceeded  in  state  from  the  forecastle  along  the  gang- 
way to  the  quarter-deck,  to  welcome  and  receive  the  homage  of  the 
Captain.     The  usual  greeting  ended,  his  moist  Majesty  in  the  same 
state  descended  to  the  main-deck,  where,  enthroned  alongside  the  huge 
wash-deck-tub,  almost  an  epitome  of  the  boundless  element  from  which 
it  was  more  than  half-filled,  he  commenced  to  hold  his  levee  for  the 
reception  and  initiation  of  those  who  had  not  previously  submitted  to 
the  ordeal  which  always  accompanies  a  first  introduction  ;  and  this,  in 
cases  of  contumacy,  resistance,  or  a  grudge  on  the  part  of  the  officiating 
minister,  is  by  no  means  a  joke.     Placed  on  a  plank  over  the  aforesaid 
tub,  the  face  of  the  novice  being  well  lathered  with  tar,  and  then 
rasped  with  a  rusty  jagged  iron-hoop, — the  imperial  razor, — certain  in- 
terrogatories are  put  to  him,  which,  if  he  is  simple  enough  to  open  his 
mouth  to  answer,  the  brush  once  more  well  primed  is  crammed  into  it. 
Half-suffocated,  and  ere  he  has  time  to  recover  from  the  surprise  occa- 
sioned by  a  salute,  as  novel  as  unexpected,  the  plank  is  suddenly  with- 
drawn, and  he  undergoes  a  submersion  from  which  he  will  sometimes 
be  fortunate  to  escape  half-drowned.      Happy  at  length  to  fly  from 
the  scene  of  such  a  probation,  he  flounders,  like  a  half-drowned  rat, 
dripping  from  his  bath,  and  is  just  congratulating  himself  that  the  re- 
doubted trial  is  over,  when  he  is  assailed  on  one  hand  with  wet  swabs, 
and  on  the  other  sluiced  with  buckets  of  water,  as  he  runs  the  gauntlet 
through  an  avenue  of  some  score  of  the  privileged,  among  whom  none 
are  more  forward  than  those  who  but  a  few  moments  before  had  un- 
dergone a  similar  operation. 

On  this  occasion  Jack  is  wonderfully  tenacious  of  his  privileges,  to 
interfere  with  which,  or  deny  them  their  full  scope,  might  on  board 
merchant-vessels  be  attended  with  disagreeable  consequences.  Among 
even  the  passengers,  all  with  the  exception  of  the  aged  or  infirm,  what- 
ever their  rank,  must  succumb,  unless,  and  which  is  rarely  the  case, 
indulgence  is  purchased  through  the  captain  or  officers  by  the  medium 
of  a  douceur. 

Even  in  His  Majesty's  ships,  a  singular  licence  is  claimed  and  per- 


SERVICE   AFLOAT.  11 

mitted,  and  for  a  few  hours  all  order  and  discipline  seems  suspended. 
Towards  the  close  of  the  war,  on  board  of  one  of  our  frigates,  in  a  high 
state  of  discipline,  in  which  I  myself  and  a  young  officer,  a  commander 
in  the  service,  were  passengers  to  the  West  Indies,  a  striking  instance 
of  this  occurred.  Although  I,  as  well,  I  believe,  as  my  companion,  had 
more  than  once  crossed  the  line,  seeing  we  could  only  avoid  a  ducking, 
a  thing,  as  we  were  both  invalids,  by  no  means  desirable,  but  by  get- 
ting out  of  the  way  until  the  storm  had  blown  over,  and  as  this  was 
not  easily  attainable  any  where  below,  we  agreed  to  take  post  in  the 
mizen  top.  This,  however,  we  soon  found,  availed  us  nothing;  the  top 
was  regularly  stormed,  and  though  for  a  time  as  obstinately  defended, 
we  were  soon  overpowered  by  numbers.  Seeing  the  futility  as  well  as 
folly  of  farther  resistance,  I,  for  my  own  part,  thought  it  prudent  to 
yield  with  a  good  grace,  for  we  were  now  completely  outflanked  by  our 
assailants,  who  from  the  top-mast-cross-trees,  which  they  had  mount- 
ed, each  with  the  light  leather  fire-bucket,  were  pouring  down  upon 
us  their  liquid  broadsides  in  a  deluge  that  soon  completely  drenched 
us.  Nothing  could  exceed  the  indignation  of  my  ally,  naturally  of  an 
irritable  temperament,  who  still  continued  with  as  much  earnestness 
and  energy,  as  if  it  had  been  an  affair  of  life  and  death,  to  resist  the 
assailants,  who  in  all  quarters  mounted  to  the  escalade,  laying  about 
him  with  the  top  mallet  in  a  manner  that  made  me  apprehensive  that 
some  serious  consequences  would  ensue  by  some  one  being  hurled  from 
the  top. 

Off  the  Cape,  where  we  arrived  in  the  month  of  June,  the  com- 
mencement of  winter  in  this  hemisphere,  after  a  long  succession  of 
boisterous  weather,  we  encountered  a  furious  storm,  and  such  a  moun- 
tain sea  as  is  nowhere  to  be  met  with  but  in  these  latitudes.  We 
had  our  starboard  quarter-gallery  washed  away,  lost  our  fore-top-mast 
and  main-top-gallant-mast,  and  otherwise  suffered  so  much  by  the 
storm,  that  we  were  fain  to  receive  assistance  from  two  or  three  ships 
in  the  fleet,  which,  on  its  moderating  a  little,  sent  on  board  a  draft  of 
seamen.  For  the  information  of  those  of  my  readers  who  may  have 
never  witnessed  the  wonders  of  the  "  mighty  deep,"  I  must  remark, 
that  the  term  mountain,  as  above  applied,  must  not  by  any  means  be 
considered  an  exaggerated  or  merely  poetical  figure  of  speech ;  in  alti- 
tude arid  appearance  they  are  literally  such,  and  a  ship  in  the  trough 
or  valley  formed  by  two  of  these  gigantic  billows,  is  sometimes  com- 
pletely shut  out  from  the  view  of  her  consorts  at  a  little  distance. 
When  a  sudden  lull  follows  a  heavy  north-wester,  these  huge  waves, 
shorn  of  their  snowy  crests,  their  outline  more  clearly  defined,  exhibit, 
as  they  roll  along  in  solemn  or  equable  majesty,  a  scene  of  sublime 
grandeur.  But  even  then,  though  divested  of  their  more  threatening 
attributes,  their  effects  to  ships  are  still  very  formidable  ;  these,  for 
want  of  wind  to  steady  them,  frequently  carrying  away  their  masts 
from  the  motion.  This  took  place  with  one  of  the  Indiamen  in  our 
fleet,  which  rolled  away  all  her  top-masts  in  a  calm. 

About  this  time,  nearly  all  the  medical  officers,  those  of  the  ship  as 
well  as  military,  succumbed  to  the  malady,  and  were  rendered  incapa- 
ble of  duty.  Our  situation  may  be  better  imagined  than  described. 
The  ship,  old  and  crazy,  took  in  a  great  deal  of  water,  and  a  heavy 
dead-weight  cargo  of  block  tin  and  pig  lead,  caused  her  to  roll  so 


12  SERVICE    AFLOAT. 

heavily,  that  at  every  lurch  we  were  on  our  beam-ends,  to  the  general 
and  almost  constant  discomfort  of  the  menage,  and  the  total  destruction 
of  all  the  more  frail  articles  of  mess,  the  crockery,  &c.  Then  ever  and 
anon  the  clanking  of  the  pumps,  the  continual  loud  and  monotonous 
groaning  and  creaking  of  every  mast,  gun,  and  timber,  in  the  crazy  ves- 
sel,— as  if  the  immense  fabric,  like  some  huge  leviathan,  conflicting 
with  and  writhing  under  the  lashes  of  the  elements,  or  sympathizing 
with  the  mournful  spectacle  of  the  dead  and  dying,  was  sending  forth 
notes  of  wail, — formed  a  concert,  which,  though  not  calculated  to  lull  to 
"  soft  repose,"  was  perfectly  in  harmony  and  keeping  with  the  lugu- 
brious whole.  The  'tween  decks,  but  more  particularly  the  orlop, 
were  crowded  with  between  two  and  three  hundred  sick  pent  up  in 
hammocks,  where  they  had  barely  space  to  turn.  Here  and  there  a 
few  feeble  lights  glimmering  through  and  half  extinguished  by  the 
dense  vapour  from  the  constantly  wet  decks,  barely  sufficed  to  render 
darkness  visible,  and  to  disclose  a  picture  of  wretchedness  and  suffer- 
ing not  easily  to  be  forgotten.  On  the  orlop  there  are  no  ports  or 
scuttles,  consequently,  the  only  means  of  ventilation  was  the  scanty 
supply  of  fresh  air  by  the  windsails  and  hatchways,  arid  the  customary 
routine  of  scouring  decks  was  necessarily  suspended  at  long  intervals, 
as  much  by  the  weather  as  the  crowded  state  of  them,  it  being  impos- 
sible to  remove  the  sick  :  as  may  be  imagined,  therefore,  the  pestilen- 
tial effluvia  exhaling  from  disease,  accumulated  filth,  and  stagnant  va- 
pour, were  that  of  a  charnel-house,  and  sufficiently  accounts  for  its 
virulence  and  ravages  among  the  crew. 

As  for  myself,  young  and  unseasoned  as  I  was,  it  was  scarcely  to  be 
expected  I  should  escape  the  almost  general  lot  at  this  trying  crisis. 
In  common  with  all  my  messmates  in  the  midshipmen's  berth  but  one, 
a  tough  old  stager,  who  had  more  than  once  "  weathered  the  Cape," 
a  severe  attack  of  dysentery,  followed  up  by  one  of  scurvy,  which  swell- 
ed my  face  and  legs  to  a  frightful  size,  brought  me  to  the  verge  of  dis- 
solution, and,  in  addition  to  all  this,  whenever  the  motion  of  the  ship 
was  unusually  increased,  I  continued  more  or  less  subject  to  sea  sick- 
ness, and  this  predisposition  I  did  not  entirely  get  the  better  of  all  the 
passage.  Youth,  however,  and  a  constitution  naturally  robust,  carried 
me  through  all,  and  change  of  air  and  diet  on  our  arrival  at  Madras, 
soon  re-established  my  strength.  Doubtless  one,  and  not  the  least 
among  the  causes  to  which  may  be  attributed  my  singularly  rapid  con- 
valescence and  recovery,  was  the  diversion  of  mind,  after  our  monoto- 
nous and  dismal  passage,  which  eastern  scenery,  climate,  customs,  and 
manners,  are  so  well  calculated  to  afford.  All  who  have  visited  India 
at  that  period  of  life  when  the  mind,  fresh  and  vigorous,  is  most  sus- 
ceptible of  vivid  impressions,  will  readily  recognise  the  interest  which 
objects  of  so  novel  a  kind  cannot  fail  to  excite  on  a  first  arrival  in 
this  interesting  country :  it  is  a  new  world,  a  fresh  existence.  The 
cloudless,  glowing  azure  of  a  tropic  sky ;  the  mountain  surf  that 
foams  and  thunders  along  the  coast ;  the  plaintive  song  of  the  native 
Mussulah  boatmen,  dashing  fearlessly  through  it ;  the  scenery ;  the 
costume  of  the  grave  and  inoffensive  natives ; — all  is  calculated  to  ex- 
cite the  imagination,  and  for  a  time  to  occasion  a  constant  variety  and 
rapid  succession  of  pleasing  emotions. 

A  few  days  after  our  arrival  in  Madras  Roads,  we  witnessed  the 


SERVICE   AFLOAT.  13 

catastrophe  of  the  burning  and  destruction  of  the  Malabar  East  Inclia- 
man.  This  was  occasioned  by  that  carelessness  which,  in  defiance  of  so 
much  lamentable  experience,  is  the  cause  in  nine  cases  out  of  ten  of 
these  awful  accidents  on  board  of  merchant  ships — the  burning  a  naked 
light  while  drawing  off  spirits  in  the  hold.  Fortunately,  the  occur- 
rence took  place  in  the  daytime,,  and  no  lives  were  lost ;  but  though 
the  most  prompt  assistance  was  furnished  by  the  boats  of  the  fleet,  and 
the  most  strenuous  exertions  were  made  to  save  the  ship,  the  fire 
spread  with  an  alarming  rapidity,  and  in  less  than  an  hour  she  was  en- 
veloped in  one  vast  sheet  of  flame,  and  shortly  after  drifting  from  her 
anchors,  exploded,  and  not  a  vestige  of  her  was  to  be  traced. 

The  day  previous  to  the  sailing  of  the  fleet,  we  received  on  board  as 
passengers,  or  rather  prisoners,  for  the  island  of  Pulo  Penang,  whither 
they  were  exiled  for  some  political  delinquency,  two  Polygar  Chiefs, 
or  Rajahs,  Currapoovance  and  Shunderlingum,  by  name.  The  situa- 
tion of  these  unfortunate  men  was  truly  pitiable :  torn  from  their 
country,  from  friends,  and  home — for  the  first  time  in  their  lives  on 
board  a  ship,  on  a  strange  element,  and  among  a  strange  people  ;  it 
was  not  the  least  among  the  catalogue  of  their  ills  at  this  trying  mo- 
ment that  they  should  be  separated  from  the  only  beings  to  whom 
they  might  look  for  sympathy  or  consolation,  whose  services  were  in- 
dispensable, and  the  only  persons,  in  short,  from  their  religious  preju- 
dices, with  whom  they  could  hold  communion.  It  so  happened,  they 
had  arrived  on  board  the  evening  prior  to  the  intended  sailing  of  the 
fleet,  and  not  having  completed  the  arrangements  for  their  voyage,  two 
or  three  native  servants,  the  only  portion  of  their  household  which  ac- 
companied them,  were  sent  on  shore  for  that  purpose:  owing,  however, 
to  some  misconception,  the  convoy  having  weighed  early  the  ensuing 
morning,  they  were  left  behind.  To  those  acquainted  with  the  tenets 
of  the  Hindoos,  and  the  scrupulous  tenacity  with  which  they  adhere  to 
them,  it  will  readily  be  imagined  that  this  circumstance,  which  among 
any  other  people  would  have  occasioned  but  a  temporary  inconveni- 
ence, was  in  this  case  an  irreparable  misfortune.  We  had,  it  is  true, 
some  few  natives,  Lascars,  on  board,  but  these  not  being  of  the  same 
caste,  their  services  were  not  available.  It  was  amusing  to  observe  to 
what  various  and  minute  circumstances  their  scruples  extended :  the 
touch  of  an  European,  as  of  another  sect,  was  shunned  as  pollution; 
and  it  was  no  easy  matter  to  avoid  at  all  times  on  a  crowded  deck,  where 
they  sometimes  came  for  air,  the  contact  of  some  one  or  other,  and 
whenever  this  occurred  their  chagrin  was  evident. 

They  were  men  of  an  uncommon  stature,  robust,  and  of  noble  mien, 
and  bore  their  lot  with  dignity  and  resignation :  part  of  the  great 
cabin  was  screened  off  for  their  use,  here  they  shifted  for  themselves 
as  well  as  circumstances  would  permit.  They  cooked  their  own  plain 
rice  meal ;  fortunately  their  simple  habits  required  but  little,  and  they 
had  provided  their  own  stock  of  water,  and  a  few  other  necessaries. 
Nothing  remarkable  occurred  during  the  remainder  of  the  passage  to 
China,  the  coast  of  which,  after  a  few  days'  stay  at  Penang,  where  we 
took  in  a  cargo  of  rattans,  we  reached  in  little  more  than  a  fortnight 
from  Madras,  and  proceeded  to  the  usual  anchorage  of  the  East  India 
fleets  off  the  village  of  Whampoa,  in  the  river  of  Canton,  where  we 
remained  between  three  and  four  months  to  take  in  a  cargo  of  tea. 


14  SERVICE   AFLOAT. 

During  this  sojourn,  the  manners  and  customs  of  this  singular  people, 
so  widely  dissimilar  to  those  of  the  rest  of  the  world,  presented  a 
never-failing  source  of  interest  and  amusement ;  but  the  field  of  obser- 
vation of  those  who  trade  to  China,  limited  as  it  is  by  the  jealous 
policy  of  the  Chinese  to  the  suburbs  of  Canton  and  the  environs  of 
Whampoa,  is  too  contracted  to  afford  opportunity  for  collecting  data 
for  a  sketch,  or  forming  correct  conclusions  generally  of  the  national 
habits  of  this  strange  people. 

To  this  exclusive  system,  thus  interdicting  all  but  a  partial  inter- 
course with  foreign  nations,  may  be  traced  the  causes  which  have 
hitherto  prevented  this  otherwise  ingenious  people,  who  lay  claim  to 
the  invention  of  that  first  essential  of  navigation  the  compass,  from 
making  any  progress  in  ship-building  or  navigation;  for,  without  re- 
ference to  this,  an  inferiority  so  striking  would  be  an  anomaly  very 
inconsistent  with  the  character  of  this  people,  so  celebrated  for  industry 
and  skill  in  the  arts  and  in  science.  Their  junks  are  the  most  un- 
sightly hulks  that  can  be  imagined.  With  a  poop  and  forecastle  vying 
in  altitude  with  their  masts,  of  which  they  have  generally  but  one,  and 
never  more  than  two,  each  one  single  enormous  spar,  with  a  mat-sail 
of  proportionately  gigantic  dimensions,  divided  from  head  to  foot  into 
reefs  by  poles  of  bamboo;  how  these  unsightly,  unwieldy  arks,  so 
little  in  unison  with  European  notions  of  cause  arid  effect,  make  shift 
to  navigate  at  all,  seems  quite  an  enigma  ;  but  they  nevertheless  con- 
trive to  make  considerable  voyages,  hugging  the  shore,  and  patiently 
waiting  favourable  opportunities  of  wind  and  weather.  Many  of  these 
crafts  are  from  five  hundred  to  a  thousand  tons  burthen,  with  some- 
times a  crew  of  from  three  to  four  hundred  men.  To  obviate  the 
fatal  consequences  of  springing  a  leak  at  sea,  they  have  adopted  an 
ingenious  device :  the  hold  is  divided  into  numerous  compartments 
by  bulk  heads,  caulked,  and  rendered  water-tight. 

Nothing  is  more  delightful  to  eyes  wearied  with  gazing  at  nought 
but  sky  and  water  during  a  long  sea-voyage,  than  the  landscape  in  the 
immediate  vicinity  of  the  anchorage.  The  whole  country  on  each  side 
the  rivers  in  the  highest  state  of  cultivation  ;  to  the  right,  on  a  ver- 
dant level  of  meadow  and  paddy  fields,  a  short  distance  from  the  river, 
the  village  of  Whampoa ;  on  the  left,  a  succession  of  beautiful  hilly 
islands,  insulated  by  the  meandering  branches  or  tributary  streams  of 
the  Tigris;  among  which,  opposite  to  the  shipping,  figures  Danes 
Island,  memorable  among  British  tars  as  the  scene  of  many  a  frolic,  as 
well  as  fracas,  with  the  natives  or  the  seamen  of  other  nations. 

Not  far  from  St.  Helena,  on  our  passage  homewards,  we  spoke  a 
ship,  which  gave  us  the  first  information  of  the  Peace  of  Amiens.  On 
leaving  St.  Helena,  therefore,  there  being  no  farther  any  necessity  for 
convoy,  or  for  the  fleet  keeping  company,  we  separated,  and  as  the 
route  of  each  varied  more  or  less,  it  became  a  speculation  of  some  in- 
terest which  ship  would  first  reach  its  destination,  and  considerable 
sums  were  staked  on  the  probabilities.  In  this  instance  we  proved 
that  "  the  race  is  not  always  to  the  swift ;"  outward-bound,  we  were 
the  dullest  sailer  in  the  fleet,  and  we  now  reached  England  the  first. 

[To  be  continued.] 


15 

ARNOLD    AND    ANDRE. 

DURING  the  period  of  excitement  occasioned  by  the  revolutionary 
war  in  North  America,  it  was  not  to  be  supposed  that  on  such  a  sub- 
ject as  the  treason  of  Arnold,  or  the  death  of  the  unfortunate  Andre, 
information  free  at  once  from  royalist  and  revolutionary  prejudice 
could  be  procured,  either  in  the  mother  country  or  in  her  revolted  Co- 
lonies. After  the  heats  and  prejudices  of  the  period  have  in  a  great 
measure  passed  away,  there  are  some  individuals  still  living  on  the 
banks  of  the  Hudson,  who  witnessed  the  last  moments  of  poor  Andre, 
and  are  willing  to  do  justice  to  his  memory.  As  to  Arnold,  the  Ame- 
rican feeling  is  so  strong  against  him,  that  they  will  not  admit  of  his 
having  been  actuated  by  any  but  the  most  sordid  motives ;  whereas, 
from  all  that  can  be  learned  of  his  character,  it  appears  to  me  that  his 
immediate  principle  of  action  was  the  desire  of  vengeance ;  and  it  is  not 
impossible  that  at  some  future  period  he  may  figure  as  the  Zanga  or 
the  Coriolanus  of  some  American  tragedy,  to  which  the  death  of  Andre 
would  doubtless  give  a  deep  and  affecting  interest. 

Arnold  was  born  in  the  State  of  Connecticut,  and  from  the  com- 
mencement of  hostilities  he  engaged  with  ardour  in  the  cause  of  his 
country's  independence.     He  soon  discovered  military  talents  of  no 
mean  order,  which,  joined  to  undoubted  personal  courage,  and  the  still 
more  desirable  qualities  of  patience  and  firmness  under  privation  and 
fatigue,  had  procured  for  him  a  high  reputation  in  the  ranks  of  the  re- 
volutionary army,  even  before  he  had  an  opportunity  of  performing 
those  services  in  the  expedition  against  Canada,  which  gave  him  the 
confidence  of  Congress,  and  raised  him  to  the  rank  of  a  general  officer. 
He  had  been  severely  wounded  before  Quebec,  and  was  still  in  a  state 
of  convalescence,  when,  in  177^  Philadelphia  having  been  evacuated 
by  the  Royalist  forces,  the  command  of  that  town  was  intrusted  to 
him.     To  the  courage  he  had  exhibited  in  presence  of  the  enemy,  it 
was  now  found  that  Arnold  did  not  join  that  steadiness  of  principle,  or 
that  rectitude  of  judgment,  which  were  necessary  to  enable  him  to  re-, 
sist  the  numerous  seductions  by  which  he  was  surrounded.    Forgetting 
that  he  had  not  the  resources  of  a  great  private  fortune,  he  embarked 
in  all  the  expensive  follies  of  a  sumptuous  table,  and  a  train  of  useless 
dependents ;  and  in  the  natural  course  of  such  an  improvident  career, 
he  was  soon  involved  in  debts  which  he  had  no  means  of  discharging. 
In  the  hope  of  relieving  himself  from  the  clamours  of  his  creditors,  he 
was  induced  to  engage  in  speculations  inconsistent  with  the  due  dis- 
charge of  his  public  functions,  and  which  having  for  the  most  part 
proved  unsuccessful,  were  necessarily  attended  with  the  most  disas- 
trous results.     From  unsuccessful  speculation,  the  wretched  Arnold 
was  now  driven  to  the  resource  of  unfaithful  management  in  the  exer- 
cise of  his  official  duties ;   and  when  the  accounts  of  his  administration 
came  to  be  examined  by  the  Commissioners  of  Congress,  a  considerable 
deficit  appeared  against   him,  which  he   was  unable  to  make  good. 
Many  of  the  citizens  of  Philadelphia  complained  of  his  numerous  ex- 
actions ;  the  Government  of  Pennsylvania  brought  still  more  serious 
accusations  against  him,  and  at  length,  in  the  month  of  June  1778,  the 
Congress  caused  him  to  be  arrested,  and  tried  by  a  court-martial,  who 
found  him  guilty,  and  condemned  him  to  be  reprimanded  by  the  Com- 


16  ARNOLD    AND    ANDRE. 

mander-in-Chief.  This  decision,  having  been  approved  of  by  Congress, 
was  executed  in  the  beginning  of  1779.  Furious  at  finding  himself 
thus  attacked  on  all  hands,  by  the  law  and  by  public  opinion,  Arnold 
indulged  himself  in  the  bitterest  complaints  against  what  he  called 
the  ingratitude  of  his  countrymen,  and  swore  that  he  would  have  ven- 
geance. 

Great  importance  was  then  attached  to  the  fortress  of  West- Point, 
for  the  preservation  of  which  the  American  army  had  long  manoeuvred 
and  often  fought.  It  was  regarded  as  the  key  of  communication  be- 
tween the  Eastern  and  Southern  States.  Its  situation  in  fact  on  the 
ridge  of  one  of  the  most  considerable  eminences  on  the  right  bank  of 
the  Hudson,  with  its  double  range  of  batteries  and  redoubts,  traced  as 
they  had  been  by  the  ablest  engineers,  made  it  an  excellent  defensive 
post,  the  occupation  of  which  gave  a  great  influence  to  the  State  of 
New  York.  Arnold  was  not  ignorant  of  its  value,  and  it  was  on  this 
important  point  that  he  cast  his  eyes  in  preparing  for  his  revenge. 
Before  he  had  yet  received  the  appointment,  which  he  at  length  ob- 
tained through  the  combined  influence  of  intrigue  and  importunity,  he 
had  addressed  a  letter  to  Col.  Robinson,  an  officer  in  his  Majesty's  ser- 
vice, announcing  that  he  had  abjured  his  revolutionary  principles,  arid 
that  he  vehemently  desired  to  regain  the  esteem  of  his  Sovereign  by 
some  striking  proof  of  repentance.  This  letter  soon  led  to  an  active 
correspondence  between  Arnold  and  Sir  Henry  Clinton,  which  was  of 
course  conducted  with  the  greatest  secrecy.  Its  chief  object  was  to 
devise  the  means  of  throwing  the  fortress  of  West-Point,  now  under 
Arnold's  command,  into  the  hands  of  the  English.  For  the  purpose  of 
conducting  the  negotiation  with  greater  security,  Gen.  Clinton  intrust- 
ed it  to  one  of  his  own  aides-de-camp,  a  young  man  as  distinguished 
for  his  amiable  qualities  as  for  his  military  talents,  which  had  at  once 
conciliated  the  affections  of  his  brother  officers  and  secured  for  him  the 
respect  and  esteem  of  his  superiors  in  command.  After  receiving  the 
necessary  instructions  from  Gen.  Clinton,  Major  Andre  embarked  in 
this  enterprise  on  board  the  Vulture  sloop-of-war,  which  brought  him 
up  the  Hudson  as  far  as  Kingsferry,  about  twelve  miles  below  West- 
Point.  From  Kingsferry  his  communications  with  Arnold  became  fre- 
quent and  comparatively  easy ;  but  before  the  necessary  arrangements 
could  be  finally  completed,  a  personal  interview  was  indispensable,  and 
Major  Andre  was  repeatedly  urged  by  Arnold  to  land  for  that  pur- 
pose, before  he  would  consent  to  it, — feeling,  perhaps,  a  secret  repug- 
nance to  come  in  immediate  contact  with  a  traitor,  or  entertaining,. it 
may  be,  some  doubt  as  to  the  strict  propriety  of  penetrating  the  ene- 
my's lines — rebels  as  he  no  doubt  regarded  them — under  a  name  and 
in  a  character  which  did  not  belong  to  him :  the  desire,  however,  of 
justifying  the  confidence  reposed  in  him  by  Gen.  Clinton,  induced  him 
at  length  to  accede  to  the  proposed  interview,  which  was  fixed  to  take 
place  in  the  house  of  a  reputed  royalist  of  the  name  of  Joshua  Smith. 
During  the  night  of  the  21st  of  September,  Smith  himself  came  on 
board  the  Vulture,  in  a  boat  rowed  by  his  own  domestics,  for  the  pur- 
pose of  carrying  Major  Andre  to  the  place  of  rendezvous.  Arnold  was 
in  waiting  on  the  bank  to  receive  them,  when  they  proceeded  together 
to  the  house  of  Smith,  where  Major  Andre  remained  concealed  during 
the  whole  of  the  following  day.  At  the  conference  which  then  took 


ARNOLD    AND    ANDRE.  17 

place,  the  whole  of  the  plans  for  the  occupation  of  West- Point  were 
definitively  arranged,  and  on  the  approach  of  night,  Major  Andre  pre- 
pared to  return  on  board  the  Vulture,  but  on  his  reaching  the  bank,  he 
found  that  she  had  been  obliged  to  remove  to  some  distance,  in  order 
to  avoid  the  fire  of  a  battery  by  which  she  had  been  threatened,  and 
the  servants  of  Smith  refused  in  consequence  to  put  him  on  board 
the  sloop.  In  this  emergency,  he  resolved  to  hazard  a  journey  by  land 
to  New  York,  and  having  procured  a  passport  from  Arnold  under  the 
name  of  James  Anderson,  as  a  person  employed  on  the  public  service, 
he  mounted  a  horse  which  was  furnished  to  him  by  Smith,  and  pro- 
ceeded on  his  journey.  Under  this  disguise,  and  accompanied  by 
Smith,  he  succeeded  in  passing  the  American  lines  and  in  reaching 
Crompond,  where  Smith,  after  giving  him  instructions  as  to  his  farther 
progress,  parted  with  him.  He  had  already  approached  the  English 
lines  near  Tarrytown,  when  an  American  militiaman,  who  with  two 
of  his  comrades  had  been  patrolling  between  the  two  armies,  suddenly 
rushed  upon  him  from  behind  a  thicket,  and  seized  his  horse  by  the 
bridle.  When  thus  taken  by  surprise,  Major  Andre  seems  to  have  lost 
his  wonted  presence  of  mind,  or  I  should  rather  say,  that  being  wholly 
unaccustomed  to  disingenuousness  or  disguise,  he  could  not  readily 
accommodate  himself  to  the  part  he  had  undertaken  to  perform.  In 
place  of  presenting  the  passport  with  which  he  had  been  furnished,  he 
asked  to  which  party  the  militiaman  belonged.  "  To  the  party  down 
below"  was  the  ready  answer  of  the  American,  who  thus  described  in 
the  manner  of  the  period  the  English  army  then  in  possession  of  New 
York.  " And  I  also/'  imprudently  rejoined  Major  Andre;  but  scarce- 
ly had  he  allowed  the  fatal  avowal  to  escape  him,  when  the  arrival  of 
the  two  other  militiamen  discovered  to  him  the  error  he  had  committed, 
and  the  danger  to  which  he  had  exposed  himself.  He  thought  to  re- 
medy the  one  and  escape  from  the  other,  by  offering  his  purse  and 
gold  watch  to  his  captors,  and  promising  them  the  protection  of  the 
English  Government,  and  a  permanent  reward,  if  they  would  then  al- 
low him  to  pass.  In  proportion  to  the  extent  of  these  promises,  the 
three  Americans  became  naturally  more  persuaded  of  the  value  of  the 
prize  they  had  taken,  and  immediately  proceeded  to  a  rigorous  exami- 
nation of  the  dress  and  person  of  their  prisoner,  in  the  hope  of  disco- 
vering some  information  as  to  his  name  and  quality.  Concealed  in  his 
boots,  they  found  exact  plans  and  descriptions  of  the  fortifications  and 
approaches  of  West-Point,  with  other  writings,  sufficient  to  confirm  the 
suspicions  he  had  himself  imprudently  excited,  and  to  determine  them 
to  carry  him  to  Lieut.-Col.  Jamieson,  at  that  time  in  the  command  of 
the  advanced  posts  of  the  American  army.  With  the  generous  pur- 
pose of  intimating  to  Arnold  that  he  ought  to  prepare  for  his  own 
safety,  Major  Andre  requested  that  intelligence  should  immediately  be 
sent  to  the  commander  of  West-Point,  of  the  arrest  of  his  officer  An- 
derson, on  his  route  to  New  York.  On  the  receipt  of  this  information, 
Arnold,  as  was  to  have  been  expected,  immediately  took  flight,  seeking 
shelter  from  Gen.  Clinton  in  the  ranks  of  the  British  army. 

As  soon  as  Major  Andre  had  ascertained  that  Arnold  was  in  safety, 
he  readily  acknowledged  himself  to  be  a  British  officer.  On  the  return 
soon  afterwards  of  Gen.  Washington  to  the  American  camp,  a  court- 
martial  was  assembled  for  the  purpose  of  trying  poor  Andre  as  a  spy. 

U.  S.  JOURN.  No.  13.  JAN.  1830.  c 


18  ARNOLD    AND    ANDRE. 

Of  this  court,  Gen.  Green  sat  as  president,  and  among  the  members 
were  the  Baron  de  Steiiben  and  the  Marquis  de  Lafayette.  It  was  in- 
timated to  the  prisoner  by  the  members  of  the  court  before  the  com- 
mencement of  the  proceedings,  that  he  was  at  liberty,  if  so  disposed, 
to  decline  giving  any  answer  to  the  questions  which  should  be  put  to 
him  ;  but  with  a  much  greater  solicitude  for  the  preservation  of  his 
honour  than  of  his  life,  he  frankly  avowed  the  nature  of  the  project  in 
which  he  had  been  engaged,  and  seemed  to  have  no  other  care  but  that 
of  exculpating  those  who  had  seconded  his  enterprise.  His  judges 
were  deeply  affected  with  the  candour  and  courage  he  evinced  through- 
out the  trial,  and  on  signing  his  condemnation,  they  could  not  conceal 
the  struggle  between  their  personal  feelings  and  what  they  conceived 
to  be  their  duty.  As  for  Andre  himself,  he  expected  the  fatal  issue, 
and  heard  its  announcement  with  resignation. 

His  last  moments  were  worthy  of  his  noble  character.  The  follow- 
ing details  are  from  the  pen  of  Dr.  Thatcher,  an  eyewitness  of  the 
event : 

"2d  October,  1780. — Major  Andre  no  longer  lives:  I  was  present  at  his 
execution.  It  was  a  scene  of  the  deepest  interest.  During  his  imprisonment 
and  his  trial,  he  discovered  much  dignity  of  character.  The  smallest  complaint 
was  never  heard  from  him ;  and  he  appeared  to  feel  very  sensibly  all  the  tokens 
which  were  given  of  an  interest  in  his  fate.  He  left  a  mother  and  two  sisters 
in  England,  whom  he  loved  affectionately  ;  he  spoke  of  them  with  tenderness, 
and  wrote  to  Sir  Henry  Clinton,  to  recommend  them  to  his  personal  care. 

"  The  officer  of  the  guard  who  constantly  remained  with  the  prisoner  report- 
ed to  us,  that  when  they  came  in  the  morning  to  announce  to  him  the  hour  of 
his  execution,  he  did  not  discover  the  slightest  emotion.  His  countenance,  calm 
and  collected,  was  strikingly  contrasted  with  the  sadness  of  those  around  him. 
Seeing  his  servant  enter  bathed  in  tears,  he  desired  him  to  withdraw  and  not 
again  to  show  himself  but  with  the  courage  of  a  man.  His  breakfast  was  sent 
to  him  every  morning  from  the  table  of  General  Washington.  On  that  morning 
he  received  it  as  usual,  and  ate  it  with  tranquillity.  He  then  shaved  and  dressed 
himself,  and  having  placed  his  hat  on  the  table,  he  turned  towards  the  officers 
of  the  guard,  and  said  to  them  with  an  air  of  gaiety,  l  Now,  gentlemen,  you  see 
that  I  am  ready  to  follow  you.'  When  the  fatal  hour  had  arrived,  a  strong  de- 
tachment of  troops  was  placed  under  arms,  and  an  immense  concourse  of  people 
was  assembled.  All  our  officers  were  present,  with  the  exception  of  General 
Washington  and  his  staff.  Melancholy  reigned  throughout  the  ranks,  and 
despair  was  on  every  countenance.  Major  Andre  came  from  his  prison  to  the 
place  of  punishment  between  two  non-commissioned  officers,  who  held  him  by 
the  arms.  The  looks  of  the  multitude  were  directed  to  him  with  interest.  His 
countenance,  full  of  dignity,  announced  his  contempt  of  death ;  and  a  slight 
smile  would  often  arise,  still  more  to  embellish  his  fine  countenance,  when  he 
saluted,  as  he  did  with  politeness,  all  those  whom  he  recognized  in  the  crowd. 
He  had  expressed  a  desire  to  be  shot,  regarding  thut  kind  of  death  as  more  con- 
sistent with  military  habits  and  opinions,  and  to  the  last  moment  he  believed 
that  his  wish  was  to  be  granted;  but  when  he  arrived  in  front  of  the  gibbet,  he 
made  an  involuntary  movement,  a  step  backward,  and  stopped  for  some  instants. 
'  What  is  the  matter?'  an  officer  said  to  him,  who  \vas  standing  by. — f  I  am  well 
prepared  to  die/  was  his  answer,  *  but  this  method  is  odious  to  me.'  While 
waiting  at  the  foot  of  the  gallows,  I  observed  a  slight  shudder  on  his  counte- 
nance, and  that  he  made  an  effort  in  his  throat  as  if  attempting  to  swallow, 
while  he  placed  his  foot  on  a  large  stone,  and  threw  his  looks  for  a  moment  up- 
wards ;  but  soon  perceiving  that  the  preparations  were  completed,  he  stepped 
lightly  into  the  cart,  and  observed,  as  he  proudly  raised  his  head, '  that  it  would 


TRAITS    OF    ADMIRAL    BYNG.  19 

only  be  a  momentary  pang.'  Drawing  a  white  handkerchief  from  his  pocket,  he 
bandaged  his  eyes  with  a  firmness  and  tranquillity  which  penetrated  the  multi- 
tude with  admiration,  and  which  made  not  merely  his  servant,  but  many  of  those 
around  him  burst  into  tears.  When  the  cord  was  attached  to  the  gibbet,  he 
took  off  his  hat  and  passed  the  running  knot  over  his  head,  adjusting  it  to  his 
neck  without  the  assistance  of  the  executioner.  He  was  in  this  situation,  when 
Col.  Scammel  approached,  and  informed  him,  that  if  he  had  anything  to  say,  he 
was  permitted  to  speak.  He  then  raised  the  handkerchief  from  his  eyes,  and 
said,  1 1  beg  you  not  to  forget  that  I  submit  myself  to  my  fate  like  a  man  of 
courage.'  The  cart  was  then  withdrawn  leaving  him  suspended,  and  he  expired 
almost  immediately.  As  he  had  said,  he  experienced  only  a  momentary  pang. 
He  was  dressed  in  his  uniform,  and  was  interred  in  it  at  the  foot  of  the  gallows, 
the  place  of  his  burial  being  hallowed  by  the  tears  of  many  of  those  who  wit- 
nessed the  close  of  his  career.  Thus  died  Major  Andre,  in  the  flower  of  his 
age,  the  friend  of  Sir  Henry  Clinton,  and  the  honour  and  ornament  of  the  Bri- 
tish army.  If  the  infamous  Arnold  was  capable  of  entertaining  any  honourable 
sentiment,  his  heart  must  have  been  broken  with  grief  and  shame,  when  he  heard 
of  the  tragical  end  of  the  unfortunate  Andre.  After  heaping  disgrace  on  himself 
by  accepting  service  in  the  ranks  of  the  enemies  of  his  country,  he  went  after 
the  war  to  die  in  England,  contemned  even  by  those  for  whose  benefit  he  had 
disgraced  himself." 


TRAITS    OF    ADMIRAL    BYISG. 

FROM    THE    JOURNAL    OF    AN    OFFICER    ENGAGED    IN    THE    ACTION 
>•  OFF    MINORCA    IN    1756. 

TOWARDS  the  end  of  March  1756,  I  left  London,  and  went  with  two 
brother  officers  to  Portsmouth,  to  be  ready  for  duty  in  the  Mediter- 
ranean. About  the  middle  of  April,  the  fleet  under  the  command  of 
the  Admirals  Byng  and  West,  sailed  for  Gibraltar.  At  this  time  we 
were  certain  of  a  war ;  encroachments  had  already  been  begun  on  our 
American  possessions  by  France,  and  we  had  every  reason  to  expect 
her  immediate  hostility  in  the  Mediterranean ;  yet  that  fleet  had  been 
detained  at  Spithead  for  a  fortnight  till  the  repairs  of  the  Intrepide 
(a  74  gun-ship  we  had  taken  from  the  French)  were  completed. 
This  circumstance,  with  many  others  which  attended  the  unfortunate 
destination  of  that  equipment,  convinced  me  there  was  something  very 
absurd  or  very  corrupt  in  the  administration  of  the  Duke  of  New- 
castle. 

I  need  not  observe,  that  from  my  situation  I  often  saw  Admiral 
Byng,  though  never  spoke  to  him  but  once.  The  land-officers  had 
been  appointed  to  their  several  ships ;  I  was  to  sail  in  the  Revenge ; 
but  I  had  a  great  desire  to  go  in  the  Culloden,  as  in  that  ship  I  should 
have  enjoyed  the  company  of  two  or  three  intimate  friends.  To  make 
this  point,  I  waited  upon  Admiral  Byng,  but  the  arrangement  having 
been  made,  I  was  told  I  must  abide  by  it.  I  must  here  observe,  that 
if  "  outward  and  visible  signs"  were  always  genuine  and  decisive  marks 
of  the  inward  man,  you  might  have  concluded,  from  the  appearance  of 
the  Admiral,  that  he  was  a  hero.  His  face,  his  person,  and  his  manner, 
were  manly  and  noble. 

I  shall  not  presume  to  renew  the  obsolete  question  of  the  motives  of 
his  conduct  in  his  partial,  and,  indeed,  ignominious  engagement  with 
the  French ;  but  I  remember  two  anecdotes  which  rather  bear  against 

c  2 


20  TRAITS    OF    ADMIRAL   BYNG. 

his  personal  courage.  I  knew  from  good  authority,  that  our  then 
worthy  old  King  (George  the  Second)  frequently  declared  his  appre- 
hension that  Byng  would  not  fight.  His  Majesty  must  have  had  some 
sound  reasons  for  this  apprehension.  Besides  this,  Major  Marly  of 
our  regiment,,  as  honourable  a  man  as  ever  breathed,  assured  me  that 
Admiral  Byng,  for  some  disrespectful  words  to  the  army,  which  he 
threw  out  in  a  coffee-house  at  Minorca,  tamely  suffered  an  immediate 
and  great  personal  affront  from  a  land-officer  who  had  heard  the  offen- 
sive speech. 

I  must  confess,  I  met  with  nothing  very  agreeable  to  my  particular 
taste  when  I  went  on  board  the  Revenge,  a  74-gun  ship,  in  which  it 
was  my  destiny  to  sail  to  the  classic  shores  of  the  Mediterranean. 
Capt.  Frederick  Cornwall,  her  commander,  seemed  about  sixty  years 
of  age ;  he  had  the  manners  of  a  gentleman ;  he  had  a  good  person  and 
a  good  face,  but  there  was  a  natural  haughtiness  in  him  which  had  not 
been  softened  by  the  naval  school  of  those  days.  He  had  lost  an  arm 
when  a  lieutenant  on  board  the  Marlborough,  in  the  engagement  of 
Mathews  and  Lestock  against  the  French  and  Spaniards,  in  the  year 
1 744,  off  Sicily.  He  was  a  man  of  the  most  collected  and  determined 
courage,  of  which  I  was  an  ocular  witness  in  Byng's  engagement.  The 
irresistible  enthusiasm  of  the  English  naval  spirit  forgot,  or  despised, 
the  awful  but  cold  authority  of  power,  which  in  vain  attempted  to 
freeze  that  spirit.  But  I  shall  speak  more  particularly  of  the  battle 
in  its  proper  place  ;  I  come  now  to  our  advance  towards  it. 

In  our  voyage  to  Gibraltar,  we  encountered  a  violent  storm  in  the 
Bay  of  Biscay.  When  the  weather  had  so  far  abated  that  landsmen 
might  be  on  deck  without  incommoding  the  sailors,  I  went  up  to  sur- 
vey one  of  the  originals  of  Salvator  Rosa,  a  tempest  in  the  Bay  of 
Biscay,  displaying  one  of  the  most  tremendously  magnificent  scenes 
that  can  be  imagined.  The  quotation  of  a  highly  picturesque  passage 
from  the  royal  and  inspired  Psalmist  will  be  very  apposite  to  describe 
what  I  saw  and  felt.  "  They  that  go  down  to  the  sea  in  ships,  and 
occupy  their  business  in  great  waters,  these  men  see  the  works  of  the 
Lord,  and  his  wonders  in  the  deep.  For  at  his  word,  the  stormy  wind 
ariseth,  which  lifteth  up  its  waves :  They  are  carried  up  to  the  hea- 
ven, and  down  again  to  the  deep ;  and  man's  soul  melteth  within  him, 
because  of  the  trouble." 

In  the  beginning  of  May,  after  a  voyage  of  little  more  than  a  fort- 
night, our  fleet  anchored  in  the  Bay  of  Gibraltar.  We  were  there  in- 
formed that  war  had  been  declared  in  England  against  France,  and 
that  the  castle  of  Saint  Philip,  in  Minorca,  was  laid  siege  to  by  the 
Duke  de  Richelieu.  On  this  news  a  council  of  war  met  in  Gibraltar, 
in  which  it  was  determined  that  Lord  Robert  Bertie's  regiment,  the 
Fusileers,  which  made  part  of  the  garrison,  should  be  sent  on  board 
Admiral  Byng's  fleet,  to  do  the  duty  of  marines,  along  with  the  officers 
and  recruits  from  England,  for  the  Minorca  regiments,  and  to  relieve, 
if  it  were  practicable,  their  comrades  in  Saint  Philip's.  This  resolu- 
tion of  the  council  to  put  the  English  Fusileers  on  board  the  fleet,  met 
with  opposition  from  the  Governor  of  Gibraltar,  but  the  point  was  car- 
ried. I  am  now  going  to  relate  some  particulars,  which  I  well  remem- 
ber, of  an  inglorious  yet  memorable  day. 

The  English  and  French  fleets  came  in  sight  of  each  other  on  the 


TRAITS    OF    ADMIRAL    BYNG.  21 

evening  of  the  19th  of  May,  three  or  four  days  after  we  had  sailed 
from  Gibraltar.  The  French  was  under  the  command  of  Admiral 
Galissoniere.  The  enemy's  force  and  ours  were  nearly  equal  j  if  he 
had  at  all  the  advantage,  it  was  so  trifling,  that  a  true  British  sailor 
would  not  have  deigned  to  have  thought  of  it  for  a  moment.  On  the 
same  day  we  were  off  the  Island  of  Minorca,  where  we  gladly  saw  the 
British  flag  still  flying  on  the  citadel  of  Saint  Philip.  The  brave  old 
Blakeney  had  continued  to  hold  out  against  his  numerous  besiegers, 
though  he  had  only  four  regiments  to  support  him,  and  they  were  al- 
most worn  out  with  fatigue,  being  unequal  to  the  defence  of  the  place. 

Early  in  the  afternoon  of  the  20th  of  May,  1756,  the  line  was  form- 
ed on  both  sides  ;  the  fleets  were  opposite  each  other,  and  with  a  very 
short  distance  between  them.  Nothing  more  attracts  human  admira- 
tion than  courage.  I  shall  never  forget  the  youthful  transport  I  felt 
on  observing  the  behaviour  of  Capt.  Cornwall  on  that  day ;  he  came 
upon  deck,  dressed  in  his  full  uniform,  with  an  aspect  of  pleasure,  as  if 
his  object  had  been  a  marriage  fete,  not  a  battle.  Lord  Effingham,  a 
gallant  man,  (who  had  come  out  to  join  his  regiment,  if  possible,  which 
was  stationed  in  Minorca,)  was  by  his  side.  It  happened  that  I  was 
walking  on  the  quarter-deck,  not  being  yet  ordered  to  my  post,  which 
was  on  the  forecastle.  "  I  think,"  said  Capt.  Cornwall,  ".I  never  saw 
a  finer  line  than  our's  is  to-day.  The  French,  too,  seem  to  offer  fairly  : 
this,  I  hope,  will  be  a  glorious  day  for  England !" 

All  hands  were  now  ordered  to  their  quarters,  and  the  cannon  began 
to  play.  Admiral  West  led  the  van,  and  began  the  attack  with  the 
greatest  activity  and  spirit.  Admiral  Byng,  with  his  division,  ad- 
vanced in  a  totally  different  manner ;  slowly  and  heavily,  when  he 
should  have  come  on  with  rapidity  and  ardour.  The  sight  of  this 
amazing  sluggishness,  at  so  critical  a  moment,  struck  Capt.  Cornwall 
for  an  instant  speechless,  and,  turning  to  Lord  Effingham,  and  the 
other  officers  near  him,  he  exclaimed,  with  all  his  brave  soul  in  his 
own  face,  "Good  God,  what  can  Admiral  Byng  mean!"  Admiral 
West's  division  was  then  warmly  engaged  with  the  enemy.  In  a  mi- 
nute after,  Capt.  Cornwall  again  cried  out,  "Now  is  the  time:  our 
Admiral  must  make  all  the  sail  he  can  and  fall  in  with  the  enemy  !" 
But  Byng  evidently  showed  that  was  not  his  opinion,  and  our  brave 
captain  at  last  gave  up  all  hopes  of  any  good  from  his  conduct.  He 
then  repeatedly  and  earnestly  desired  the  gentlemen  on  the  quarter- 
deck to  take  particular  notice  of  the  Admiral,  and  to  remember  well 
his  situation,  and  the  tardiness  of  his  movements.  He  felt  the  gene- 
rous indignation  of  all  Englishmen  at  such  behaviour,  and  his  breast 
was  prophetic  of  a  future  inquiry.  I  shall  here  remark,  that  his 
evidence  on  the  court-martial,  when  it  did  take  place,  was. one  of  the 
most  fatal  testimonies  against  the  lingerer;  indeed,  Capt.  Cornwall 
was  so  different  a  man  from  his  Admiral  on  this  eventful  day,  that 
he  even  gloriously  exposed  himself,  from  the  sincerity  of  his  zeal  for 
his  country's  honour,  to  the  censure  of  martial  law.  He  was  in  Byng's 
division,  but  he  broke  the  line,  contrary  to  the  Admiral's  arrangement, 
and  attacked  the  enemy.  We  had  three  ships  on  us  at  once.  My 
station  was  on  the  forecastle,  with  my  Welsh  and  English  Fusileers. 
We  gave  them  some  volleys  of  small-arms.  After  the  firing  had  con- 
tinued about  two  hours,  the  French  fleet  sheered  off;  the  wind  was  in 


22  TRAITS    OF    ADMIRAL   BYNG. 

their  favour,  and  they  were: good  sailers.  It  had  evidently  been  their 
intention,  as  they  aimed  'principally  at  our  rigging,  not  to  conquer  us 
manfully,  but  to  disable  us  from  pursuing  them.  A  noble  end  truly, 
to  prepare  for  flight. 

The  gallant  Capt.  Ward,  of  the  Culloden,  a  74-gun  ship,  was  emu- 
lating the  example  of  his  friend  Cornwall,  crowding  sail  to  fall  on  the 
enemy.  Adm.  Byng  hailed  him  as  he  was  advancing,  and  ordered 
him  to  keep  his  station.  In  that  moment,  many  of  his  brave  sailors 
pressed  towards  him,  and  besought  him  by  every  thing  that  was  dear 
to  a  British  seaman,  to  lead  them  to  the  enemy.  Ward  burst  into 
tears, — "  What  can  I  do,  my  worthy  fellows  ?"  cried  he,  "  You  see 
my  hands  are  tied !" 

This  gentleman,  too,  gave  a  mortal  wound  of  evidence  at  the  court- 
martial  on  the  delinquent  admiral,  owing  to  whom,  the  two  largest 
ships  in  the  fleet,  the  Ramillies  and  the  Culloden,  were  not  in  the  ac- 
tion. The  British  always  fire  at  the  hull,  therefore  many  were  killed 
on  board  the  French  fleet ;  very  few  fell  on  our  side,  because  of  the 
enemy's  passion  for  demolishing  the  rigging.  Capt.  Andrews,  how- 
ever, of  the  Defiance,  which  was  in  Adm.  West's  division,  and  who 
first  bore  down  upon  the  French,  was  killed.  He  was  an  amiable 
man  and  an  excellent  officer.  We  lost  Capt.  Noel  too,  of  the  Princess 
Louisa,  and  I  think  he  died  from  his  leg  being  shot  away. 

I  shall  here  relate  two  remarkable  circumstances  respecting  Capt. 
Andrews  and  Capt.  Noel ;  they  may  be  rejected  by  some,  they  will 
probably  be  ridiculed  by  others ;  but  "  there  are  more  things  in  hea- 
ven and  earth  than  are  dreamed  of  by  your  philosophers !" 

Capt.  Noel  had  a  strong  presentiment  that  he  would  lose  his  leg  in 
that  engagement.  What  was  the  foundation  of  this  idea  I  know  not. 
He  was  an  eminently  brave  man,  and  the  impression  by  no  means  dis- 
spirited  him.  My  anecdote  concerning  the  as  gallant  Capt.  Andrews 
is  of  a  more  serious  complexion,  because  its  presage  pointed  direct  to  a 
mortal  issue.  The  anecdote  was  communicated  to  me  by  Capt.  Har- 
vey, of  the  English  Fusileers,  who  Avas  on  board  the  Defiance  in  this 
engagement :  he  was  a  gentleman  of  unblemished  truth,  and  was  not 
only  Capt.  Andrews'  messmate,  but  his  intimate  friend. 

On  the  morning  of  the  fatal  20th  of  May,  Capt.  Andrews,  (whose 
courage  was  indisputable,  having  given  signal  proofs  of  it  in  several 
actions,)  appeared  at  his  breakfast- table  uncommonly  thoughtful.  His 
friend  Harvey  took  the  kind  liberty  to  remark  it  to  him,  as  something 
unseasonable.  "  My  dear  Andrews,"  said  he  to  him,  "  I  know  that  you 
meet  your  duty  with  all  your  heart ;  but  I  am  vexed  to  see  you  in  a 
solemn  reverie  at  this  time ;  it  may  have  a  discouraging  effect  on 
those  about  you  !"  "  Capt.  Harvey,"  replied  Andrews,  "  my  heart 
thanks  you  for  this  seasonable  admonition.  I  will  shake  off  this  dis- 
creditable melancholy,  but  you  will  pardon  it,  perhaps,  on  account  of  its 
extraordinary  cause  ?  I  never  was  a  superstitious  man,  though  I  never 
was  such  a  vulgar  fool  as  to  despise  religion ;  but  last  night  I  was  pro- 
digiously impressed  with  a  dream,  of  which  I  have  not  now  time  to  tell 
you  the  particulars,  and  it  has  assured  me,  without  leaving  a  doubt  on 
my  part,  that  I  shall  meet  my  death  in  this  day's  action ;  yet  depend 
upon  it,  Harvey,  I  will  die  like  a  man,  I  hope  with  credit  to  myself,  to 
my  friends,  and  to  my  country."  He  took  a  most  affectionate  leave  of 


TRAITS    OF    ADMIRAL    BYNG.  23 

» 

Harvey  when  they  were  parting  to  their  respective  stations.  "  He 
gave  me  a  friendly  and  ardent  kiss,"  said -Harvey,  "but  with  cold  lips." 
His  attack  of  the  French  (for  the  Deliance  began  the  engagement)  was 
vigorous,  and  splendid  to  the  highest  degree.  He,  indeed,  nobly  ful- 
filled his  promise,  though  he  was  killed,  by  a  cannon-ball,  in  the  first 
quarter  of  an  hour  of  the  fight. 

But  for  the  inglorious  Adm.  Byng,  he  made  the  best  of  his  retro- 
grade way,  with  his  disappointed  and  mortified  fleet,  back  to  the  old 
rock,  to  cover  Gibraltar,  as  he  was  pleased  to  put  forth,  though  the 
absurd  pretext  was  destitute  even  of  plausibility.  Capt.  Baird,  of  the 
Portland,  a  60-gun  ship,  bore  a  very  active  and  gallant  part  in  this 
crippled  engagement. 

Of  what  I  shall  now  say  relating  to  the  unfortunate  and  infatuated 
Adm.  Byng,  I  could  be  supported  in,  as  to  its  accuracy,  by  several  men 
of  veracity  and  honour,  whose  names  I  hereafter  mention.  Augustus 
Hervey  (afterwards  Earl  of  Bristol),  at  the  time  I  am  treating,  com- 
manded the  Phcenix,  a  20-gun  ship.  He  was  only  a  spectator  of  the 
action,  but  he  was  an  intimate  acquaintance  of  Byng's,  and  as  an  evi- 
dence at  the  court-martial  was  very  zealous  in  his  behalf.  Vice- A  dm. 
Smith,  President  of  the  court-martial,  having  observed  his  ardour  for  his 
friend,  asked  him  in  a  very  serious  manner,  "  whether,  if  he  had  been 
in  Adm.  Byng's  situation  on  the  20th  of  May,  his  conduct  would  have 
been  the  same  as  that  of  his  friend's?"  Hervey  replied,  that  "  his 
mode  of  acting  should  certainly  have  been  just  the  same  as  Adm. 
Byng's." — "  Would  you  have  acted  so,  indeed  ?"  returned  the  Presi- 
dent. "  Upon  my  honour,  /  would,"  answered  the  interrogated. 
"  And,  upon  my  honour,"  retorted  Adm,  Smith,  "  I  believe  that  you 
would!" 

Some  little  slur  was  then  on  the  fighting  reputation  of  Capt.  Her- 
vey, on  account  of  some  matter  that  had  occurred  between  him  and 
Capt.  Milbank,  at  Gibraltar;  but  this  hit  of  the  President  of  a  court- 
martial  was  both  out  of  place  and  highly  ungenerous.  Whatever  was 
the  fault  which  had  excited  it,  Hervey 's  subsequent  conduct  com- 
pletely disproved  Smith's  observation.  When  sent  out  to  the  West 
Indies,  he  battered  the  Moro,  at  the  Havannah,  with  the  most  heroic 
intrepidity  and  perseverance ;  and  in  that  attack  made  the  name  of  his 
ship,  the  Dragon,  be  regarded  as  an  apt  emblem  of  the  achievement. 

When  the  gallant  Capt.  Ward,  of  the  Culloden  (who,  I  have  men- 
tioned before,  was  by  Byng's  positive  and  even  personal  order  restrained 
from  the  action !)  was  asked,  on  the  court-martial,  by  the  President 
Smith,  what  he  (Ward)  thought  would  have  been  the  eventual  fortune 
of  the  day,  if  the  commander  of  the  fleet  had  done  his  expected  duty  ? 
"  It  is  my  firm  opinion,"  answered  Capt.  Ward,  "  that  we  might  have 
sunk,  burned,  and  destroyed  the  whole  fleet  of  the  enemy."  And 
when  the  interrogation  was  made  to  another  captain  in  the  fleet, 
(whose  name  has  escaped  my  recollection,)  of  what  he  would  have 
done,  had  he  been  the  commander  of  the  withheld  division,  he  bluntly 
replied,  "  Sir,  had  I  been  ordered  to  throw  succours  into  hell,  I  should 
have  gone  forward  till  my  jib  was  burned." 

While  the  unfortunate  Admiral  was  undergoing  in  anticipation  all 
the  horrors  of  this  court-martial,  intelligence  arrived  in  England  that 
the  Castle  of  Saint  Philip,  in  Minorca,  had  surrendered,  though  with 
honourable  capitulation,  to  the  French,  P.  S. 


24. 


BIOGRAPHICAL    SKETCH 

OF 

GENERAL  THE  EARL  OF  HARRINGTON,  G. 

THIS  venerable  and  much  respected  nobleman  enjoyed  for  many 
years  the  personal  friendship  and  confidence  of  His  Majesty  George 
the  Third;  consequently  some  of  the  most  honourable  posts  in  the 
gift  of  the  Sovereign,  and  requiring  the  presence  of  the  occupier  at 
Court,  were  conferred  upon  Lord  Harrington. 

His  Lordship  commenced  his  military  career  in  1769,  as  an  Ensign 
in  the  Coldstream  Guards ;  in  1773,  he  obtained  a  company  in  the 
29th  Foot,  which  corps  he  joined  on  its  return  from  America  in  De- 
cember of  that  year,  and  was  appointed  to  the  command  of  the  light 
company,  which  was  one  of  the  seven  formed  at  this  time  into  a  light 
battalion  for  the  practice  of  Gen.  Sir  William  Howe's  manoeuvres.* 

In  1776,  his  Lordship  exchanged  the  light  company  for  the  Grena- 
diers of  the  29th  ;  and  in  February  of  the  same  year  the  regiment 
embarked  for  Quebec.  We  shall  briefly  sketch  the  military  adven- 
tures of  this  period,  to  show  the  sort  of  service  in  which  our  subject 
was  engaged. 

The  troops  on  arriving  in  the  basin  of  Quebec,  were  ordered  imme- 
diately to  land,  which  they  effected  under  a  heavy  cannonade.  As 
soon  as  the  men  were  refreshed,  the  original  garrison  and  the  new 
troops,  in  all  not  4000  men,  marched  out  to  attack  the  American  hut- 
ted-camp  on  the  plains  of  Abraham.  The  latter  formed  in  line  of 
battle,  but  after  a  few  volleys  from  the  British,  they  fled  in  every  direc- 
tion. The  remainder  of  the  29th  arrived  a  few  days  after,  and  did 
duty  in  Quebec  till  the  arrival  of  the  army  from  Europe,  under  the 
command  of  Gen.  Burgoyn'e,  when  the  whole  proceeded  up  the  river 
St.  Lawrence,  in  pursuit  of  the  Americans. 

On  the  8th  of  June,  the  Americans  attempted  to  cut  off  the  troops 
in  the  town  of  Trois  Revieres,  which  they  conceived  was  occupied  by  a 
small  body  of  men,  but  they  met  with  a  warm  reception,  and  retreated 
into  the  woods.  An  advanced  brigade  was  now  formed,  which  pursued 
the  Americans  to  Fort  St.  John,  at  which  place  the  latter  embarked 
in  batteaux  for  Isle  aux  Noix.  The  advanced  brigade  encamped  at 
Fort  St.  John  till  an  armament  was  completed  to  follow  the  enemy. 
Part  of  the  29th  embarked  on  board  the  ships  of  war  as  marines ;  and 
on  the  llth  and  13th  of  October,  actions  took  place  between  the  Bri- 
tish fleet  and  the  Americans,  in  all  of  which  we  were  victorious.  The 
advanced  and  1st  brigades,  with  the  artillery  and  remainder  of  the 
29th,  were  in  batteaux,  and  soon  joined  the  fleet  at  Oroun  Point,  where 
the  29th  detachment  had  landed  and  taken  post  in  the  ruins  of  Fort 
Frederick.  The  army  immediately  encamped,  but  the  weather  setting 
in  very  cold  and  stormy,  Sir  Guy  Carleton  thought  proper  to  defer  the 
attack  of  Ticonderoga  till  the  following  spring.  The  troops  re-embark- 

*  These  manoeuvres  were  six  in  number ;  they  were  for  light  infantry,  and  chiefly 
intended  for  a  woody  or  close  country,  in  which  an  army  cannot  .easily  act  in  line  :  and 
were  all  executed  from  the  centre  of  battalions,  grand  divisions,  and  subdivisions,  by 
double  Indian  files.  As  soon  as  the'  light  battalion  became  perfect  in  these  manoeuvres, 
it  was  inspected  by  his  Majesty  on  Salisbury  Plain. 


GENERAL   THE    EARL    OF   HARRINGTON,    G.C.H.  25 

ed,  and  on  arriving  in  Canada  were  ordered  into  winter-quarters.  In 
the  spring  of  1777*  Gen.  Burgoyne  was  appointed  to  command  a  por- 
tion of  Sir  Guy  Carleton's  army,  destined  to  cross  Lake  Champlain  for 
the  attack  of  Ticonderoga,  and  to  effect  a  junction  with  the  southern 
army.  This  force,  after  encountering  the  greatest  difficulties,  and  dis- 
puting every  inch  of  ground  with  an  infinitely  superior  number  of 
Americans,  was  obliged  to  lay  down  their  arms  by  the  convention  of 
Saratoga. 

During  this  active  but  disastrous  campaign,  in  which  the  severest 
hardships  were  experienced,  and  which  the  troops  sustained  with  the 
greatest  courage  and  constancy,  our  subject,  then  Lord  Viscount  Peter- 
sham, acted  as  aid-de-camp  to  Burgoyne,  and  his  services  were  par- 
ticularly noticed  by  the  unfortunate  General.*  At  the  conclusion  of 
the  campaign,  his  Lordship  proceeded  to  England  with  dispatches. 

In  January  1778,  Lord  Petersham  purchased  a  Company  in  the  Foot 
Guards  ;  but  about  this  period  letters  of  service  were  issued  to  raise  a 
number  of  new  regiments,  one  of  which  (the  85th)  was  given  to  his 
Lordship,  who  soon  completed  it,  and  shortly  after  embarked  with  it 
as  Lieutenant-Colonel  Commandant  for  Jamaica.  Major-Gen.  Archi- 
bald Campbell  was  at  that  time  Governor  of  the  island,  and  assisted  by 
our  subject,  now  Earl  of  Harrington,f  he  modelled  his  little  army, 
sent  for  the  defence  of  one  of  the  gems  in  the  British  crown,  in  a  mas- 
terly manner.  In  the  arrangement,  his  Lordship  was  made  a  Briga- 
dier-General, with  the  command  of  the  flank-companies  of  all  the 
regiments. 

The  great  mortality  which  prevails  in  the  West  Indies,  particularly 
in  the  time  of  war,  soon  reduced  the  85th,  one  of  the  finest  corps  ever 
landed  on  any  of  our  tropical  islands,  to  a  small  number  j  and  his  Lord- 
ship's health  being  impaired,  he  returned  to  England,  accompanied  by 
Lady  Harrington. J  The  remainder  of  the  85th,  (after  drafting  such 
of  the  men  as  were  fit  for  service,)  most  of  the  officers,  with  many 

*  A  council  of  war  had  given  their  unanimous  opinion  that  the  General  could  do  no 
otherwise  than  enter  into  a  convention  with  the  American  General,  Gates.  The  terms 
demanded  evinced  that  spirit  and  high  sense  of  honour  for  which  Burgoyne  was  always 
distinguished.  The  following  is  from  his  message  to  Gen.  Gates,  "  After  having  fought 
you  twice,  Lieut. -Gen.  Burgoyne  has  waited  some  days  in  his  present  position,  determined 
to  try  a  third  conflict  against  any  force  you  could  bring  against  him.  He  is  apprized  of 
the  superiority  of  your  numbers,  and  the  disposition  of  your  troops  to  impede  his  sup- 
plies, and  render  his  retreat  a  scene  of  carnage  on  both  sides.  In  this  situation,  he  is 
compelled  by  humanity,  and  thinks  himself  justified  by  established  principles  and  pre- 
cedents of  state  and  war,  to  spare  the  lives  of  brave  men,  upon  honourable  terms. 
Should  Major-Gen.  Gates  be  inclined  to  treat  upon  (hat  idea,  Gen.  Burgoyne  would 
propose  a  cessation  of  arms  during  the  time  necessary  to  communicate  the  preliminary 
terms,  by  which,  in  any  extremity,  he  and  his  army  mean  to  abide." 

The  General,  after  his  arrival  in  England,  resigned  all  his  military  employments,  and 
retired.  He  was  a  natural  son  of  the  Ear]  of  Derby,  and  wrote  several  dramatic  pieces. 
He  died  in  1792,  and  was  privately  interred  at  Westminster  Abbey. 

t  His  Lordship  was  born  in  1753,  and  succeeded  his  father  in  1779  ;  the  latter  was 
a  General  in  the  service,  and  commanded  one  of  the  troops  of  the  old  Horse  Guards. 
He  was  at  one  period  Secretary  of  State  ;  and  in  1747,  succeeded  Philip  Earl  of  Ches- 
terfield, as  Lord  Lieutenant  of  Ireland. 

J  Her  Ladyship  was  daughter  and  co-heiress  of  Sir  Michael  Fleming.  She  had  in- 
sisted on  sharing  the  fortunes  of  her  husband,  amidst  the  dangers  of  the  sea,  the  perils 
of  war,  and  the  unhealthiness  of  the  West  Indies.  Her  Ladyship  was  one  of  the 
esteemed  friends  of  the  late  Queen  Charlotte. 


26  BIOGRAPHICAL    SKETCH    OP 

others,  were  embarked  on  board  the  Ville  de  Paris.  The  dreadful  fate 
of  that  splendid  trophy  of  the  immortal  Rodney  is  too  well  known. 

The  reception  Lord  Harrington  met  with  from  his  Sovereign  was 
most  flattering;  and  on  the  20th  of  November,  1782,  he  was  nominated 
one  of  his  Aides-de-camp,  which  gave  him  the  rank  of  Colonel  in  the 
army. 

In  1783,  on  the  death  of  Lieut.-Gen.  Calcraft,  the  King  present- 
ed his  Lordship  with  the  Colonelcy  of  the  65th ;  on  that  regiment 
being  ordered  to  Ireland,  he  embarked  with  it,  and  while  in  Dublin 
had  the  command  of  that  garrison.  It  was  during  this  time  that  Sir 
David  Dundas,  then  Adjutant-General  of  the  Army  in  Ireland,  wished 
to  bring  forward  his  system  of  tactics.  Lord  Harrington,  who  possess- 
ed talents  peculiarly  adapted  for  military  affairs,  and  than  whom  no 
officer  in  the  kingdom  was  better  acquainted  with  the  details  of  the 
service,  the  evolutions  of  troops,  and  the  tactics  of  modern  warfare, 
highly  approved  of  the  General's  system,  and  immediately,  with  the 
approbation  of  the  Lord  Lieutenant,  the  Duke  of  Rutland,  tried  it 
with  the  65th.  The  progress  that  corps  made  in  it,  and  the  evident 
utility  that  was  to  be  derived  therefrom  in  execution,  steadiness,  cele- 
rity and  order,  was  so  fully  exemplified  as  to  induce  other  corps 
to  follow  its  example  ;  so  that  shortly  after  it  became  general  in  both 
kingdoms;  and  in  1792  it  was  directed  to  be  implicitly  followed  by 
every  regiment  in  the  service. 

In  1788,  Lieut.-General  Tryon,  Colonel  of  the  29th,  died  ;  the  first 
account  of  which,  Lord  Harrington  received  by  an  express  from  Sir 
George  Yonge,  Secretary  at  War,  notify  ing  that  the  King  had  appoint- 
ed him  Colonel  of  that  corps,  as  he  knew  it  was  what  his  Lordship  much 
wished  for. 

In  the  summer  of  1792  a  camp  was  formed  on  Bagshot  Heath.  The 
infantry  was  divided  into  two  brigades,  and  the  first  was  commanded 
by  Lord  Harrington,  with  the  temporary  rank  of  Brigadier-General. 
At  the  close  of  this  year  his  Majesty  evinced  a  farther  proof  of  his  re- 
gard for  his  Lordship,  by  appointing  him  Colonel  of  the  First  regiment 
of  Life  Guards,  with  the  Gold  Stick.* 

During  the  campaigns  of  the  Duke  of  York  in  Flanders,  Lord 
Harrington  applied  to  the  King,  to  be  sent  with  his  regiment 
to  serve  under  His  Royal  Highness;  but  his  Lordship's  appointment 
of  Gold  Stick  rendered  this  incompatible  :  but  His  Majesty,  wishing  to 
be  made  acquainted  with  certain  proceedings  on  the  Continent,  and  to 
convey  his  own  ideas  respecting  the  operations,  sent  Lord  Harrington 
on  a  private  mission  to  the  Duke  of  York,  with  whom  he  remained  for 
a  short  time. 

In  1793,  his  Lordship  was  promoted  to  Major- General;  in  1798,  to 
Lieutenant-General ;  and  in  1803,  to  General.  In  1812,  he  was  ap- 
pointed Captain,  Governor,  and  Constable  of  Windsor  Castle.  As  a 
General-officer,  his  Lordship  served  on  the  Staff  of  Great  Britain. 

*  The  etiquette  of  the  Life  Guards  is  as  follows  : — There  are  two  gold  sticks,  one  ap-x 
pertaining  to  each  regiment ;  their  duty  is  to  attend  alternately  every  month  on  his 
Majesty.     Whenever  a  vacancy  occurs  of  the  Colonelcy  of  either  of  these  regiments, 
the  King  nominates  an  officer  of  sufficient  rank  in  the  army,  who  must  be  a  Peer,  to  the 
vacant  gold-stick  ;  which  is,  in  other  words,  appointing  him  to  the  regiment. 


GENERAL    THE    EARL    OF    HARRINGTON,   G.C.H.  27 

The  present  sword  of  the  army  was  first  introduced  by  Lord  Har- 
rington, adopted  by  the  Duke  of  York  in  the  Coldstream  Guards,  of 
which  His  Royal  Highness  was  then  Colonel,  and  subsequently,  by  his 
Majesty's  command,  in  all  regiments. 

His  Lordship  died  at  Brighton,  on  the  14th  of  September,  1829,  at 
the  advanced  age  of  seventy-six.  He  is  succeeded  in  his  title  and 
estates  by  his  eldest  son,  Lord  Petersham,  a  Colonel  in  the  army.  His 
Lordship's  second  son,  Col.  Lincoln  Stanhope,  lately  commanded  the 
17th  Lancers,  and  his  third  son,  Col.  Leicester  Stanhope,  was  for  some 
time  Deputy-Quarter-Master-General  to  the  Forces  in  the  East  Indies. 
His  son  Francis  is  also  a  Major  in  the  army. 

His  Lordship  was  buried  at  Elvaston,  the  family  seat  in  Derbyshire ; 
and  a  monument  by  Canova,  originally  designed  to  be  erected  to  the 
memory  of  an  illustrious  warrior,  having  been  procured,  now  serves  as 
an  appropriate  record  of  his  Lordship's  career,  which  is  compressed  into 
the  following  inscription  :  — 

CHARLES 
THTRD  EARL  OF  HARRINGTON, 

Lieth  here  entombed 
With  his  Forefathers. 

He  was  born 
17th  March,  1753, 

And  died 
14th  September,  1829. 

Treading  in  the  steps  of  his  Ancestors,  Lord  Harrington  entered  the  Army, 
And  served  with  distinction  during  the  American  War,  from  which,  on  his  return  home, 

He  was  appointed  Aid-de-Camp  to  King  George  the  Third : 

And  was  successively  Colonel  of  the  85th,  65th,  and  29th  Regiments  of  Foot, 

And  of  the  1st  Regiment  of  Life  Guards. 

In  1805,  Lord  Harrington  was  employed  as  Ambassador  Extraordinary  to  the  Allied  Sovereigns. 
He  commanded  the  London  District  during  the  threatened  invasion  of  Napoleon ; 

And  was  afterwards  Commander  of  the  Forces  in  Ireland. 

At  the  time  of  his  decease,  he  was  one  of  the  Lords  of  his  Majesty's  Privy  Council, 
Knight  Grand  Cross  of  the  Order  of  Guelph,  Governor  of  Windsor  Castle, 

And  one  of  the  oldest  Generals  in  the  Army. 
He  lived  beloved  and  honoured  by  his  Sovereign,  his  Peers,  his  Brother  Soldiers,  his  Family, 

His  Tenantry,  and  the  Poor. 
"  Half  of  all  Men's  Hearts  were  his  :"  hallowed  be  his  Memory. 

To  a  revered  Father's  Memory, 

This  Monument  is  erected 
By  Charles  Fourth  Earl  of  Harrington, 

Lincoln,  Leicester,  Fitzroy,  Francis,  Henry,  and  Augustus  Stanhope, 
Anna  Maria,  Marchioness  of  Tavistock, 

Lady  Carolina  Stanhope, 
And  Charlotte  Augusta,  Duchess  of  Leinster. 


28 

ON    THE    RUSSIAN    CONQUESTS   IN    ASIA. 

FROM    A    GERMAN    JOURNAL. 

To  ascertain  the  importance  of  the  Russian  conquests  in  Asia,  it  is  necessary 
that  we  should  possess  accurate  information  respecting  extensive  regions,  of 
which  very  little  is  at  present  correctly  known  ;  but  this  information  cannot  be 
obtained  from  the  accounts  of  European  travellers.  The  time  spent  in  passing 
over  those  countries  is  usually  too  limited  to  enable  the  traveller  to  give  an  exact 
topographical  description  of  them,  and  the  despotic  character  of  Asiatic  Govern- 
ments will  often  present  obstacles  to  a  sufficiently  minute  inspection  of  many 
important  places.  The  accounts  of  the  native  Asiatic  authors,  when  these  are  to 
be  had,  are,  therefore,  much  more  complete  and  accurate  than  the  scattered  no- 
tices collected  by  foreigners,  who  too  often  only  repeat  what  they  have  heard 
from  others.  Those  countries  which  the  Russians  obtained  some  time  ago  from 
the  Persians  by  treaty,  and  those  which  they  have  recently  conquered  from  the 
Turks,  have,  however,  been  as  accurately  and  fully  described  by  the  native  Ar- 
menians as  any  other  part  of  the  world,  and  from  this  source,  hitherto  unused, 
we  purpose  to  extract  the  description  of  the  places  to  which  the  progress  of  the 
Russian  arms  has  directed  general  attention. 

Along  the  whole  line  of  operations  of  the  Russian  Commander-in-Chief,  Paske- 
vitsh-Erivansky,  which  extends  from  the  western  bank  of  the  lake  Van,  north- 
west, towards  the  Black  Sea,  as  far  as  Trebisond,  there  is  no  place  more  im- 
portant than  Erzerum.  This  city  is  the  key  to  the  whole  of  western  Asia,  of  the 
trade  of  which  it  is  the  emporium,  as  well  as  of  that  of  a  great  part  of  Central 
Asia.  Erzerum  is  situated  in  the  province  anciently  called  Armenia  Major, 
which  lies  so  high  that,  according  to  the  representation  of  the  Armenian  histo- 
rian, Moses  of  Chorene,  streams  flow  from  it  towards  all  the  four  quarters  of  the 
world.  At  the  beginning  of  the  fifth  century,  the  Emperor  Theodosius  the 
younger,  as  appears  from  his  own  Epistle  to  the  Armenian  Catholic,  Sahag  the 
Great,  (Mos.  Chor.  IV.  57.)  ordered  a  city  and  fortress  to  be  built,  which  might, 
in  case  of  necessity,  afford  the  inhabitants  of  that  part  of  Armenia  and  the 
Greek  army  protection  against  the  attacks  of  the  Persians.  The  Patrician  Ana- 
tolius,  Commander-in-Chief  of  the  province,  was  commissioned  to  select  a  site 
according  with  the  benevolent  views  of  the  Emperor.  Anatolius  fixed  upon  the 
spot  which  had  from  time  immemorial  been  called  by  the  Armenians  KARIN. 
There  he  built  a  city,  to  which  the  Armenians  gave  the  name  of  Karnu  Kakakh, 
that  is,  the  city  of  Karin  ;  but  the  Greeks  called  it  after  its  founder,  Theodosi- 
opolis.  Karin  is  situated  in  a  plain  which  forms  a.  circuit  of  several  leagues  in 
extent,  and  which  is  described  by  the  Armenian  historians  and  geographers  as 
extremely  beautiful  and  fertile.  From  the  same  authors  we  gather  that  this  rich, 
well-watered,  and  fruitful  district,  is  not  far  distant  from  the  place  where  the 
sources  of  the  Euphrates  arise  and  moisten  the  marshy  land  through  which  they 
flow.  Here  fish  is  found  in  great  abundance,  as  are  also  various  kinds  of 
birds,  whose  eggs  alone  might  furnish  sustenance  for  the  inhabitants ;  the  plains 
are  thickly  overspread  with  high  grass,  and  produce  grain  of  every  kind.  The 
mountainous  parts  are  full  of  game,  and  there  is  every  where  a  profusion  of 
food  and  pasture  for  cattle. 

In  this  plain,  at  the  foot  of  a  picturesque  hill,  whence  many  refreshing  springs 
flow,  the  new  city  was,  by  the  command  of  the  Emperor,  built,  and  surrounded 
by  a  deep  trench  and  a  rampart,  furnished  with  watch-towers.  When,  at  an 
after  period,  the  Greeks  and  the  Persians  shared  Armenia  between  them,  Theo- 
dosiopolis  remained  in  the  hands  of  the  Greeks.  The  Persian  King,  Kavad  I., 
indeed,  obtained  possession  of  the  city  in  the  year  502,  by  the  treachery  of  the 
Governor  Constantius ;  but  before  one  year  had  passed  over,  it  fell  again  into 
the  hands  of  the  Greeks.  Towards  the  end  of  the  sixth  century,  the  city  Karin 
was  once  more  captured  by  the  Persians,  a  great  part  of  the  population  removed 
to  Hamadan,  a  city  in  Persian  Irak. 


ON   THE   RUSSIAN    CONQUESTS   IN    ASIA.  29 

In  the  year  647  the  city  was  pillaged  by  the  Arabs,  and  more  than  a  century 
elapsed  before  the  Greeks  regained  possession  of  it,  underthe  Emperor  Constantino 
Copronymus,  in  755.  Constantine  caused  the  ramparts  to  be  demolished,  and 
removed  the  Mussulman  inhabitants,  together  with  their  property,  to  the  Grecian 
Provinces.  It  was  not  long,  however,  before  it  was  rebuilt  and  inhabited  by  the 
Arabs:  The  Greeks  took  it  more  than  once  by  storm  in  the  course  of  the  follow- 
ing centuries  (950-1019,)  but  were  not  able  to  maintain  themselves  long  in  this 
quarter.  It  is  probable  that  Arta,  or  Erzerum,  the  Arabic  name  of  the  city,  be- 
came common  about  this  time,  the  Arabs  having  called  it  the  Land  of  the  Ilums 
(that  is,  of  the  Greeks,)  because  it  long  formed  the  frontier  position  between  the 
Arabian  possessions  and  the  Greek  Province  of  Asia  (Natolia).  The  Armenians, 
^owever,  adhered  to  the  native  and  ancient  appellation  of  the  place,  for,  in  the 
thirteenth  century,  their  historian,  Cyriacos,  relates  that  two  Armenian  noblemen 
were  tributaries  of  the  Sultan  of  the  City  Karin.  By  the  Sultan  of  Karin  is, 
probably,  meant  the  Sultan  of  Iconieme,  who  held  the  city  in  the  first  half  of  the 
thirteenth  century. 

In  the  year  1247,  the  Monguls  appeared  before  the  city.  The  leader  of  these 
hordes  summoned  the  inhabitants  to  surrender  at  discretion.  On  their  refusal 
the  city  was  taken  by  storm  and  delivered  up  to  plunder.  Upon  this  occasion 
a  great  number  of  manuscripts  were  destroyed  by  the  Monguls.  At  last  they 
set  fire  to  the  town,  and  thousands  of  Mahometans  and  Christians  perished  by 
the  conflagration.  Some  time  after,  the  city  was  rebuilt  by  order  of  the  Mon- 
guls, who,  according  to  their  well-known  system  of  tolerance,  placed  in  it  a 
bishop,  named  Sarkis.  This  bishop  completed  the  building  of  the  town  and  re- 
assembled its  scattered  inhabitants.  After  the  dissolution  of  the  Mongul  domi- 
nion the  town  and  fortress  came  into  the  possession  of  the  Turks,  and  there  peace 
was  concluded  between  the  Porte  and  Persia  in  1735. 

Arta,  or  Erzerum,  the  now  prevailing  name  for  the  city  and  fortress  of  Karin, 
or  Theodosiopolis,  is  built  in  a  plain  of  two  and  a  half  geographical  miles,  sur- 
rounded partly  with  ditches  and  entrenchments,  and  partly  with  hills.  The 
town  consists  of  three  divisions,— the  fortress,  the  city,  and  the  suburbs. 

The  fortress  is  called  by  the  Moslems  Itsh  Kalah  (that  is,  Fort  Itsh).  It  is 
built  upon  a  high  hill  and  has  twelve  towers,  which  are  all  higher  than  those  at 
Constantinople.  The  fortress  may  easily  be  bombarded  and  set  fire  to  from  one 
of  the  neighbouring  hills,  called  Topdach  (Cannon  Hill),  which  Christians  name 
the  Sacred  Sign,  because  the  ruins  of  an  old  church  are  found  there.  Within 
the  fortress  there  is  also  a  mint,  where,  by  command  of  the  Sultan,  money  was 
formerly  coined.  Itsh  Kalah  has  only  one  gate  by  which  it  is  accessible,  and 
the  wooden  magazines  which  contain  the  provisions  for  the  garrison  are  without 
the  gate. 

The  city  itself  is  surrounded  by  a  triple  wall  of  stone.  The  inner  wall,  next 
to  the  fortress,  is  called  by  the  Armenians  Nachabarisb  (signifying  first  wall), 
the  outermost,  Krkenebarisb  (double  wall),  and  the  third,  or  middle  wall,  Hi- 
sarlisclien.  The  breadth  of  these  walls  amounts  to  ten  feet,  and  there  is  room 
enough  between  them  for  four  waggons  to  drive  abreast.  In  time  of  war  the  in- 
habitants of  the  surrounding  places  took  shelter  within  the  walls,  and  for  that 
reason  part  of  every  house  and  habitation  in  the  city  was  kept  unoccupied.  The 
first  wall  is  very  high,  the  outermost  is  lower,  but  is  surrounded  by  a  deep  ditch, 
and  stands  at  a  good  distance  from  the  middle  one,  the  Hisarbischen. 

Each  wall  has  four  gates,  placed  opposite  to  each  other,  and  from  each  gate  a 
bridge  passes  to  the  intrenchment  of  the  next  rampart ;  the  number  of  towers  in 
the  three  walls  is  seventy-two.  The  city  is  inhabited  by  Turks  and  Armenians, 
and  according  to  the  calculation  of  Indschidschean,  the  Armenian  historian,  it 
reckons  100,000  Mussulman  and  30,000  Christian  inhabitants.*  A  great  part 

*  Indschidschean,  in  his  calculation,  uses  the  word  DUN,  which  literally  means  fami- 
lies ;  but  this  must  be  regarded  as  an  exaggerated  mode  of  expression. 


30  ON    THE   RUSSIAN    CONQUESTS   IN   ASIA. 

of  the  population  consists  of  foreign  merchants,  who  have  taken  up  their  abode 
in  Erzerum  for  the  convenience  of  trade. 

There  are  excellent  springs  of  water  in  the  city  itself  as  well  as  in  the  suburbs. 
Two  Armenian  churches  stand  near  to  each  other  in  the  suburbs ;  both  called,  as 
Armenian  places  of  worship  in  general  are,  the  churches  of  the  Sou  of  God  (  As- 
duadsdin).  The  people  distinguish  them  by  the  names  of  the  Upper  and  the 
Lower  church.  In  these,  only  the  internal  part  nearest  the  altar  is  built  from 
the  foundation  with  stone,  in  the  manner  of  very  old  edifices;  the  exterior  is  en- 
tirely of  wood.  The  burial-place  for  the  Armenians  is  in  the  upper  church,  and 
there  many  celebrated  men  of  that  nation  have  been  interred.  There  is  also  a 
Greek  church,  though  few  Greek  families  reside  in  Erzerum,  and  all  speak  Ar- 
menian. This  church,  which  is  in  a  state  of  dilapidation,  is  called  the  church  of 
St.  Theodorus. 

The  greater  number  of  Mosques,  of  which  there  are  in  the  whole  city  above 
two  hundred,  were  formerly  churches.  The  most  noted,  and  largest  of  all,  has 
seven  gates,  and  is  situated  in  the  middle  of  the  city  ;  it  is  called  Ulz  dschamin . 
This,  likewise,  was  a  church  in  early  times,  and  is  said  to  have  borne  the  name 
of  St.  Stephen's.  There  are  several  Armenian  cloisters  in  the  neighbourhood  of 
the  city. 

Erzerum  possesses,  besides  the  palace  of  the  Pascha,  many  stately  buildings. 
The  Caravansary  is  considered  one  of  the  finest  in  all  Asia,  for  Erzerum,  as  has 
already  been  remarked,  becomes  annually  the  mart  of  a  great  part  of  Western 
and  Central  Asia.  The  caravans  from  Tin  is  to  Erzerum  accomplish  the  jour- 
ney in  fifteen  days,  and  from  Erzerum  commercial  relations  with  the  Persian 
Gulf  and  every  other  part  of  Asia  may  easily  be  formed  and  maintained. 
Though  Russia  may  not  reap  all  the  advantages  held  out  to  it  by  Gamba  from  a 
direct  intercourse  by  land  with  India,  and  admitting  many  of  Gamba's  represen- 
tations to  be  exaggerated,  this  much  is  certain, — that  the  trade  with  India  was, 
in  the  early  ages,  carried  on  by  land  with  the  greatest  profit,  and  it  is  highly 
probable  that  it  might  now  be  advantageously  renewed,  notwithstanding  that  the 
English  assert,  for  reasons  easily  to  be  conceived,  that  all  attempts  to  regain  a 
commercial  route  with  India  by  land,  are  absurd  and  romantic.*  The  country 
round  Erzerum  abounds  in  metals  and  ores,  and,  consequently,  there  are  in  the 
city  several  gold  and  silversmiths,  and  still  more  workers  in  iron  and  copper, 
whose  shops  are,  usually,  as  in  the  old  German  towns,  all  together  in  one  street. 
These  handicrafts  are  chiefly  carried  on  by  the  Armenians,  who  are  in  pos- 
session of  nearly  all  the  trade  of  the  place,  and  are  considered  to  be  the  most 
frugal  and  industrious  people  of  Western  Asia. 

All  merchandize  carried  to  Erzerum  must  pay  a  custom  duty ;  but  it  makes 
an  important  difference,  whether  the  commodity  is  of  Turkish  or  Russian,  or  of 
Persian  origin.  A  very  considerable  trade  is  carried  on  with  the  Turkish  province 
Kerman.  Besides  what  is  paid  to  the  Custom-house,  there  are  excise  duties  vary- 
ing according  to  the  articles  of  trade,  and  those  duties  are  fixed  by  particular 
Tariffs.  The  Armenian  geographer,  Indschidschean,  has  printed  a  Tariff,  in- 
cluding all  kinds  of  imports,  which  we  would  insert  here  were  we  not  confident 
that  it  must  have  received  some  important  modifications  since  that  time,  (1806) 
and,  therefore,  cannot  be  expected  to  be  correct.  The  tax  on  all  goods  brought 
from  the  kingdom  of  Turkey  and  from  Russia,  amounted  at  that  time  to  four 
per  cent. ;  but  on  the  productions  of  Persia,  eleven  per  cent.,  which  is  the  tax 
imposed  on  all  foreign  wares  imported  into  Persia  itself. 

The  soil  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Erzerum  produces  Rye  and  Indian  Corn, 
but  there  is  a  deficiency  in  the  produce  of  the  garden.  Fruits  are  procured 
from  the  Paschalik  Aschelzich,  or  Achelzik,  where  they  grow  in  abundance. 
The  people  have  many  proverbs  and  sayings  expressive  of  the  reciprocal  pro- 
ductive relations  of  these  two  Paschaliks.  There  is  also  a  scarcity  of  fire-wood 
round  Erzerum,  and  dried  cows'  dung  is  used  instead. 

*  The  opinions  of  the  most  able  writer  on  the  subject,  Col.  Delacy  Evans,  have  a 
directly  opposite  tendency. — ED. 


ON    THE    RUSSIAN    CONQUESTS    IN    ASIA.  31 

The  line  of  operations  of  the  Russian  Commander-in-Chief  extended  on  one 
side,  north-west  towards  the  Black  Sea,  as  far  as  Trebisond,  or  Trapezunt,  and 
on  the  other  side,  south-east,  to  the  Lake  Van.  We  shall,  at  present,  notice 
only  the  north-west  line,  which  is  the  more  important. 

The  plain  in  which  Erzerum  lies  is  surrounded  on  every  side  by  high  mountains. 
The  chain  extending  on  the  south,  almost  to  the  city,  is  called  by  the  Armenians 
Tschochalan,  and  its  highest  mount  Kchanen ;  the  eastern  chain  is  called 
Devepoignon  ;  the  western  and  northern,  Bahlan  deoken  and  Dumly.  The  two 
last  must  be  passed  on  the  road  from  Erzerum  to  Trebisond ;  but  along  that 
road  there  is  no  fortress  or  place  of  strength  capable  of  making  any  consider- 
able resistance.  Here  are  several  villages  inhabited  partly  by  Armenians  and 
partly  by  Turks. 

After  two  days'  march  from  Erzerum,  on  the  road  to  Trebisond,  we  come  to 
the  plain  of  Sper  or  Isper,*  situated  on  the  river  Charoch.  Before  the  conclu- 
sion of  the  peace  the  Russians  had  reached  this  point. 

The  same  name  for  this  district  occurs  in  Moses  of  Chorene  as  far  back  as  the 
fifth  century ;  it  formed  part  of  the  vast  possessions  belonging  to  the  powerful 
Armenian  family,  Bakratunier,  and  the  inhabitants  were  instructed  in  Christi- 
anity by  Leont  and  Henoch  (1441),  two  disciples  of  St.  Miesrop.  This  plain  is 
extremely  fruitful.  There  are  on  both  sides  of  the  Charoch,  large  vineyards  and 
orchards  ;  swarms  of  bees  house  in  the  hollow  trees  of  the  neighbouring  woods, 
and  furnish  excellent  honey.  Before  the  breaking  out  of  the  Greek  Revolution, 
the  number  of  Armenians  and  Greeks  in  Sper  was  not  less  than  that  of  Turks. 

The  town  and  fortress  of  Sper,  or  Per,  is  situated  in  the  plain  of  the  same 
name  on  the  Charoch.  The  banks  of  the  river,  which  are  here  and  there  steep, 
are  united  at  a  level  spot  by  a  bridge.  The  town  itself  extends  in  a  south-east 
direction  on  both  sides  of  the  river,  and  its  population  is  nine  hundred  families, 
the  greater  part  of  whom  are  Turks.  The  fortress,  which  is  situated  on  a  hill, 
could  make  but  little  resistance  to  an  enterprising  enemy. 

At  the  distance  of  half  a  day's  journey  south  from  Sper,  we  come  to  Choka- 
lar,  the  highest  of  the  range  of  mountains,  which  is  called,  in  the  common  lan- 
guage of  the  Armenians,  Kohanan.f  At  the  foot  of  this  mountain,  is  the  Arme- 
nian cloister  of  St.  John,  where  the  Archimandrite  of  the  Armenian  clergy  of  this 
district  resides. 

Not  far  from  Sper  is  the  town  Babert,  or,  according  to  corrupt  pronunciation, 
Baiburth,  which  voluntarily  submitted  to  the  Russian  commander.  The  Arme- 
nian historian  Wartan,  in  the  thirteenth  century,  makes  mention  of  this  place 
under  the  same  name.  It  is  the  chief  town  of  the  district  of  Babert,  in  the 
Paschalik  of  Erzerum.  The  castle  is  situated  upon  a  wooded  eminence,  on  the 
north  side  of  the  town,  which  lies  in  a  plain,  but  is  enclosed  between  two  moun- 
tains. The  Charoch,  a  large  and  broad  stream,  flows  through  the  middle  of  the 
place,  and  washes  the  foot  of  the  castle.  The  continual  murmuring  of  the  moun- 
tain waters  is  deafening.  For  this  reason,  Babert  is  also  called  "the  noise" 
in  the  songs  of  the  Armenians.  Babert  has  about  2000  inhabitants,  the  chief 
part  of  whom  are  Turks.  Their  principal  occupation  is  working  in  metals  and 
manufacturing  carpets,  which  are  interwoven  with  gold  thread.  The  latter  is  the 
most  considerable  branch  of  the  trade  of  this  place.  The  city,  which  is  inhabited 
by  the  Armenians,  is  divided  into  four  quarters,  to  each  of  which  a  different 
church  has  given  its  name. 

Two  leagues  from  Babert,  there  are  the  ruins  of  a  city.  The  remains  of 
houses  and  ramparts  may  be  seen,  as  well  as  of  three  vaulted  stone  churches  in 
tolerably  good  preservation.  This  place  is  now  called  Varschahan,  or  Varzuhan. 

*  The  7  which,  in  these  districts,  is  frequently  put  before  proper  names,  is  an  Arme- 
nian preposition,  and  means  in. 

t  In  the  common  language  of  the  Armenians,  the  highest  of  a  chain  of  mountains  is 
called  Kohanan,  a  word  which  is  probably  derived  from  Kahan,  the  eminent,  the  high 
Priest. 


32 


BIOGRAPHICAL    MEMOIR 

OF 

THE  LATE  CAPT.  RICHARD  SAINTHILL,  R.N. 

THE  late  Capt.  Richard  Sainthill  was  born  at  Topsharn,  in  Devon, 
on  the  23d  of  July,  1739,  (old  style;)  and  by  the  failure  in  the  male 
line  of  the  elder  branch  of  the  Sainthills,  of  Sainthill,  who  resided  at 
Bradninch,  was  the  representative  of  that  ancient  Norman  family. 

The  commencement  of  the  naval  career  of  Capt.  Sainthill  was  in 
1751,  when,  at  the  age  of  about  twelve  years,  he  entered  the  merchant 
service  under  his  father's  command,  and  continued  with  him  and  after- 
wards with  an  uncle  until  1757-  At  this  time  he  was  appointed  a 
midshipman  of  the  St.  Alban's  of  60  guns,  commanded  by  Capt.  Webbe, 
with  whom  he  served  during  the  war  in  his  Majesty's  ships  Hampton 
Court,  and  Antelope,  having  passed  his  examination  for  a  Lieutenancy 
in  1761. 

The  peace  of  1 763  appears  to  have  blighted  his  hopes  of  immediate 
advancement  in  the  Navy,  as  he  returned  to  the  merchant  service. 
Soon  after  the  commencement  of  the  American  War,  he  was  captured 
when  making  a  voyage  to  New  York  in  a  provision  transport,  which 
he  then  commanded,  and  taken  into  Dartmouth,  near  Boston.  On 
his  return  to  England  after  this  piece  of  ill-fortune,  Mr.  Sainthill  was 
placed  in  command  of  the  Earl  of  Sandwich,  a  letter  of  marque,  of  20 
guns,  belonging  to  the  firm  of  Messrs.  Isaac  and  Benjamin  Lester,  of 
Poole.  In  this  vessel  he  succeeded  in  capturing  a  French  West  India- 
man,  homeward-bound,  after  a  spirited  engagement  of  "  several  glasses." 
The  Indiaman  was  valued  at  £30,000,  and  would  have  amply  recom- 
pensed him  for  his  former  disappointments ;  but  these  anticipations 
vanished,  on  being  himself  captured  with  his  prize,  seventeen  days 
after,  by  three  French  ships  of  the  line,  and  taken  into  Brest.  Mr. 
Sainthill  was  not  detained  long  as  a  prisoner  in  France,  and  was  allow- 
ed to  return  to  England  on  his  parole,  in  exchange  for  the  Captain  of 
the  Modeste,  a  French  Indiaman,  Mons.  Lefer  de  Chantelon,  who  was 
then  a  prisoner  of  war  in  England.  By  his  application  to  the  Earl  of 
Sandwich,  then  first  Lord  of  the  Admiralty,  followed  by  that  of  his 
employers,  Messrs.  Lester,  this  exchange  was  readily  effected.  We 
subjoin  a  letter  from  Mons.  de  Chantelon  to  Mr.  Sainthill  relating  to 
it,  as  a  document  of  such  a  nature  in  this  time  of  peace  carries  with  it 
some  degree  of  novelty. 

(TRANSLATED  FROM  THE  ORIGINAL.) 

Ashburton,  Feb.  5th,  1779. 

SIR, — I  have  received  your  letter,  and  am  very  anxious  that  the  steps  you  are 
taking,  and  those  I  am  myself  about  to  adopt,  may  succeed  in  causing  you  to 
remain  in  your  own  country  and  in  sending  me  back  to  mine.  I  have  written 
to  Messrs.  Peter  Thellusson,  in  London,  to  assist  you  with  their  good  offices  ;  I 
have  also  had  the  honour  to  write  to  Lord  Shelburne,  and  have  had  my  request 
to  him  seconded  by  Capt.  Cosby,  serving  in  the  squadron  of  Admiral  Keppel, 
and  who,  I  am  informed,  is  an  intimate  acquaintance  of  the  former.  I  request 
you  to  communicate  with  my  Lord  Shelburne,  as  well  as  with  Messrs.  P.  Thel- 
lusson and  Company,  who  cannot  fail  to  add  much  weight  to  our  just  solicitations. 
I  have  the  honour  to  be,  with  perfect  consideration, 

Your  servant, 
MONS.  LEFER  DE  CHANTELON. 


THE    LATE    CAPT.    RICHARD    SAINTHILL,    R.N.  33 

Released  from  his  parole,  and  desirous  of  distinguishing  himself  in 
the  naval  service  of  his  country,  it  became  Mr.  Sainthill's  first  care  to 
seek  his  advancement  in  that  profession  for  which  his  experience  had 
so  well  fitted  him.  Amongst  the  various  means  he  employed  to  obtain 
his  wishes,  we  find  in  the  following  letter  from  his  friend  Mr.  Lester, 
addressed  to  the  Earl  of  Sandwich,  in  terms  quite  characteristic  of  the 
time,  the  interest  he  felt  in  his  welfare. 

Poole,  Feb.  27th,  1779. 

MY  LORD, — I  return  you  my  thanks  for  the  liberty  you  have  been  pleased  to 
procure  for  Capt.  Richard  Sainthill,  of  our  ship,  the  Earl  of  Sandwich,  taken 
by  the  French  :  from  the  very  precarious  situation  of  the  times,  Capt.  Sainthill 
would  be  happy  to  serve  on  board  any  of  his  Majesty's  ships  of  war;  he  has 
passed  examination  for  a  Lieutenant  as  far  back  as  1761,  and  would  be  a  great 
acquisition  to  any  of  his  Majesty's  captains  that  may  be  in  want  of  lieutenants 
of  skill,  sobriety,  and  a  thorough  knowledge  of  their  business  :  if  it  should  be 
convenient  to  your  Lordship  to  appoint  him  to  that  station,  you  would  add  to 
the  many  obligations  already  conferred  on, 

My  Lord, 
Your  Lordship's  most  obedient  and  obliged  humble  servant, 

BENJAMIN  LESTER. 

This  recommendation,  with  one  equally  favourable  from  the  late 
Capt.  Sir  A.  S.  Hammond,  were  attended  to  by  Lord  Sandwich,  who 
appointed  Mr.  Sainthill  a  Lieutenant  of  his  Majesty's  armed  brig  the 
Countess  of  Scarborough,  of  20  guns,  on  the  15th  of  June,  1779-  He 
was  some  time  acting  in  the  command  of  this  vessel,  and  whilst  em- 
ployed in  the  North  Sea,  in  company  with  H.  M.  S.  Serapis,  encoun- 
tered the  squadron  of  the  celebrated  Paul  Jones,  off  Flamborough 
Head.  The  details  of  this  action,  given  in  the  dispatch  of  Captain, 
afterwards  Sir  Richard  Pearson,  who  commanded  the  Serapis,  make 
but  little  mention  of  the  conduct  of  the  Countess  of  Scarborough,  in 
which  vessel  Lieut.  Sainthill  served,  and  we  are  therefore  induced  to 
give  the  following  letter,  containing  an  account  of  it,  written  by  him 
when  at  the  Texel  to  his  Father-in-law  in  Hertfordshire. 

Dear  Sir, — I  have  no  doubt  of  your  having  heard  long  before  this  of  our  mis- 
fortune in  being  taken,  the  particulars  of  which  are  as  follow.  On  the  23d  ult. 
being  then  in  company  with  H.  M.  S.  Serapis  and  the  convoy  from  Elsineur, 
about  four  o'clock  in  the  afternoon,  several  of  the  merchant  ships  to  windward 
hoisted  their  colours  at  the  mast-head,  and  fired  guns ;  and  soon  after  we  spoke 
with  one  of  them,  who  acquainted  us  that  a  boat  had  been  aboard  of  him,  and 
informed  him  that  the  ships  which  were  then  in  sight  off  Flamborough  Head, 
were  a  French  squadron,  consisting  of  two  ships  of  40  guns,  one  of  36,  and 
a  snow.  The  Serapis  being  then  about  four  miles  to  leeward,  we  immediately 
bore  away,  made  the  signal  to  speak  with  her,  and  cleared  the  ship  for  action. 
About  half-past  five,  our  Captain  went  on  board  to  receive  directions  from  Capt. 
Pearson,  and  soon  returned  with  orders  to  keep  in  a  close  line  of  battle  astern 
of  the  Serapis.  We  then  backed  our  main-top-sail,  and  laid  by  for  the  enemy's 
ships,  which  were  coming  down  with  all  their  sail  set,  there  being  little  wind. 
We  afterwards  found  them  to  be  the  Bon  Homme  Richard,  of  40  guns,  com- 
manded by  Paul  Jones,  who  was  the  Commodore ;  the  Alliance,  of  36  guns,  an 
American  frigate,  commanded  by  a  Frenchman;  the  Pallas,  a  French  frigate, 
under  American  colours  ;  and  a  snow,  of  twelve  guns.  About  half-past  seven, 
the  Bon  Homme  Richard  began  the  engagement  with  the  Serapis;  at  the  same 
time  the  Alliance  fired  her  broadside  into  us,  which  we  returned,  and  continued 
engaging  her  about  half  an  hour,  when  she  got  so  far  astern,  that  our  guns  could 

U.  S.  JOURN.  No.  13.  JAN.  1830.  D 


34  BIOGRAPHICAL     MEMOIR    OF    THE 

not  be  brought  to  bear  on  her,  nor  did  >she  seem  desirous  of  again  coming  up. 
By  this  time  the  Pallas,  which  sailed  heavily,  and  had  not  yet  been  able  to  come 
up,  was  near  us,  and  in  a  few  minutes  came  under  our  stern,  and  gave  us  her 
broadside.  We  then  continued  to  engage  her  nearly  one  hour  and  a  half,  when 
our  ship  being  much  damaged  in  her  hull,  mast,  and  rigging,  the  braces,  bow- 
lings, &c.  being  shot  away,  seven  of  our  guns  dismounted,  and  twenty-five  men 
killed  and  wounded,  we  struck  to  this  ship,  which  had  behaved  nobly.  The 
Alliance,  which  had  all  this  time  kept  a-stern,  now  came  up  and  hailed  our  ship, 
and  then  stood  under  an  easy  sail  towards  the  Serapis,  which  had  from  the 
beginning  been  literally  yard-arm  engaged  with  Jones,  the  ships  being  lashed 
alongside  each  other,  so  that  the  lower-deck  guns  of  each  could  not  be  run  out, 
and  both  ships  were  several  times  on  fire.  In  this  situation,  the  Serapis,  having 
engaged  both  ships  for  some  time,  was  also  under  the  necessity  of  striking,  and 
soon  after  her  main-mast  went  overboard.  The  Bon  Homme  Richard  was  almost 
torn  to  pieces,  had  seven  feet  water  in  her  hold,  and  was  on  fire  near  the  maga- 
zine at  this  time.  Capt.  Pearson  was  in  this  dreadful  situation  great  part  of  the 
night,  in  danger  of  being  blown  up  or  sinking,  which  certainly  would  have  hap- 
pened if  the  weather  had  not  been  very  fine.  The  following  day  they  got  out  the 
powder,  and  all  the  men,  except  a  few  of  the  wounded ;  and  we  had  the  satis- 
faction to  see  the  Bon  Homme  Richard  go  down.  The  number  of  killed  and 
wounded  it  is  impossible  to  give  you  any  account  of  at  present,  but  you  must 
suppose  it  is  very  considerable;  perhaps,  near  300  in  this  ship;  and  upwards 
of  100  in  the  Serapis :  in  the  Pallas  16  or  18,  who  are  all  dead. 

Yours,  &c. 

The  following  is  a  comparative  view  of  the  force  of  the  vessels  en- 
gaged. 


Bon  Homme  Richard,  40  guns,  and  375  men, 

commanded  by  Paul  Jones. 
Alliance        300  men        40  guns. 
Pallas  275  men        36  guns. 

Vengeance      75  men        14  guns. 


Serapis,  40  guns,  Capt.  R.  Pearson. 
Countess  of  Scarborough,  '20  guns. 
Crews  amounting  to  380  men.  Capt.  Piercey. 


Ships  4.         Men  1,025.        Guns  130. 
Killed  and  wounded  unknown. 


Ships  2.  Men  380.          Guns  60. 

Killed  and  wounded  129. 


The  result  of  this  action,*  in  which  there  was  so  great  a  disparity  of 
force  between  the  contending  ships,  was  highly  honourable  to  the  van- 
quished party :  the  safety  of  a  convoy  had  been  secured  at  an  import- 
ant period,  and  the  commanding  officer  received  those  rewards  which 
his  bravery  had  merited. 

On  his  return  from  the  Texel  in  1780,  Lieut.  Sainthill  was  appoint- 
ed to  H.  M.  S.  Duke,  Capt.  Sir  C.  Douglas,  one  of  the  ships  forming 
the  Channel  fleet ;  and  was  present  in  her  at  the  relief  of  Gibraltar, 
under  Admiral  Darby.  The  Duke  was  afterwards  one  of  the  ships  of 
Sir  George  Rodney's  squadron  in  the  action  with  the  Count  de  Grasse, 


*  "  This  is  allowed  to  have  been  one  of  the  most  sanguinary  actions  recorded  in 
naval  annals.  It  was  on  this  occasion  that  Capt.  Pearson  received  the  honour  of 
Knighthood,  and  the  freedom  of  several  seaport  towns.  The  corporation  of  Scarborough, 
from  whence  the  action  was  witnessed,  as  also  the  Royal  Exchange  Assurance  Com- 
pany, respectively  presented  him  with  elegant  boxes,  on  which  were  appropriate  inscrip- 
tions."— Naval  Chronicle,  vol.  24. 

It  was  asserted  by  Lieut.  Sainthill,  and  corroborated  by  the  officers  of  the  two  Eng- 
lish ships,  that  one  of  the  frigates  which  had  engaged  the  Countess  of  Scarborough, 
fired  several  broadsides  into  Paul  Jones's  ship  purposely,  mistaking  him  for  the  latter 
vessel.  He  was  much  disliked  by  those  who  served  under  him,  and  this  circumstance 
strongly  confirms  the  opinion  formed  of  his  general  character. 


LATE    CAl'T.    RICHARD 


,AINTHILL,    R.N.  35 


in  the  West  Indies.  After  the  action,  it  devolved  on  Lieut.  Sainthill 
to  conduct  the  French  frigate  L'Aimable  to  Jamaica.  Here  he  was 
appointed  First-Lieutenant  of  H.  M.  S.  Unicorn,  Capt.  Archer ;  and  on 
the  voyage  to  England  this  ship  beat  off  an  American  privateer  of 
much  superior  force, 

The  services  of  Lieut.  Sainthill  had  already  evinced  his  zeal  and  ac- 
tivity, and  shortly  after  being  paid  off  from  the  Unicorn,  he  received 
an  appointment  of  an  arduous  and  harassing  nature.  In  the  com- 
mencement of  the  war  of  1793,  he  was  nominated  Agent  of  Transports 
afloat  at  Cork,  and  conducted  a  body  of  troops  to  the  Weser  and  Os- 
tend.  The  able  manner  in  which  he  performed  this  service  called 
forth  the  highest  eulogium  of  Capt.  Moriarty,  who  attended  the  em- 
barkation of  the  troops  at  Cork,  and  who,  in  a  letter  to  the  Navy 
Board,  asserts  that  l(  his  zeal  and  activity  could  only  be  equalled  by 
the  accuracy  of  his  judgment  and  the  justness  of  his  dispositions."  In 
recommending  him  for  promotion,  lest  his  so  doing  might  be  attributed 
to  interested  motives,  he  adds,  that  previous  to  his  arrival  in  Cork,  he 
knew  nothing  of  Lieut.  Sainthiil,  and  could,  therefore,  have  no  other 
motive  in  recommending  him,  than  to  perform  a  duty  to  the  service, 
and  a  justice  to  merit.  A  letter  of  thanks  from  the  Navy  Board  for 
the  promptness  of  the  embarkation  was  the  reply  to  this,  in  which 
Lieut.  Sainthill  was  promised  not  to  be  overlooked. 

The  good  opinion  entertained  at  the  Navy  Board  of  Lieut.  Sainthill's 
abilities,  from  the  above  favourable  testimony,  and  the  friendship  of 
Sir  A.  Hammond,  soon  procured  him  an  appointment  in  that  line  of 
service  for  which  he  had  proved  himself  so  well  qualified.  In  the 
month  of  September  1793,  it  was  determined  to  send  reinforcements 
of  troops  to  Lord  Hood  for  the  relief  of  Toulon,  to  which  service  Lieut. 
Sainthill  was  immediately  appointed.  In  February  1794,  he  accord- 
ingly sailed  from  Cork,  in  company  with  ten  sail  of  transports,  having 
on  board  the  12th  regiment  of  Dragoons,  under  convoy  of  his  Majesty's 
ships  Irresistible,  Winchelsea,  and  Ceres.  After  experiencing  bad 
weather,  in  which  the  convoy  were  dispersed,  Lieut.  Sainthill's  ship, 
in  company  with  three  others,  arrived  off  Toulon,  but  narrowly  escaped 
being  captured  by  a  Spanish  frigate  which  had  chased  them. 

Mr.  Sainthill  was  now  in  a  part  of  the  world  where  the  most  active 
operations  of  war  were  going  forward,  and  in  a  species  of  service  which 
called  for  the  utmost  exertions  from  one  in  the  very  responsible  station 
in  which  he  was  placed.  The  duty  of  Agent  of  Transports  is  well 
known  by  our  readers  to  be  of  no  easy  nature  in  time  of  war,  and  the 
present  period  was  by  no  means  calculated  to  make  it  so.  Having 
arrived  too  late  to  be  of  service  at  Toulon,  he  was  directed  to  proceed  to 
Civita  Vecchia,  and  had  the  good  fortune  for  his  services  at  this  place 
to  receive  the  following  acknowledgment  from  Pope  Pius  the  Sixth, 
which  was  thus  communicated  to  him  by  Sir  John  Cox  Hippisley. 

Rome,  13th  June,  1794. 

Sir, — At  the  request  of  his  Eminence  the  Cardinal  Secretary  of  State,  I  have 
the  pleasure  to  transmit  to  you  a  gold  medal,  which  it  is  his  Holiness's  desire 
that  you  will  accept  as  a  mark  of  his  particular  esteem,  and  as  a  remembrance 
of  your  being  his  guest  at  Civita  Vecchia,  commanding  the  convoy  of  his  Ma- 
jesty's 12th  Regiment  of  Light  Dragoons. 

I  beg  to  inclose  a  copy  of  his  Eminence's  letter  on  occasion  of  my  annouric- 

D  2 


36  BIOGRAPHICAL    MEMOIR    OF   THE 

ing  to  him  Sir  James  Erskine's  orders  for  the  recall  of  the  regiment,  with  his 
thanks  for  the  attention  it  had  received  from  his  Holiness's  Government.  On 
the  receipt  of  your  letter,  which  had  been  transmitted  some  days  afterwards  by 
the  Governor  of  Civita  Vecchia,  his  Holiness  expressed  equal  satisfaction  that 
both  departments  of  his  Majesty's  service  should  have  been  alike  gratified  in 
their  accommodation  at  that  place,  and  immediately  ordered  his  minister  to  pre- 
pare this  mark  of  his  esteem,  which  I  have  so  much  pleasure  in  conveying  to  its 
destination.  I  have  the  honour  to  be,  Sir, 

Your  very  obedient  and  humble  servant, 
J.  Cox  HIPPISLEY. 

The  medal  was  struck  in  commemoration  of  the  Pope's  restoring  the  harbour 
of  Civita  Vecchia  to  its  present  state. 

I  will  beg  the  favour  of  you,  Sir,  to  make  my  best  respects  to  my  Lord  Hood. 

Lieut.  Sainthill,  late  Commanding  the  Convoy  of 
His  Majesty's  Transports  at  Civita  Vecchia. 

FROM    THE    CHAMBERS    OF    THE    VATICAN,    MAY    30,  1794. 

The  special  consideration  which  the  Holy  Father  has  always  had,  and  will 
have,  for  the  illustrious  and  generous  English  nation,  makes  him  seize  this  occa- 
sion of  the  residence  of  an  English  regiment  in  Civita  Vecchia,  to  give  them 
proofs  of  it :  and  as  he  has  reason  to  applaud  the  regular  conduct  of  the  troops, 
he  has  determined  to  convince  them  of  his  perfect  satisfaction,  by  the  present  of 
a  gold  medal  to  each  officer,  including  the  Hon.  Gen.  Stuart  and  Sir  James 
Erskine,  though  absent. 

But  as  those  medals,  twelve  in  number,  are  not  ready,  nor  can  be  completed 
before  the  departure  of  the  regiment  from  Civita  Vecchia,  it  will  be  the  care  of 
the  Holy  Father  to  give  them  as  soon  as  possible  to  Mr.  Hippisley,  that  he  may 
send  them  to  the  respective  officers,  and  be  at  the  same  time  the  interpreter  of 
the  sentiments  of  affection,  and  the  particular  esteem  which  he  preserves,  not 
only  for  the  nation  at  large,  but  for  every  individual  of  it. 

The  Cardinal  Zelade,  Secretary  of  State,  in  participating  these  Pontifical  dis- 
positions to  Mr.  Hippisley,  Member  of  the  British  Parliament,  offers  himself 
always  ready  at  his  command,  and  assures  him  of  his  particular  esteem. 

From  Civita  Vecchia  Mr.  Sainthill  was  ordered  to  Corsica,  where 
he,  was  employed  under  Lord  Nelson  at  the  sieges  of  Calvi  and  Bastia. 
The  following  letters,  containing  directions  which  he  received  from 
Lord  Nelson,  will  convey  some  idea  of  the  active  duties  attached  to  his 
station. 

Aug.  5th,  1794. 

Sir, — You  will  let  me  know  in  the  course  of  the  day,  how  many  people  each 
ship  of  your  division  will  carry,  without  inconvenience,  for  a  very  short  voyage : 
also,  if  you  have  water  and  provisions  for  the  number  of  people  your  ships  will 
carry :  also  let  me  know  what  men  are  on  shore  belonging  to  ships  of  your  divi- 
sion, in  case  Agamemnon  should  not  return  before  the  transports  are  wanted. 
I  wish  to  see  you  with  the  return,  and  let  me  know  if  there  are  any  transports 
here,  except  of  yours  and  Lieut.  Caine's  division. 

I  am,  Sir,  your  very  humble  servant, 
Lieut.  Sainthill,  Agent  for  Transports.  HORATIO  NELSON. 

Camp,  Aug.  7th,  1794. 

Sir, — All  the  transports  under  your  direction  to  be  moved  directly  to  this  bay, 
and  anchored  under  our  Camp.  I  have  directed  all  the  transports-men  here  to 
be  sent  to  your  assistance ;  but  you  will  get  your  ships  as  ready  to  weigh  as 
possible  before  their  arrival.  I  am,  Sir,  your  very  humble  servant, 

Lieut.  Sainthill.  HORATIO  NELSON. 


LATE    CAPT.    RICHARD    SAINTHIJLL,    R.N.  37 

And  the  following  hurried  acknowledgment  of  his  services  on  these 
occasions  is  to  be  appreciated  when  coming  from  such  a  source. 

Agamemnon,  Calvi,  Aug.  14th,  1794. 

Dear  Sir, — Your  readiness  at  all  times  to  expedite  the  King's  service  I  shall 
always  bear  my  testimony  of,  and  therefore  I  have  no  doubt  but  you  have  got 
all  the  barrel  powder  from  the  shore  on  board  the  Scarborough,  which  I  hope  is 
500  barrels  :  if  she  should  not  be  sailed  for  Fiorenza,  pray  expedite  her  as  soon 
as  possible,  and  don't  keep  her  for  a  few  barrels.  I  shall  be  off  Revelatta  Point 
nearly  all  day  to-morrow :  let  her  join  me,  and  I  will  see  her  safe  into  port. 
Should  the  Agamemnon  not  be  there,  she  will  proceed  by  herself.  I  have  written 
a  line  to  Capt.  M'Namara  about  her. 

I  am,  dear  Sir,  very  truly  yours, 

HORATIO  NELSON. 
Lieut.  Sainthill,  Agent  for  Transports. 

The  active  services  afloat  of  Lieut.  Sainthill  may  here  be  said  to 
have  terminated.  In  December  1794,  he  was  ordered  to  return  to 
Ireland  with  a  fleet  of  transports,  and  when  off  the  mouth  of  the  Shan- 
non, had  a  narrow  escape  from  being  captured  by  a  French  fleet, 
through  which,  according  to  his  log,  he  actually  passed  in  a  thick  fog. 
He  arrived  afterwards  safely  in  this  river  with  all  the  ships  of  his  fleet. 

The  next  appointment  Mr.  Sainthill  received,  was  that  of  Resident 
Agent  of  Transports  at  Cork,  in  1796 ;  but  in  consequence  of  a  reduc- 
tion which  was  ordered  to  be  made  in  this  department  by  Mr.  Pitt,  he 
was  discharged  in  the  course  of  the  following  year.  On  this  occasion 
it  was  the  misfortune  of  Mr.  Sainthill  to  be  the  junior  officer  appoint- 
ed, by  a  few  days  only ;  and  on  his  retirement  he  received  the  warmest 
approbation  of  his  conduct  from  Sir  A.  Hammond,  with  the  assurance 
of  his  desire  to  serve  him.  After  this  reduction,  Lieut.  Sainthill  was 
unemployed  during  the  remainder  of  the  war  until  1814,  when  he  was 
superannuated  with  the  rank  of  Commander,  as  an  acknowledgment 
for  his  past  services.  Had  Mr.  Sainthill  adopted  the  high  road  of  his 
profession,  his  zeal  and  abilities  would  in  all  probability  have  obtained 
him  that  preferment  which  he  sought  for ;  but  it  was  his  fortune  to 
pursue  another,  in  which  greater  difficulties  are  encountered  and  pro- 
motion more  distant.  In  this  he  persevered,  and  performed  his  duty 
with  satisfaction  to  his  superiors. 

In  1797.  Capt.  Sainthill  had  received  the  appointment  from  the 
Irish  Government  of  Agent  of  Transports  for  Convicts  from  Ireland 
to  New  South  Wales.  Although  a  duty  comparatively  insignificant 
to  his  former,  this  was  sufficient  to  employ  a  mind  ever  bent  on  naval 
concerns  ;  and  he  retained  this  appointment  until  the  year  1824,  when, 
in  consequence  of  some  arrangements,  the  office  was  entirely  removed 
from  Ireland.  Being  now  at  the  advanced  age  of  86,  he  could  no 
longer  look  for  employment,  and  having  two  sons  in  the  same  pro- 
fession which  he  had  followed  from  his  youth,  his  first  wish  was  for 
their  advancement.  His  own  services,  in  his  opinion,  had  not  met 
their  due  reward,  and  with  the  hopes  that  his  son,  Mr.  G.  A.  Saint- 
hill,  then  at  sea,  might  benefit  by  them,  he  petitioned  the  Lords  of  the 
Admiralty,  in  1825,  for  his  promotion.  His  application  was  unsuccess- 
ful, and  Lieut.  Sainthill  is  still  serving  as  First-Lieutenant  of  H.  M.  S. 
Isis.  Disappointed  in  realizing  the  natural  wishes  of  a  parent,  and 
incapable  of  farther  service  himself,  he  died  at  the  advanced  age  of  89, 
after  a  life  devoted  to  the  naval  service  of  his  country. 


38 

REMARKS    ON    THE    MILITARY    SURVEYING    SYSTEMS. 

AS  DETAILED  IN  PAGES  176,  &C.  OF  NO.  8,  OF  THE  UNITED  SERVICE  JOURNAL. 

To  the  Editor  of  the  United  Service  Journal. 

SIR, — As  it  appears  to  be  the  aim  of  your  writings  to  hold  an  impartial  super- 
intendence and  review  of  all  which  may  be  through  your  Journal  laid  before  the 
public,  perhaps  it  will  be  permitted  to  one  of  those  who  admire  the  spirit 
which  actuates  your  work,  to  place  before  the  public  a  few  remarks  on  your  re- 
view in  pages  176  and  following,  ON  MILITARY  SURVEYING. 

I  am,  Sir,  yours,  &c. 

Between  the  modes  of  expressing  the  situation  of  objects  in  a  Coun- 
try, which  is  the  essential  substance  of  military  drawing,  there  must 
be  so  much  difference  or  degrees  of  detail  and  exactitude  required,  that 
it  appears  hardly  just  to  condemn  any  system  which  professes  to  enable 
an  officer  in  command  to  arrive  at  a  clearer  knowledge  of  the  situation 
of  the  several  tracts  of  country,  or  of  the  objects  in  general  around  him, 
than  has  been  usually  within  his  attainment  by  former  systems  of 
drawing.  It  may  be  asserted  by  many  of  your  military  readers,  that 
by  themselves,  in  the  field  itself,  they  can  by  common  reconnoitring  at 
the  time  of  action  obtain  sufficient  insight  into  all  the  localities  of 
their  position.  Without  referring  back  to  the  examples  of  the  most 
distinguished  warriors  in  past  times,  or  looking  to  the  conduct  of  the 
officers  of  Alexander  in  his  advance  to  India,  or  to  that  of  Napoleon, 
whose  known  predilection  for  military  plans  your  Journal  has  already 
noticed,  it  must,  on  a  little  deliberate  consideration,  appear  sufficiently 
evident  how  much  advantage  an  officer  must  receive  from  any  clear 
detail  of  the  localities. 

Personal  experience  has  enabled  me  only  to  speak  as  to  one  instance 
of  the  value  set  upon  such  detail.  A  general  officer,  who  was  ever  con- 
sidered as  least  likely  to  respect  any  system  but  that  of  obtaining 
knowledge  by  the  arme  blanche,  was  ordered  to  advance  his  brigade ; 
I  had  been  directed  to  prepare  an  outline  of  the  country  through  which 
he  was  to  pass,  but  it  was  not  complete.  Although  time  pressed,  the 
general  would  not  move  without  his  plan,  saying,  anything  was  better 
than  nothing ;  and  that  though  he  had  the  names  of  the  villages  where 
the  enemy  had  his  advanced  posts,  and  had  seen  them  in  the  map  of 
the  Commander  of  the  forces,  it  was  useless  to  him  unless  he  had 
the  situation  of  such  posts  and  villages.  With  my  very  incomplete 
plan,  the  general  set  out  perfectly  contented. 

No  ill-timed  or  needless  apprehension  ever  could  be  laid  to  the 
charge  of  this  officer,  for  never  had  a  brigade  a  leader  less  subject  to 
such  accusation  of  want  of  confidence  in  his  own  and  his  soldiers'  pow- 
ers, for  a  few  months  afterwards  he  sealed  the  assurance  of  such  with 
his  blood.  A  lover  of  Romance  would  say, 

"  Peace  to  his  gallant  spirit ! 
He  died  as  hearts  like  his  should  die." 

If  all  countries  were  perfectly  flat,  the  site  of  towns  villages,  woods, 


ON    THE    MILITARY    SURVEYING    SYSTEMS.  39 

&c.  would  be  sufficient ;  but  I  would  ask  the  advocate  for  the  system  of 
light  and  shade,  or  darkness,  and  which  I  hope  may  never  lead  to 
chaos,  whether  experience  has  shown  him  that  military  men  can  un- 
derstand and  keep  in  "  keeping  of  their  memory"  more  readily  the 
data  of  his  key  for  reading  the  plan  by  the  exact  proportion  of  light  to 
the  shade  in  the  slopes,  than  by  the  seeing  printed  in  the  heading  of 
a  plan  elucidated  by  normals,  that  for  every  mark  or  normal  he  is  to 
read  twenty-two  feet  or  thirty-three  feet  of  height.  Can  it  not  be 
easily  imagined  how  perplexed  a  general  would  be  by  his  staff-officer 
saying  to  him,  "  No,  indeed,  general,  there  is  more  light  here  than  shade, 
therefore  it  must  be  so  many  degrees  of  elevation  ;"  or  if  the  whole  plan 
be  covered  by  figures,  230,  460,  &c.  would  it  not  tend  to  confuse  one 
before  whom  all  should  be  laid  as  clear  as  the  daily  state  of  his  brigade  ; 
\vhile,  on  the  other  hand,  without  requiring  of  the  reader  of  the  plan 
to  understand  Algebra,  it  is  merely  required  of  him,  if  he  wishes  to 
know  the  height  of  any  one  point  on  the  surface  or  side  of  a  hill  above 
the  marsh  or  rivulet  at  the  foot  of  it,  to  see  how  many  of  the  normals 
it  takes  to  arrive  from  the  bottom  to  such  point ;  the  less  shading  there 
is  to  such  a  plan  the  better. 

The  absurdity  of  requiring  heights  of  mountains  or  hills  in  a  posi- 
tion on  the  eve  of  a  battle  is  too  evident  to  the  most  superficial  reader 
to  require  refutation  or  comment ;  but  because  on  such  an  occasion  it 
is  needless  or  impracticable,  does  it  necessarily  lead  to  such  being  at 
all  times  so  ?  Does  a  force  never  occupy  country  for  so  long  in  the  im- 
mediate vicinity  of  a  position,  as  to  enable  an  officer  to  take  an  outline 
with  a  few  relative  heights  ?  advancing  by  a  road  lined  with  positions, 
and  contemplating  the  possibility  of  having  to  retreat  by  such  before 
the  enemy,  is  it  then  useless  to  devote  the  few  hours  which  are  not 
required  for  procuring  cover  and  forage,  to  laying  down  an  outline 
with  a  position  for  artillery  ?  though,  should  such  ground  be  laid  down 
by  the  judgment  of  the  eye,  or  light  and  shade  proportion,  the  gun- 
ners might  often  find  it  impracticable  to  stand  without  traverses,  or 
guard  from  enfilade  to  their  battery. 

The  pages  of  your  Journal,  which  record  the  struggles  of  our  army 
in  the  Peninsula  against  the  several  evils  which  the  soldier  on  service 
is  heir  to,  contain  details  of  marches  and  countermarches  with  leisure 
periods  especially  adverted  to ;  would  it  in  such  cases  be  wholly  useless 
to  have  drawings  of  the  ground  traversed  ?  Where  a  nine  or  six- 
pounder  is  conveyed,  surely  so  small  an  object  as  a  light  theodolite, 
weighing  only  nine  pounds,  and  a  sixty-foot  chain,  might  be  carried. 

Your  remarks  on  the  Normal  System,  page  183,  go  to  prove  that  it 
is  required  for  such  method  of  demonstrating  the  ground,  to  take  the 
levels  at  every  twenty-two  or  thirty-three  feet ;  but  on  the  other  hand, 
by  considering  more  attentively  what  is  required,  it  will  be  seen  that 
the  angles  are  only  required  to  be  taken  at  every  change  of  ground  in 
the  side  or  slope  of  the  hill,  and  if  Nature  be  more  attentively  con- 
sulted with  instruments,  her  undulations  will  be  found  to  be  reducible 
to  outlines,  which  are  very  nearly  straight,  much  more  so  than  most 
casual  reconnoitrers  would  suppose.  If  such  undulations  neither  arrest 
the  fire  of  guns,  nor  give  cover  to  man,  of  what  import  are  they,  and  if 
not  of  any,  why  may  not  the  military  man  omit  them  ? 


40  ON    THE    MILITARY    SURVEYING    SYSTEMS. 

I  should  also  wish  some  of  your  readers  to  recall  any  period  of  using 
paper  for  shading  after  long  marches,  or  even  exposure  to  a  damp  mili- 
tary store,  and  the  remembrance  of  the  striking  effect  produced  by  the 
brush  and  Indian  ink  will  be  sufficient  to  induce  them  to  prefer  Alge- 
braic or  Normal,  or  any  signs  in  the  world,  except  innumerable  figures, 
to  the  method  of  ordinary  shading.  Etching  the  slopes  with  a  pen,  is 
preferable  to  shading  in  such  circumstances ;  but  the  figures  for  heights 
require  blank  spaces  left  for  them  ;  as  indeed  do,  if  the  shade  is  dark,  the 
normals ;  but  a  plan  is  intelligible  by  the  latter  system  from  the  barbs 
pointing  to  the  heights  without  any  shading,  which  the  figures  would 
not  effect  so  readily, 

As  to  carrying  a  scale  of  normals  (page  183,)  one  is  easily  affixed 
with  a  scale  of  miles  to  the  plan ;  and  if  the  General  can  read  his  miles 
or  furlongs,  he  can  also  read  the  angle  of  the  slope,  though,  as  the  head- 
ing assures  him  the  value  of  each  normal  line  is  so  many  feet,  he  needs 
no  reference  to  scale  for  the  simple  heights  or  relative  commands. 
Thus  the  result  of  operating  by  this  system,  is  the  obtaining  a  two-fold 
benefit,  viz.  the  heights  and  angle,  which  is  in  opposition  to  your  re- 
mark of  a  single  end  by  double  process.  The  minuteness  need  not  be 
had  recourse  to  unless  a  greater  exactitude  be  required. 

The  age  in  which  we  live,  Mr.  Editor,  allow  me  to  remark,  is  any 
thing  but  the  age  of  bigotry ;  and  surely  it  is  the  part  of  the  man  of 
sense  and  discernment  to  extract  what  he  shall  find  serviceable  in  any 
practice  which  meets  his  observation,  leaving  to  the  fool  to  be  obsti- 
nately attached  to  customs,  whose  chief  merit  in  his  eyes  is,  that  they 
were  such  as  have  time  out  of  mind  existed. 

Your  adoption  of  the  system  of  Lieut.  Siborn,  who  deserves  much 
praise  for  his  works  on  military  drawing  in  general,  (though  some 
parts  are  objectionable,)  shows  that  you  are  not  so  attached  to  the  cus- 
toms of  our  fathers  when  found  erroneous;  and  it  will  be  subject  for 
commendation  among  all  who  give  themselves  to  the  study  of  the  staff 
arrangements  of  military  bodies,  when  they  see  that  any  improvement 
or  alteration  likely  to  be  made  in  our  systems,  has  notice  and  un- 
biassed judgment  passed  on  it  in  the  pages  of  your  Journal. 


The  author  of  the  letter  on  Distinctions  for  Service,  might  have  no- 
ticed the  Prussian  system  of  rewarding  by  medals  cast  from  the  can- 
non taken  in  the  campaign.  The  medals  having  inscribed  on  them, 
"  Campaign  1803,"  &c.  and  for  a  battle  or  siege,  the  person  engaged 
has  a  cross  of  metal. 


41 


SUGGESTIONS    1NV  NAVAL    ECONOMY. 

BY    SIR    SAMUEL   BENTHAM. 

To  the  Editor  of  the  United  Service  Journal. 

2,  Lower  Connaught  Place,  14th  Dec.  1829. 

SIR, — In  the  November  Number  of  your  Journal,  p.  630,  your  correspondent 
F.  mentions  some  advantages  which  would  arise  from  the  employment  of  Go- 
vernment vessels  in  lieu  of  hired  transports  ;  and  in  your  last  Number  I  observe 
a  representation  of  the  incompetency  of  an  officer's  half-pay  to  support  a  family. 
Both  these  subjects  had  long  since  occupied  my  attention ;  and  during  the  time 
when  the  administration  of  our  Navy  was  in  the  hands  of  the  Lord  High  Ad- 
miral, I  drew  up  the  enclosed  paper,  which  was  submitted  to  his  Royal  High- 
ness, and,  as  I  understood  at  the  time,  communicated  to  the  Navy  Board ;  I 
likewise  furnished  a  copy  of  it  to  one  of  the  members  of  the  Select  Committee 
on  Finance,  which  was  then  sitting.  The  change  which  shortly  afterwards  took 
place  in  the  administration  of  the  Admiralty  department,  and  the  cessation  of 
the  labours  of  the  Finance  Committee,  have  no  doubt  caused  this  communica- 
tion to  be  overlooked ;  but  the  advantages  derivable  from  the  measures  there 
proposed,  still  appear  to  me  to  be  so  important,  that  I  am  led  to  transmit  to 
you  a  copy  of  my  proposals,  in  the  hope  that  their  publication  in  your  widely- 
circulated  Journal,  may  call  attention  to  them  in  such  a  manner  as  to  induce  a 
farther  investigation  of  the  subject. 

I  cannot,  however,  but  add,  that  at  the  present  moment,  when  the  state  of 
Europe  seems  to  present  every  prospect  of  a  long-continued  peace,  it  appears 
every  day  more  and  more  important  to  adopt  a  measure,  which,  while  it  will  be 
a  source  of  great  economy  to  the  public,  will  be  at  the  same  time  a  means  of 
keeping  up  the  sea  habits  and  proficiency  of  our  naval  officers,  while  to  them 
individually  it  will  diminish  in  a  great  degree  the  evils  of  half-pay,  and  of  little 
or  no  advancement ;  evils  which  will  be  the  more  severely  felt,  in  proportion  as 
peace  lasts  the  longer. 

I  am,  Sir,  your  obedient  servant, 

S.  BENTHAM. 

To  the  Secretary  of  the  Admiralty. 

54,  Manchester  Street,  7th  March,  1828. 

SIR, —  It  having  lately  appeared  to  me  that  a  great  saving  might  be  made  in 
the  providing  for  the  transport  of  the  personnel  and  materiel  of  warfare,  amount- 
ing at  different  times,  and  under  different  circumstances,  to  sums  varying  from 
fifty  thousand  pounds  to  more  than  a  million  per  annum ;  I  would  beg  to  lay 
before  his  Royal  Highness  the  Lord  High  Admiral  the  following  observations 
and  particulars  relative  to  this  subject,  as  also  the  estimates  from  which  those 
savings  appear. 

By  the  printed  papers  which  I  took  the  liberty  three  weeks  ago  of  submitting 
to  his  Royal  Highness,  other  copies  of  which  I  at  the  same  time  sent  to  you, 
requesting  they  might  be  presented  to  his  Royal  Highnesses  council,  it  may  be 
seen  that  I  am  now  laying  before  the  public  a  view  of  some  imperfections  in  the 
system  of  management  under  which  the  business  of  the  Naval  Department  is 
carried  on,  such  as  may  (I  should  hope)  be  useful  whenever  inquiry  may  be 
made  into  the  expediency  of  proceeding  with  a  reform  of  the  system,  such  as 
above  twenty  years  ago  was  intended  and  commenced  by  two  successive  Boards 
of  Admiralty,  in  as  far  at  least  as  regards  his  Majesty's  dock-yards. 

Among  the  defects  in  the  system  which  I  have  been  led  to  notice  in  my  official 
correspondence,  as  one  unperceived  source  of  bad  economy  in  the  commercial 
and  manufacturing  branches  of  naval  business,  are  the  division  of  business  the 


42  SUGGESTIONS    IN    NAVAL   ECONOMY. 

same  in  its  nature,  and  the  portioning  it  out  under  the  separate  direction  and 
management  of  different  subordinate  boards,  having  little  or  no  communication 
with  each  other,  arid  the  great  imperfection  in  the  accounts  kept  by  these  separate 
boards,  and  in  particular  inasmuch  as  these  accounts  are  not  suited  to  bring  to  the 
notice  of  the  superior  authority  the  comparative  expense  of  producing  any  given 
effect  by  one  or  other  of  the  different  means  that  are  employed  under  different 
persons,  or  different  boards.  It  is  in  collecting  instances  in  support  of  this  ge- 
neral assertion,  that  the  saving  abovementioned  in  the  expense  of  providing 
means  of  transport,  has  presented  itself  as  worthy  of  consideration. 

In  respect  to  the  means  of  effecting  the  purposes  in  question  by  the  hiring  of 
transports  on  monthly  pay ;  I  have  no  reason  to  suppose  the  existence  of  any 
extravagance,  impropriety,  or  negligence  in  ,the  manner  in  which  the  hire  is 
effected,  or  to  imagine  that  the  accounts  kept  of  the  expenditure  for  this  purpose 
are  less  accurate  or  complete  than  those  kept  in  any  other  branch  of  naval  ser- 
vice :  but  in  regard  to  the  fitness  of  these  accounts  for  exhibiting  abstracts  of  this 
expense,  compared  with  the  expense  at  which  the  same  effect  might  be  pro- 
duced either  by  building  vessels  expressly  for  this  purpose,  and  equipping  them 
entirely  on  Government  account,  or  by  employing  now  in  time  of  peace  already 
existing  vessels,  I  believe  I  may  venture  to  say  that  no  such  accounts  are  kept 
as  can  exhibit  any  such  comparative  expenditure. 

Had  accounts  of  this  nature  existed,  it  seems  probable  that  many  of  the 
savings  in  the  transport  service  which  I  now  take  the  liberty  to  submit,  would 
already  have  been  made ;  but  as  it  is,  in  submitting  my  ideas  to  his  Royal 
Highness,  I  cannot  but  regret  that  the  want  of  recent  official  data  on  some  points, 
prevents  me  from  making  more  than  an  approximation  to  what  would  be  the 
real  amount  of  the  savings  in  question.  The  data,  however,  such  as  I  possess, 
indicate  those  savings  to  be  as  follows  : — 

1st.  If,  instead  of  hiring  transports  on  monthly  pay,  vessels  were  employed  in 
lieu,  built,  equipped,  and  manned  on  Government  account,  the  annual  saving, 
now  in  time  of  peace,  would  amount  to  about  fifty  thousand  pounds,  and,  in 
some  times  of  war,  to  upwards  of  a  million  in  a  year.  See  Estimate  No.  1 . 

2nd.  If  in  time  of  peace,  instead  of  hiring  vessels  for  any  transport  or  packet 
service,  vessels  of  war  were,  instead  of  lying  in  ordinary,  to  be  employed  for 
those  services  of  all  kinds,  the  present  annual  saving  would  amount  to  about 
two  hundred  thousand  pounds.  See  Estimate  No.  2. 

In  submitting  to  his  Royal  Highness  a  proposal  of  this  nature,  it  seems  in- 
cumbent on  me  to  point  out  some  of  the  collateral  advantages  which  might  re- 
sult from  the  employment  of  vessels  of  war  in  such  services  in  time  of  peace  :  I 
therefore  take  the  liberty  of  adding  to  the  enclosed  estimates  a  short  statement 
of  these  advantages,  together  with  answers  to  some  objections  which  might  be 
likely  to  present  themselves  in  regard  to  the  measures  in  question. 

I  am,  Sir,  your  very  obedient  servant, 

S.  BENTHAM. 

COLLATERAL  ADVANTAGES. 

Amongst  the  collateral  advantages  which  might  be  made  to  result  from  the 
employment  of  Government  vessels  for  the  services  in  question,  instead  of  hiring 
transports  and  packets,  the  following  may  seem  worthy  of  consideration. 

1st.  Considering  that  the  desiderata  in  ships  to  render  them  the  most  fit  for 
transport  service,  are  nearly  similar  to  those  requisite  in  vessels  intended  for 
general  warfare,  if  ships  built  for  the  use  of  his  Majesty's  service  are  generally 
more  efficient  than  those  built  for  the  service  of  private  individuals,  better  ships 
would  thus  be  obtained  for  the  transport  service.  If,  on  the  contrary,  any  of  the 
Government  built  ships  should  be  found  inferior,  such  inferiority  being  brought 
to  notice,  could  not  fail  to  tend  to  improvement,  as  there  can  be  no  doubt  but 
that  Government  might  build  vessels  as  good  in  all  respects  as  any  private  in- 
dividuals. 


SUGGESTIONS    IN    NAVAL    ECONOMY.  43 

2nd.  The  affording  greater  facility  to  the  arming  all  transports  in  such  manner 
as  may  be  thought  most  desirable,  whether  intended  to  sail  with  or  without 
convoy. 

3rd.  The  having  on  board  vessels  employed  in  this  important  service,  no 
other  personnel  than  such  as  are  subject  to  military  discipline. 

4th.  The  affording  an  opportunity  in  time  of  peace  for  experimental  observa- 
tions on  the  sailing  and  other  properties  of  vessels,  without  the  additional  ex- 
pense of  sending  out  vessels  to  sea  for  that  purpose  only. 

5th.  The  employing  officers  of  his  Majesty's  Navy  instead  of  captains  and 
mates  of  merchantmen,  thereby  keeping  in  actual  service  and  in  constant  readi- 
ness in  the  event  of  war,  (with  the  advantage  to  themselves  of  full  pay  without 
extra  expense  to  the  public)  a  number  of  naval  officers,  who  might  otherwise  be 
passing  their  time  on  shore  with  little  advantage  to  themselves  or  to  the  public. 

6th.  The  keeping  in  time  of  peace  a  considerable  number  of  petty  officers  and 
seamen  under  discipline  and  in  habits  of  actual  service  at  sea,  instead  of  forcing 
them  to  seek  employment  elsewhere,  or  leaving  them  on  board  ships  in  ordinary, 
in  the  demoralizing  and  uninstructive  service  of  harbour  duty  ;  advantages 
which  would,  no  doubt,  be  found  productive  of  material  energy  and  dispatch  at 
the  forming  any  armament  on  the  breaking  out  of  war. 

7th.  The  saving  the  expense  of  keeping  ships  in  ordinary,  or,  at  least,  as  many 
of  them  as  might  be  thus  employed  in  time  of  peace  ;  and  the  being  enabled  at  the 
same  time  to  apply  to  use  a  number  of  ships  and  of  various  articles,  of  which  a 
provision  is  necessarily  kept  in  store,  although  liable  to  decay,  thus  affording  an 
opportunity  of  substituting  new  ships  and  stores  in  their  lieu  ;  and  farther,  on  the 
conclusion  of  a  peace,  the  being  enabled  to  employ  on  this  service  a  quantity  of 
perishable  stores,  which  would  otherwise  be  to  be  sold  at  a  considerable  loss. 

8th.  The  affording  advantageous  employment  to  a  considerable  number  of 
shipwrights  and  other  artificers  in  the  building  or  repair  of  such  vessels,  whereby 
that  number  of  the  most  efficient  and  deserving  workmen  might  be  kept  together 
during  peace,  ready  to  effect  the  outfit  of  a  fleet  on  the  breaking  out  of  a  war. 

9th.  As  Government  is  already  provided  with  docks,  slips,  basins,  workshops, 
and  other  accommodations,  together  with  the  necessary  superintending  officers, 
the  building  and  repair  of  vessels  for  this  as  well  as  for  all  other  purposes 
might,  in  time  of  peace,  be  effected  on  Government  account  cheaper  than  in  a 
private  establishment,  where  the  Proprietor  must  be  indemnified  for  the  interest 
of  his  capital  laid  out  in  providing  such  accommodations.  Besides  that  the 
permanency  of  Government  establishments,  and  the  certainty  of  Government  pay- 
ments, afford  the  means  of  acquiring  materials  and  workmanship  at  a  less  ex- 
pense than  they  can  be  provided  by  private  individuals. 

10th.  Should  ships  of  war  be  employed  during  peace  as  transports,  the  having 
always  afloat  in  different  parts  of  the  world,  where  troops  and  stores  are  sent,  a 
number  of  vessels  ready  to  be  cleared  and  armed  on  the  spot  on  the  shortest 
notice,  having  on  board  the  most  essential  part  of  their  crew  in  a  perfect  state  of 
discipline,  which  crew  might  be  easily  completed  to  the  war  complement  by  in- 
ferior seamen  and  landsmen,  whereby  means  would  often  be  afforded  of  forming 
at  the  least  expense  a  considerable  naval  force  at  the  srjot  where  perhaps  it 
might  be  the  most  suddenly  wanted. 

An  objection  likely  to  be  made  to  the  employing  ships  of  war  as  transports, 
is,  that  vessels  built  expressly  for  the  conveyance  of  merchandize  might  be  more 
fit  for  the  purpose,  as  being  more  bulky  than  a  ship  built  for  war;  but  in  an- 
swer to  this  objection,  it  must  be  observed,  that  a  vessel  of  war,  when  stored  for 
foreign  service,  actually  carries  a  weight  of  guns,  ammunition,  stores,  men,  and 
ballast,  perhaps  equal  in  amount  to  what  a  merchantman  well  can  convey  ;  that 
a  vessel  of  war  may,  by  her  lading,  be  brought  as  deep  in  the  water  as  a  mer-  • 
chantman,  that  capacity  is  a  quality  equally  desirable  in  both  cases,  and  that 
the  overloading  the  vessel,  so  as  to  make  her  a  bad  sailer,  and  thereby  produce 
retardation,  a  delay  might  equally  in  both  cases  cause  a  loss  of  interest  on  capi- 
tal, such  as  to  overbalance  any  saving  produced  by  the  increased  quantity  put 


44  SUGGESTIONS    IN    NAVAL    ECONOMY. 

on  board,  independently  of  all  other  disadvantages  resulting  from  the  employ- 
ment of  bad  sailing  vessels.  The  superior  accommodations  usually  afforded  in 
vessels  of  war  for  the  great  number  of  men  employed  in  working  the  guns,  &c. 
are  equally  essential  for  the  due  conveyance  of  troops ;  more  especially  as 
landsmen  can  less  bear  the  inferiority  of  such  accommodations  than  seamen  ac- 
customed to  nautical  inclemencies  and  inconveniencies. 

Another  objection  likely  to  arise  to  the  employing  of  Government  vessels, 
especially  on  distant  service,  is,  that  Government  having  no  back-carriage,  as  in 
the  case  of  ships  taking  troops  to  the  East  Indies,  or  convicts  to  Australia,  the 
whole  expense  of  the  voyage  home  as  well  as  out  must  fall  upon  the  transport 
service  outwards.  But  to  this  it  may  be  replied,  that  there  are  many  stores  used 
in  the  navy  of  which  a  great  part  of  the  cost  consists  in  their  freight  from  foreign 
parts,  such  as  teak-wood,  for  example,  or  other  timber  for  construction,  besides 
smaller  stores.  If  these  were  then  purchased  on  Government  account  there,  or 
agreed  to  be  brought  home  in  Government  vessels,  this  would,  no  doubt,  be 
found  to  be  a  very  advantageous  means  of  employing  such  back-carriage :  and 
there  seems  no  reason  why  the  practice  of  bringing  home  money  and  jewels,  &c. 
in  Government  vessels,  for  the  accommodation  of  merchants,  might  not  be  ex- 
tended to  other  valuable  stores. 

In  regard  to  buying  or  building  ships  for  transports  instead  of  hiring  them  in 
time  of  war,  an  objection  which  may  naturally  present  itself,  is,  that  there  would 
be  on  the  hands  of  Government,  at  the  return  of  peace,  a  great  superfluity  of 
shipping  to  be  laid  up  or  sold.  To  this  it  must  be  replied,  that  the  actual  quan- 
tity of  shipping  at  that  time  in  the  country  would  be  the  same,  whether  Go- 
vernment hired  transports  or  employed  their  own;  and  that  it  may  be  fairly  pre- 
sumed that  Government  would  have  as  good  means  of  selling  superfluous  trans- 
ports, as  the  private  individuals  who  would  otherwise  have  to  dispose  of  them. 

ESTIMATE  No.  1. 

Estimated  annual  expense  of  a  vessel  of  400  tons,  built,  equipped,  and  man- 
ned, by  Government,  as  a  transport : 

A  vessel  of  400  tons  may  be  built  and  fitted  at  £l  5  per  ton,* 
her  cost  would  therefore  be  £6000.  Suppose  the  average  duration 
to  be  eight  years,  and  allowing  one  per  cent,  interest  and  risk  on 
that  sum,f  the  annual  cost  of  the  vessel,  so  provided,  would  be  .  825  0  0 

Taking,  as  from  the  Navy  Estimate  of  this  year,  the  wages  per 
man,  per  month,  at  £2.  9s.  Od.;  victuals  at  £l.  12s.  Od.,  and  adding 
15s.  for  wear  and  tear  (as  from  the  Navy  Estimate  of  1823),  the 
monthly  expense,  per  man,  amounts  to  £4. 16s.rOd.  Supposing  a 
man  for  every  20  tons  (which,  as  far  as  I  can  learn,  is  more  than 
is  generally  found  necessary  in  the  merchant  service)  and  thirteen 
months  in  the  year,  as  is  usual  in  the  navy,  the  annual  expense 
would  be .  1248  0  0 


Total  expense  per  annum     .  £2073     0     0 


Annual  cost  of  a  transport,  on  monthly  hire,  estimating  at  the  price  of  the  year 
1806  (when  the  price  of  victuals  and  pay  of  seamen  were  less  than  at  present), 
that  being  the  latest  period  at  which  I  happen  to  know  the  price  of  such  hire : 

*  Fifteen  pounds  a  ton  may  seem  a  very  small  price  for  building  and  fitting  a  vessel  ; 
but  during  the  last  war,  when  both  workmanship  and  materials  were  at  the  dearest  rate, 
a  private  ship-builder  offered  to  build  vessels  at  the  rate  of  £8  10s.  a  ton,  according  to  the 
model  of  the  Arrow  and  Dart ;  vessels,  on  many  accounts,  peculiarly  suited  to  the  trans- 
port service.  (See  my  Naval  Papers,  No.  8).  The  fitting  of  such  vessels  would  cer- 
tainly not  exceed  £6  1  Os.  per  ton. 

t  This,  besides  the  20  per  cent,  allowed  in  the  next  article,  under  the  head  of  wear 
and  tear. 


SUGGESTIONS    IN    NAVAL    ECONOMY.  43 

The  hire  of  a  transport  of  400  tons,  at  19s.  a  ton,  amounts 
to  £380  per  month.  Supposing  thirteen  months  in  the  year  be 
reckoned,  the  annual  amount  would  be  £4940,  but  (as  I  do 
not  know  whether  the  hire  be  by  the  lunar  or  calendar  month) 
reckoning  it  at  twelve  months  only,  the  annual  cost  amounts  to  .  4560  0  0 

Annual  cost,  as  above,  of  a  similar  ship,  built  and  manned 
by  Government 2073  0  0 

Annual  saving  to  Government,  on  each  transport  of  400  tons, 

by  building,  equipping,  and  manning  ships  themselves     .         .         2437     0     0 

Annual  saving  on  the  number  of  transports  employed  in  the 
present  year,  when  the  estimate  for  those  on  monthly  pay  is 
£100,000* 54,531  9  5 

Annual  saving  on  266,763  tons,  the  greatest  tonnage  of 
transports,  on  monthly  pay,  employed  during  the  last  war  £1,408,598  19  0 

ESTIMATE  No.  2. 

Estimate  of  the  annual  saving  which  would  be  effected  by  the  employment  of 
vessels  of  war,  now  lying  in  ordinary,  for  the  transport,  packet,  and  other  ser- 
vices, for  which  vessels  are  now  hired  : 

Annual  cost  of  hired  transports,  per  vessel  of  400  tons,  as 
per  Estimate  No.  1  .  ..'...  4560  0  0 

Annual  expense  in  seamen,  victuals,  and  wear  and  tear  of  a 
vessel  of  400  tons,  taken  from  those  now  lying  in  ordinary  .  1248  0  0 


Saving  on  each  vessel  of  400  tons     .      £3312     0     0 

According  to  the  estimates  of  the  present  year,  the  total  amount  of  the  cost  of 
hired  vessels  is  as  follows  : 

Transports  on  monthly  pay  ....  £100,000 

For  transportation  of  convicts  ....  78,000 
For  conveyance  of  troops  and  stores  to  the  Colonies  52,000 
Vessels  hired  on  short  service  ....  22,000 
Hired  packets  .......  34,450 

Officers'  Agents  afloat 4,000 

£290,450     0     0 

Total  annual  saving  on  this  sum  of  £290,450,  by  the  em- 
ployment of  vessels,  now  lying  in  ordinary,  instead  of  hiring 
vessels  for  the  service  in  question  .....  £201,749  5  1 

The  sums  of  £6500  paid  by  Government  for  carpenter's  work  on  board  trans- 
ports and  for  fitting  convict  ships,  and  £10,000  for  bedding  for  troops  and  vari- 
ous stores  on  board  are  omitted  on  both  sides  of  this  account,  as  a  considerable 
part  of  these  expenses  would  be  equally  incurred  in  the  case  of  employing  Go- 
vernment vessels. 

The  saving  of  a  portion  of  the  expense  incurred  on  ships  lying  in  ordinary,  in 
wages,  and  harbour  victuals,  is  omitted,  as  I  have  no  means  of  estimating  what 
part  of  this  expense  (amounting,  for  the  present  year,  to  the  sum  of  £157,254) 
would  be  saved,  by  the  employment  of  the  necessary  number  of  these  ships  in 
the  transport  and  packet  service. 


6  These  transports,  on  monthly  pay,  are  vessels  often  built  expressly  for  the  purpose, 
and  as  it  were  permanently  engaged  by  Government.  In  the  above  calculation,  1  have 
not  included  the  transports  hired  for  short  services. 


PROPOSITION    FOR    EMPLOYING    MEN   OF    WAR 
AS   TRANSPORTS. 

Sin, — Having  been  accidentally  at  Portsmouth,  in  December  1826,  when  the 
troops  intended  for  Portugal  were  embarked  on  board  the  guard-ships  which 
were  taking  out  their  guns  for  this  purpose,  it  naturally  occurred  to  me  that  this 
was  an  operation  which  could  scarcely  have  been  hazarded  if  the  disposition  of 
any  of  the  principal  maritime  powers,  (France,  for  instance,)  had  been  at  all 
doubtful,  and,  in  that  case,  that  the  old  system  of  transports  must  have  been 
resorted  to. 

Perhaps  the  inclosed  remarks,  which  were  suggested  by  these  considerations, 
may  not  be  uninteresting  to  your  professional  readers.  W.  B. 

It  has  often  been  a  subject  of  remark  amongst  professional  men, 
that,  complete  as  our  naval  preparations  are  in  every  other  branch  of 
service,  and  thoroughly  provided  as  we  are  with  every  other  class  of 
ship  which  would  be  required  at  the  commencement  of  hostilities,  yet 
that  by  some  oversight  we  have  been  always  unprepared  with  the 
means  of  rapidly  embarking  and  transporting  to  any  distant  point  such 
a  body  of  troops  as  at  the  breaking  out  of  a  war  must  always  be  ur- 
gently required  either  for  offensive  or  defensive  purposes,  without 
resorting  to  one  of  two  expedients,  both  of  which  are  liable  to  strong 
objections,  namely,  the  employing  our  line-of-battle-ships  on  this  ser- 
vice, or  hiring  a  large  number  of  merchant  ships  for  transports. 

Against  the  first  may  be  urged  the  great  hazard  we  might  incur  in 
the  face  of  an  active  and  enterprising  enemy,  by  disarming  and  dis- 
organizing a  most  important  part  of  our  naval  force  at  the  very  moment 
when  every  effort  should  be  made  to  increase  and  perfect  its  efficiency. 
None  but  professional  men  can  have  an  idea  of  the  total  subversion  of 
all  previous  order  and  arrangement  which  inevitably  follows  the  em- 
barking a  large  number  of  troops  on  board  a  regular  ship  of  the  line. 
The  crew  are  driven  from  the  deck  they  usually  occupy  to  damp  and 
exposed  births  on  the  main-deck,  where  they  have  not  sufficient  accom- 
modation either  for  messing  or  sleeping  ;  the  officers  are  turned  out  of 
their  cabins,  and  the  troops  themselves  being  obliged  either  to  sleep  in 
hammocks,  which  they  in  general  do  not  understand,  or  to  lie  on  the 
deck,  usually  prefer  the  latter  ;  and  if  the  voyage  is  long  and  stormy, 
or  the  weather  cold  and  wet,  much  sickness  will  be  the  inevitable  con- 
sequence both  amongst  the  seamen  and  soldiers,  much  relaxation  of 
order  and  discipline  will  follow,  and  some  months  may  very  probably 
elapse  before  the  former  efficiency  of  the  ship  is  thoroughly  restored. 

The  second  mode,  that  of  conveying  troops  in  hired  merchant  ships, 
is  equally  objectionable ;  the  publicity,  which  is  unavoidable  when  the 
ships  are  contracted  for,  defeats  all  hope  of  secrecy  as  to  the  force  or 
destination  of  the  expedition;  and  the  innumerable  evils  which  have  re- 
sulted from  the  ignorance  and  misconduct  of  the  masters,  the  bad  sail- 
ing and  imperfect  equipment  of  the  ships,  added  to  their  total  want  of 
force  to  resist  even  a  common  privateer,  all  combine  to  render  this  the 
most  unsafe  manner  of  conveying  troops  which  can  be  devised. 

A  maritime  nation  should  always  be  prepared  with  the  means  of  em- 
barking a  considerable  force  rapidly  and  secretly ;  and  this  can  only  be 


ON    EMPLOYING    MEN-OF-WAR    AS    TRANSPORTS.          47 

done  by  previous  system  and  arrangement,  and  by  providing  such  a 
number  of  ships  of  war,  adapted  to  this  particular  purpose,,  as  may  en- 
sure its  accomplishment  with  the  least  possible  delay.  I  believe  that 
the  experience  of  the  last  war  fully  proved,  that  either  the  smaller 
class  of  ships  of  the  line  or  frigates,  titted  as  troop  ships,  were  the  most 
economical,  as  well  as  the  most  efficient  classes  of  vessels  that  could  be 
employed  for  this  service.  They  will  carry  with  ease  from  four  to 
six  hundred  men  to  the  greatest  distance  for  which  they  can  be  re- 
quired, and  of  course  more  for  shorter  voyages.  They  are  respectively 
navigated  by  an  establishment  of  officers  and  men,  little  exceeding  in 
number  that  of  a  frigate,  or  a  sloop  of  war.  They  are  fast  sailers,  very 
sufficiently  armed,  and  their  appearance  is  so  warlike,  as  to  deter  an 
enemy  not  very  superior  in  force  from  approaching  them.  Contrast 
the  situation  of  a  battalion  embarked  on  board  a  ship  of  this  class,  with 
that  of  another  crowded  into  four  or  five  miserable  transports,  creeping 
slowly  along,  and  (if  they  have  the  misfortune  to  lose  their  convoy)  a 
prey  to  the  first  enemy's  cruiser  they  fall  in  with. 

I  have  been  led  by  a  strong  feeling  of  the  importance  of  the  subject 
to  dwell  longer  than  I  had  intended  with  these  preliminary  observa- 
tions, and  I  will  now  briefly  state  the  proposition  which  I  take  the 
liberty  of  submitting  for  consideration.  It  is,  that  a  certain  propor- 
tion of  troop-ships  should  in  future  be  considered  as  an  indispensable 
part  of  the  establishment  of  his  Majesty's  Navy ;  that  the  whole  of 
these  should  be  perfectly  complete,  as  far  as  respects  their  internal 
fitting  and  readiness  for  service,  and  that  such  a  proportion  of  them  as 
would  carry  five  or  six  thousand  men,  (about  twelve  or  fourteen) 
should  be  kept  in  commission,  with  a  commander  and  a  small  establish- 
ment of  officers  on  board,  so  that  in  the  event  of  any  sudden  emergency 
requiring  secrecy  and  dispatch,  troops  might  be  silently  moved  to  the 
coast,  and  embarked  at  the  shortest  notice  on  board  ships,  in  all  re- 
spects perfectly  prepared  for  their  accommodation.,  and  ready  to  pro- 
ceed instantly  and  without  convoy  to  their  destination.  From  fifteen 
hundred  to  two  thousand  seamen  are  all  that  would  be  required  to 
complete  these  ships,  supposing  them  to  be  totally  unmanned  when 
the  order  was  given,  while  our  regular  naval  force  need  be  in  no  way 
interfered  with  or  disorganized,  but  might  proceed  in  its  equipment 
with  all  possible  celerity. 

I  would  only  beg  leave  to  add  one  farther  suggestion.  During  the 
late  struggle,  ships  of  war  fitted  for  the  purpose  were  very  frequently 
employed  for  the  conveyance  of  infantry,  but  cavalry  and  artillery  con- 
tinued to  be  transported,  as  formerly,  in  hired  merchant  ships,  and  the 
delays  and  misfortunes  were  frequent,  and  highly  injurious  to  our  ope- 
rations. There  can  be  no  difficulty  whatever  in  fitting  a  proper  num- 
ber of  our  smaller  and  half-worn  out  frigates  for  these  purposes,  and 
then  any  expedition  which  sails  will  be  a  complete  army  fully 
equipped  for  immediate  service,  and  divested  of  every  incumbrance 
which  might  impede  or  retard  it.  Those  officers  who  remember  the 
delays  and  disasters  of  Admiral  Christian's  ill-fated  expedition,  will,  I 
am  sure,  agree  with  me  in  asserting  that  the  misfortunes  which  befel 
it,  would  not  have  occurred  to  an  army  embarked  on  board  ships  of  the 
description  I  propose  ;  and  I  confidently  appeal  to  those  who  were  pre- 


48          ON    EMPLOYING    MEN-OF-WAR    AS    TRANSPORTS. 

sent  at  the  landing  in  Egypt,  to  decide  whether  that  brilliant  and  re- 
markable operation  was  not  most  materially  facilitated  by  the  number 
of  ships  of  war,  fitted  for  the  conveyance  of  troops,  which  accompanied 
the  fleet  on  that  occasion. 

If  at  some  future  period  we  commence  hostilities  without  any  pre- 
vious preparation  of  this  sort,  it  is  easy  to  foresee  the  confusion,  disap- 
pointment and  enormous  increase  of  expense  which  would  immediate- 
ly ensue.  The  reduced  state  of  all  our  establishments  leaves  our 
foreign  garrisons  on  the  lowest  possible  scale,  and  immediate  reinforce- 
ments to  all  our  colonies  would  become  matter  of  the  most  urgent  ne- 
cessity. Contracts  for  transports,  of  every  description,  must  then  be 
hastily  entered  into  on  such  terms  as  the  owners  might  think  fit  to  im- 
pose, and  with  but  little  time  to  examine  into  the  condition  and  equip- 
ment of  the  vessels  so  engaged :  at  such  a  moment,  every  advantage 
would  be  taken,  by  those  interested,  of  the  necessities  of  Government, 
and  the  imperfections  and  inefficiency  of  many  of  the  vessels  would 
only  be  discovered  when  it  was  too  late  to  remedy  them.  Two  other 
most  serious  objections  will  present  themselves  immediately  to  the 
mind  of  any  one  who  seriously  considers  this  subject. 

The  first  is  the  competition  for  seamen,  which  would  inevitably  be 
excited  between  the  Transport  Service  and  the  Royal  Navy,  (the  for- 
mer giving  much  higher  wages,  and  offering  many  superior  induce- 
ments) at  a  moment  when  every  exertion  would  necessarily  be  making 
to  prepare  a  large  fleet  for  sea. 

The  second,  that  a  very  great  proportion  of  the  vessels  hired  would 
be  fitted  out  in  the  Thames,  or  in  the  Eastern  ports  to  which  they  be- 
longed, and  that  in  addition  to  the  delays  inseparable  from  their  pre- 
paration for  this  new  service,  they  must  be  conveyed  separately  round 
to  the  Western  ports,  from  which  the  embarkation  of  troops  would  in 
all  probability  take  place.  It  would  defy  all  calculation  to  predict  when 
a  large  number  of  merchant  vessels,  under  those  circumstances,  could  be 
assembled  at  Plymouth  or  Cork,  especially  during  the  winter  half- 
year  ;  while  with  our  regular  troop-ships  no  delay  whatever  need  take 
place ;  each  might  proceed  separately  (and  secretly  if  it  was  wished) 
to  the  appointed  destination,  and  it  is,  perhaps,  not  too  much  to  say 
that  the  ships  conveying  reinforcements,  in  this  manner,  to  the  West 
Indies,  Mediterranean,  or  North  America,  might  have  performed  the 
service  they  were  dispatched  on  and  returned  to  England,  before  an 
unwieldy  convoy  of  hired  transports,  fitted  out  under  the  circumstances 
I  have  described,  would  have  cleared  the  Channel. 

To  bring  this  system  into  operation,  it  will  be  only  necessary,  in- 
stead of  too  rapidly  breaking  up  or  selling  ships  which  from  age  have 
become  unequal  to  the  weight  of  their  heavy  masts  and  guns,  to  give 
them  such  a  repair  as  may  render  them  equal  to  this  lighter  species  of 
service  ;  and,  completing  all  their  internal  fittings,  preserve  them  in 
equal  readiness  with  the  rest  of  our  navy  for  immediate  use ;  employing 
such  as  it  may  be  deemed  advisable  to  keep  in  commission  on  those 
various  services  for  which  a  very  considerable  expense  in  the  hire  of 
transports  is  now  continually  incurred. 


49 

A    POPULAR    VIEW    OF    FORTIFICATION    AND    GUNNERY. 

NO.  I. 

THESE  subjects  generally  wear  a  forbidding  aspect  to  that  portion  of 
our  military  readers  who  feel  unqualified  to  enter  upon  them  from 
want  of  mathematical  acquirements;  but  it  is -not  too  much  to  assert 
that  clear,  general,  and  practical  views  of  these  sciences  may  be  ob- 
tained without  involving  the  student  in  mathematical  intricacies.    That 
mathematical  knowledge  is  useful,  and  indeed  necessary,  to  form  an  ac- 
complished engineer  or  artillerist,  is  fully  admitted ;  hence  mathematics 
is'  the  leading  study  at  the  Royal  Military  Academy  at  Woolwich  for 
the  education  of  the  youth  intended  for  our  noble  corps  of  engineers  and 
artillery  ;  indeed,  it  is  the  leading  study  at  our  other  military  colleges 
and  seminaries,  as  Sandhurst  and  Addiscombe.     But  it  is  allowed  by 
all  who  are  acquainted  with  fortification  and  gunnery,  that  every  thing 
necessary  to  render  an  officer  of  any  other  arm  efficient  and  useful 
upon   service,  can  be  readily  and  easily  acquired  without  mathematical 
knowledge ;    and  it  is   very  desirable  that  every  officer,  whether  of 
the  navy,  marines,  infantry,  or  cavalry,  should  possess  such  general 
information  on  these  subjects,  as  will  give  him  confidence  and  intelli- 
gence when  acting  either  offensively  or  defensively  amongst  military 
works.     Many  painful  instances  of  failure  and  evil  consequences  aris- 
ing from  a  want  of  a  general  knowledge  of  the  nature  and  use  of  the 
works  of  fortification  might  be  cited  from  military  history.      One  of 
the  most  recent  instances  is  recorded  in  Vol.  2,  page  320,  of  Col.  Jones' 
Sieges,  where  we  find  that  a  body  of  600  British  troops  laid  down 
their  arms  at  the  surprise  of  Bergen-up-Zoom,  in  1814,  because  there 
was  no  officer  with  the  party  (C  sufficiently  acquainted  with  the  details 
of  fortification  to  point  out  the  sure  retreat  which  the  covered- way  pre- 
sented to  their  view."     Probably  many  of  our  veteran  officers,  in  read- 
ing these  remarks,  can  verify  them,  by  recalling  to  their  mind  morti- 
fying circumstances  that  they  have  witnessed   during  their  service, 
arising  from  the  same  causes.     Our  young  officers  should  draw  a  pro- 
fitable lesson  from  past  misfortunes,  and  prepare  themselves  for  every 
exigency  of  service,  by  turning  their  attention  to  the  consideration  of 
the  works  of  the  fortresses  in  which  they  may  be  stationed  ;  and  a  very 
small  portion  of  attention  and  inquiry  will  suffice  to  give  an  acquaint- 
ance with  these  subjects  that  cannot  fail  to  yield   a  profitable  return. 
How  many  opportunities  have  we   not  of  acquiring  an    interesting 
knowledge  of  fortification  while  shut  up  in  our  splendid  works  at 
Malta  or  Gibraltar,  in  our  colonies  in  America,  in  the  East  and  West 
Indies,  and  in  our    home  garrisons  of  Portsmouth,  Dover,  Chatham, 
and  Plymouth.     Yet,  are  there  not  many  who  utterly  neglect  these 
opportunities,  and  who  pass  their  garrison  service  in  maussade  ennui, 
which  might  be  so  easily  enlivened  by  an  inquiring  desire  to  become 
acquainted  with  the  construction  and  practical  application  of  the  nu- 
merous works  around  them,  and  of  the  various  engines  in  the  Arsenals 
and  Artillery-parks.     Far  from  being  irksome,  an  inquiry  of  this  kind 
becomes  daily  more  and  more  gratifying ;  and  we  venture  to  pronounce 
that  a  happy  result  must  follow,  not  only  to  every  individual  so  em- 
ploying himself,  but  to  the  service  at  large ;  and  if  our  endeavours  to 
simplify  these  subjects  should  be  the  means  of  leading  even  a  dozen 
1).  S.  JOURN.  No.  13.  JAN.  1830.  E 


50  A    POPULAR    VIEW    OF 

idle,  billiard-playing  subs  to  walk  round  their  ramparts  and  ditches, 
and  to  visit  their  arsenals  with  inquiring  minds,  we  shall  be  amply 
repaid :  and,  if  we  mistake  not,  our  friends  will  not  rest  satisfied 
with  what  we  intend  to  give  them,  but  will  be  so  delighted  with 
these  inquiries,  as  to  be  led  to  consult  more  enlarged  arid  scientific 
treatises.  It  is  indeed  to  be  regretted  that  we  are  dependent  on 
French  works  for  complete  treatises  on  fortification,  especially  when 
we  have  so  many  eminently  qualified  and  practical  engineer  officers,,  so 
capable  of  improving  on  the  French  works  (of  St.  Paul  and  Bousmard) 
most  in  use.  An  elementary  treatise  on  fortification  has  been  publish- 
ed in  English  by  one  of  our  most  talented  engineer  field  officers,  who 
is  in  charge  of  the  department  for  field-instruction  at  Chatham ;  and 
than  whom  none  is  more  capable  of  arranging  what  is  already  known 
with  practical  remarks.  His  elementary  treatise  most  fully  answers 
the  purpose  intended,  and  contains  some  valuable  chapters  on  the  con- 
struction of  the  revetement  walls  that  support  the  sides  of  ditches  ; 
but  still  we  want,  as  a  manual  in  our  language,  some  vigorous  and  com- 
plete treatise  on  the  construction  of  military  works,  and  on  the  attack 
and  defence  of  fortified  places. 

We  take  this  opportunity  of  noticing  a  work  already  referred  to, 
"  Journals  of  Sieges  carried  on  by  the  Army  under  the  Duke  of  Wel- 
lington in  Spain,  between  the  years  1811  and  1814,  with  Notes,"  by 
Col.  John  T.  Jones,  (Corps  of  Royal  Engineers,)  Aid-de-Camp  to  the 
King.  To  this  interesting  and  highly  instructive  work  we  shall  often 
have  occasion  to  refer  in  these  papers ;  benefit  must  be  reaped  from 
reading  this  record,  but  without  some  previous  knowledge  of  the  con- 
struction of  the  defensive  masses  surrounding  a  place,  as  well  as  of  the 
mode  of  attack,  even  these  volumes  must  lose  much  of  their  zest ;  al- 
though the  elegant  and  correct  mind  of  Col.  Jones  has  simplified  and 
smoothed  the  way  as  much  as  possible  in  his  admirable  "  Preliminary 
Observations  on  the  Attack  of  Fortresses."  Here  we  cannot  refrain 
from  extracting  a  passage  from  his  introduction,  which  places  in  the 
strong  light  of  history  the  vast  importance  of  the  subject  under  consi- 
deration. He  says — 

"  Success  or  failure  at  a  siege  frequently  decides  the  fate  of  a  campaign, 
sometimes  of  an  army,  and  has  more  than  once  that  of  a  state.  The  failures 
before  Pavia  in  1525,  Metz  in  1552,  Acre  1799,  Prague  1757,  and  Burgos  in 
1812,  are  examples  of  each  of  the  above.  In  the  first,  France  lost  her  monarch, 
the  flower  of  her  nobility,  and  her  Italian  conquests.  By  the  second,  she  was 
saved  from  destruction,  and  30,000  of  her  enemies  perished.  The  third  stopped 
her  most  successful  general  in  his  career.  By  the  fourth,  the  greatest  warrior  of 
his  age  was  brought  to  the  brink  of  destruction ;  and  by  the  last,  a  beaten  enemy 
gained  time  to  recruit  his  forces,  concentrate  his  scattered  armies,  and  regain  the  as- 
cendency. Innumerable  instances  of  disastrous  consequences  attending  the  failure 
of  sieges  might  be  adduced,  but  the  above  are  sufficient  to  make  every  one  sen- 
sible of  the  importance  of  the  undertaking,  and  feel  that  the  dearest  interests  of 
a  country  are  frequently  staked  on  the  sure  and  speedy  reduction  of  a  fortress." 

We  may  also  gather,  from  what  has  been  going  on  since  the  peace  of 
1815,  the  sentiments  which  are  entertained  on  the  utility  of  fortresses 
by  the  best  military  leaders  who  were  engaged  in  the  late  arduous 
contests,  when  we  find  that  a  sum  of  about  seven  millions  sterling  has 
been  expended  since  the  peace  on  the  line  of  fortresses  on  the  French 
side  of  the  Netherlands. 


FORTIFICATION    AND    GUNNKRY. 


51 


We  do  not  pretend  to  offer  these  papers  as  containing  any  thing  in 
the  shape  of  novelty  or  instruction  to  our  corps  of  engineers  and  artil- 
lery ;  our  plan  is  to  present  the  subjects  of  fortification  and  gunnery 
in  a  popular  manner,  and  freed  as  much  as  possible  from  technicalities, 
to  those  military  and  naval  officers  who  (having  hitherto  neglected 
these  important  subjects,  or  have  wanted  opportunities  of  studying 
them,)  may  feel  disposed  to  follow  us  in  earnest  through  our  short 
sketch.  We  intend  to  begin  with  fortification  ;  to  give  a  general  view 
of  the  nature,  construction,  and  use  of  the  defensive  masses  of  earth 
and  ditches  that  surround  a  place,  and  how  they  are  disposed,  so  as  to 
afford  each  other  a  mutual  defence.  We  shall  then  treat  of  the  con- 
struction of  trenches,  field-batteries,  and  field-works  j  and  as  this  part 
of  our  subject  is  as  useful  to  naval  as  it  is  to  military  officers,  we  shall 
dwell  at  length  on  the  materials  used  in  the  construction  of  batteries, 
such  as  fascines,  gabions,  &c.  as  well  as  the  art  of  "  Sapping,"  or  the 
construction  of  trenches  under  a  musketry  fire.  We  shall  then  pro- 
ceed to  the  attack  of  a  regularly  fortified  place ;  and  having  explained 
the  approved  mode,  draw  some  inferences  from  it,  on  the  best  manner 
of  conducting  the  defence.  We  will  then  notice  some  of  the  most 
popular  improvements  that  have  been  proposed  on  the  present  re- 
ceived system ;  and  close  the  subject  by  showing  the  mode  in  which 
the  works  of  a  fortress  must  be  disposed,  when  situated  within  the 
artillery  range  of  hills,  to  render  them  defensible  ;  together  with  some 
observations  on  works  situated  on  rugged  or  unequal  localities. 

The  subject  of  Gunnery  will  then  be  introduced  by  describing  the 
composition  and  manufacture  of  gunpowder  ;  the  mighty  agency  of  its 
explosive  force ;  the  machines  now  in  use  for  confining  this  agency  in 
projecting  shot  and  shell,  from  the  musket  to  the  greatest  piece  of  ord- 
nance ;  including  the  practice  and  capabilities  of  heavy  and  light  artil- 
lery ;  a  description  of  the  various  kinds  of  shot  and  shell  in  use,  and 
other  interesting  matter  connected  with  Gunnery  on  shore  and  at  sea. 

Nothing  could  have  been  better  calculated  for  defence  than  the  high 
walls  and  projecting  battlements  of  ancient  fortifications,  when  bows 
and  arrows  were  the  weapons  used ;  and  when,  to  batter  down  the 
walls,  the  cumbersome,  unwieldy  contrivance  of  a  huge  piece  of  timber 
(the  battering-ram),  swung  as  in  the  annexed  figure,  had  to  be  brought 
close  to  the  wall  to  effect  its  purpose. 


52 


A   POPULAR    VIEW    OF 


As  by  the  invention  of  gunpowder  and  the  science  of  artillery  our 
largest  guns  can  be  used  to  batter  down  masonry  at  600,  800,  or 
1000  yards'  distance,  a  fortification  constructed  on  the  old  plan,  as 
shown  in  Fig.  1,  could  have  its  walls  destroyed  and  laid  open  at  these 
distances  from  the  low  covered  earthen  works  of  the  assailants ;  it 
therefore  becomes  necessary  to  hide  all  the  walls  of  a  modern  fortifi- 
cation from  the  distant  view  of  an  enemy,  and  to  present  nothing  to 
his  observation  but  masses  of  earth,  so  thick  that  his  shot  cannot  pene- 
trate through  them  or  batter  them  down ;  at  the  same  time  to  ensure 
a  height  of  wall  sufficient  to  render  a  surprise  or  escalade  difficult ; 
and  likewise  that  the  defenders  shall  have  every  facility  to  bring  a  de- 
structive fire  of  cannon  and  musketry  upon  every  approach  to  the  place 
within  the  range  of  these  weapons.  These  conditions  are  fully  secured 
in  the  present  approved  system  of  fortifying  a  place,  and  we  now  pro- 
ceed to  show  how  it  is  effected. 

The  ground  to  be  defended  is  surrounded  by  a  mass  of  earth  called 
a  rampart,  having  a  ditch  in  its  front,  from  whence  the  earth  for  its 
construction  is  excavated.  This  rampart  must  be  broad  enough  at  top 
to  receive  upon  its  exterior  edge  a  mound  of  earth,  (so  thick  as  to  be 
proof  against  cannon-shot,)  called  a  parapet,  and  have  also  sufficient 
space  in  rear  of  the  parapet  for  the  working  of  guns  and  the  free  circu- 
lation of  the  defenders.  This  parapet  must  be  eighteen  feet  thick  to 
be  proof  against  shot  fired  from  heavy  artillery,  and  at  least  seven  feet 
high  to  cover  effectually  the  movements  of  the  defenders  in,  its  rear 
from  the  enemy's  view.  The  sides  of  the  ditches  in  front  of  the  ram- 
parts are  supported  at  a  steep  slope  by  revetements,  or  walls  of  ma- 
sonry, backed  interiorly  at  every  fifteen  or  eighteen  feet  by  buttresses 
of  masonry  (counterforts)  to  strengthen  them.  The  side  of  the  ditch 
next  the  rampart  is  the  escarp,  and  the  side  next  to  the  country  the 
counter  scarp.  Beyond  the  ditch  there  is  a  road  following  the  winding 
of  the  counterscarp  all  round  'the  fortress,  about  thirty  feet  wide,  on 
the  general  level  of  the  country  (which  we  here  suppose  to  be  perfectly 
level).  This  road  has  on  its  exterior  side  a  parapet,  about  eight  feet 
high,  which  covers  it  from  the  view  of  the  enemy  without,  and  hence 
its  name  the  covered  way. 

The  annexed,  Fig.  2,  shows  the  nature  of  a  rampart,  parapet,  ditch, 
and  covered  way. 


AB  Level  of  the  ground;  or  plane  of  site. 

AC  Rampart;  AD  Interior  slope  of  the  Rampart. 

DE  Terre-plein  of  the  Rampart. 

P  Banquette. 

O  Interior  slope  of  the  Parapet. 

GH  Superior  slope  of  the  Parapet. 

HI  Exterior  slope  of  ditto. 

IL  Revetement  Wall  of  the  Escarp. 


P      Foundation  of  the  Revetement. 

RS  Revetement  Wall  of  the  Counterscarp. 

ST  Terre-plein  of  the  Covered-way. 

KG  Coping-stone,  or  Cordon. 

N  Palisading,  at  the  foot   of,  in  the  interior  slope  of 

the  Glacis. 

ZB  Glacis. 

W  Ditch. 


FORTIFICATION    AND   GUNNERY.  53 

It  will  be  remarked,  that  the  parapet  of  the  covered  way  is  different- 
ly shaped  from  that  of  the  rampart,  inasmuch  as  it  has  no  exterior 
slope ;  its  superior  slope  being  a  gentle  descent  into  the  country  called 
the  glacis.  The  only  masonry  about  the  place  is  the  supporting  revete- 
ments  on  each  side  of  the  ditch ;  and  it  may  be  seen  by  inspecting  Fig. 
2,  that  the  top  of  the  escarp  revetement  and  the  crest  of  the  glacis  are 
in  the  same  horizontal  plane,  KZ,  which  hinders  the  assailant  from 
seeing  the  walls,  until  he  has,  by  a  toilsome  and  dangerous  process,  es- 
tablished himself  on  the  summit  of  the  glacis,  which  he  must  do  by 
bringing  his  battering  guns  to  this  place,  ere  he  can  open  a  passage 
through  the  walls. 

The  escarp  (or  as  it  is  more  commonly  called  the  scarp)  is  here  re- 
presented thirty  feet  high,  which  is  a  height  difficult  to  escalade ;  this 
height  is  procured  by  the  depth  of  the  ditch  below  the  level  of  the 
ground  and  by  the  height  of  the  opposite  glacis  above  the  same  level. 
At  the  foot  of  the  parapet,  both  in  the  rampart  and  covered- way,  a  step  of 
earth  is  made  high  enough  to  enable  the  defenders  armed  with  mus- 
ketry to  fire  over  the  parapet  with  ease ;  this  step,  or  banquette,  is  broad 
enough  (four  and  a-haif  feet)  to  contain  two  ranks  of  men,  if  neces- 
sary, although  it  is  usually  manned  by  only  one  rank.  It  must  be  no- 
ticed, that  the  superior  slope  of  the  parapet  of  the  rampart,  when  pro- 
duced, meets  the  top  of  the  opposite  counterscarp,  so  that  the  defenders 
having  their  muskets  levelled  over  the  parapet  cannot  see  or  defend 
the  ditch  immediately  before  them  :  a  fortress  that  has  its  ditches  un- 
defended, and  in  which  an  enemy  might  form  securely,  would  be  de- 
fective ;  but  this  is  obviated  completely,  as  will  soon  be  explained,  by 
disposing  the  works  in  such  a  manner  as  to  enable  them  to  defend 
each  other's  ditches ;  so  that  each  work  has  its  ditch  swept  by  the 
flanking  lire  of  some  neighbouring  work  that  looks  upon  it. 

To  prevent  an  enemy's  easy  access  into  the  covered-way,  it  is  fur- 
nished with  a  strong  wooden  palisading,  as  seen  in  Fig.  2,  running 
along  the  foot  of  the  interior  slope  of  the  parapet :  these  palisades  are 
usually  wedge-shaped,  of  strong  planking,  and  kept  so  low  that  the 
grass  on  the  summit  of  the  glacis  hides  their  tops  from  an  enemy's 
view  without. 

Fig.  2,  shows  the  names  of  the  different  slopes  of  the  rampart  and 
parapet,  which  it  will  be  necessary  to  attend  to  in  the  following  expla- 
nation. The  artillery  for  the  defence  of  the  place  is  posted  on  the 
terreplein*  of  the  rampart,  covered  in  front  by  a  parapet  seven  and  a- 
half  feet  high ;  but  as  a  gun  mounted  on  its  carriage  scarcely  ever 
stands  above  three  feet  from  the  ground,  it  is  necessary  to  cut  open- 
ings or  embrasures  in  the  parapet  for  the  guns  to  fire  through :  these 
embrasures  are  so  narrow  at  the  neck  as  only  to  admit  the  muzzle  of  a 
gun  with  ease,  but  they  gradually  open  out  towards  the  mouth,  that 
the  gun  may  have  a  free  range  right  and  left ;  besides  that,  the  flash  of 
the  gun  on  being  repeatedly  discharged  would  destroy  the  sides  or 
cheeks  of  the  embrasure  if  it  were  made  too  narrow  :  the  object  of 
having  it  as  narrow  as  possible  at  the  neck  is,  that  the  gunners  serving 
the  gun  may  be  as  much  covered  as  this  service  will  admit  of ;  as  the 
gun  recoils,  or  has  its  muzzle  drawn  back,  after  each  discharge,  to  ena- 
ble the  gunners  to  load  it  again,  the  narrower  the  neck  is,  the  better 

*  The  level  parts  of  a  work  are  usually  called  terrepleins. 


5*  A    POPULAR    VIEW    OP 

the  men  will  be  covered  ;  when  loaded,  the  gun  is  run  out  as  far  as 
possible  into  the  embrasure  before  it  is  fired.  The  wheels  and  trail  of 
the  gun-carriage  rest  upon  a  platform  (usually  made  of  strong  timber), 
otherwise  the  weight  of  the  machine  and  its  working  would  tear  up 
the  ground,  and  soon  render  it  unfit  for  use.  The  annexed  figure 
shows  a  plan,  section,  and  elevations  of  embrasures. 


The  platform  has  a  little  rise  in  the  rear  to  check  the  recoil  of  the 
piece  when  discharged,  and  to  aid  its  being  run  out  again  before  it  is 
fired  ;  at  the  head  of  the  platform  there  is  a  piece  of  projecting  timber, 
called  the  hurter,  to  prevent  the  wheels  of  the  gun-carriage  from  run- 
ning against  the  interior  slope  of  the  parapet,  which  would  injure  it. 

Guns  in  embrasure  are,  however,  evidently  confined  in  their  range ; 
to  extend  which,  the  gun-carriages  are  (in  certain  cases)  raised  upon  a 
mound  of  earth  made  in  rear  of  the  parapet,  high  enough  to  allow  the 
muzzles  of  the  guns  to  be  run  over  its  crest.  Guns  thus  worked  are 
called  barbette  batteries,  and  they  are  very  effective  so  long  as  the 
enemy  can  be  kept  at  a  distance,  but  if  he  lodge  himself  within  mus- 
ketry range  of  guns  en  barbette,  the  gunners  serving  them  are  so  much 
exposed  to  the  enemy's  riflemen,  that  great  loss  must  follow  unless 
they  are  sunk  down  into  embrasures. 

There  is  a  platform  in  common  use  in  garrisons,  formerly  made  of 
wood,  but  now  more  generally  of  cast-iron,  called  a  traversing  plat' 
form ;  of  large  dimensions,  capable  of  receiving  upon  the  upper  sur- 
face of  its  side-pieces  the  trucks  or  small  wheels  of  a  garrison  gun-car- 
riage, which  is  thus  raised  upon  the  traversing  platform,  to  allow  the 
guns  to  be  run  out  over  the  parapet  as  en  barbette.  From  what  has 
been  said,  it  may  be  readily  inferred  that  the  terreplein  of  a  rampart 


FORTIFICATION    AND    GUNNERY. 


must  have  a  considerable  breadth  to  receive  the  platforms  of  the  guns 
and  mortars,  to  admit  of  their  being  worked,  and  to  give  the  defenders 
.space  enough  to  circulate  in  their  rear.  For  these  purposes  the  terre- 
plein  of  the  rampart  is  usually  about  forty  feet  wide ;  the  interior  slope 
of  the  rampart  has  a  base  equal  to  its  height,  or  a  natural  slope,  that 
the  action  of  the  weather  and  of  time  may  not  wear  it  away. 

The  dimensions  of  the  banquette  have  been  already  named;  its  slope 
is  made  quite  gentle,  for  the  defenders"  to  go  up  and  down  with  ease : 
such  portions  of  parapets  as  are  fitted  up  as  gun-batteries  have  not 
banquettes  made  in  rear  of  the  parapets.  The  height  of  the  parapet 
is  seven  and  a-half,  and  its  thickness  eighteen  feet ;  its  interior  slope 
is  made  very  steep,  that  the  defenders  may  lean  against  it  conveni- 
ently in  firing  over ;  its  exterior  slope  has  a  base  somewhat  more  than 
its  height,  not  only  to  prevent  it  wearing  away  by  the  weather,  but 
that  hostile  shot  may  sink  into  it  without  crumbling  it  down.  All 
these  necessary  details  increase  the  thickness  of  the  rampart  to  about 
ninety  feet ;  that  is,  the  total  thickness  from  the  base  of  the  interior 
slope  to  that  of  the  revctement. 

But  before  we  proceed  farther,  it  becomes  necessary  to  examine  the 
tracing  or  outline  of  the  works  around  the  place. 

The  walls  that  formerly  enclosed  a  place  had  round  or  square  towers 
at  their  angles,  (as  seen  in  Fig.  1.)  to  flank  or  defend  the  ditch  and 
ground  between  each  other.  The  towers  had  usually  a  projection  or 
balcony  at  top,  all  round,  with  vertical  loop-holes  cut  in  the  flooring  of 
the  balcony,  through  which  the  bottom  of  the  tower  could  be  seen  and 
defended.  We  still  see  these  projections,  or  machicoulis,  in  old  towers, 
supported  by  their  picturesque  corbels,  between  which  the  vertical  loop- 
holes are  cut.  But  when  it  became  necessary  to  thicken  the  ramparts 
and  parapets  as  has  just  been  shown,  and  to  substitute  earth  for  ma- 
sonry, the  defenders  were  thus  removed  from  the  edge  of  the  revete- 
ment  to  a  distance  of  about  twenty  feet,  which  involved  an  entire 
change  in  the  outline  or  tracing  of  the  works,  to  ensure  the  ditches 
being  properly  flanked  and  defended ;  to  effect  this,  the  ramparts,  pa- 
rapets, and  ditches  have  been  arranged  around  the  place  as  shown  in 


Fig.  4. 


1  11  I     Bastions. 
222     Curtains. 
3333     Main  Ditch. 
444     Ravelin. 
555    Ditch  of  Ravelin. 
Covered  way. 
Glacis. 
Tenaille. 


660 

777 


III) 


of  Bastions. 


e  Flanked  angle  of  the  Bastion. 
/  Shoulder  angle  of  ditto. 
e  Curtain  angle. 
n  Angle  of  Defence. 
I    Flanked  angle  of  the  Karelin. 


56  A 

In  the  first  place,  it  is  necessary  to  consider  the  ground  to  be  fortified 
as  on  a  perfectly  level  country,  and  enclosed  by  a  polygon,  (which  for 
the  present  we  will  suppose  quite  regular)  ABCD,  &c.  at  each  angle 
of  which  is  a  work  called  a  bastion,  having  two  faces  and  two  flanks ; 
the  flanks  of  each  adjoining  bastion  are  connected  together  by  a  line  of 
rampart  and  parapet  called  a  curtain,  the  mass  of  rampart  and  parapet 
follows  the  winding  or  shape  of  the  bastion ;  the  thick  line  drawn  in 
the  plan  of  the  outline  Fig.  4,  agreeing  with  the  line  KG  (the  cordon) 
of  Fig.  2.  This  line  is  usually  called  the  master  line  in  the  plan,  as 
the  revetement  is  first  built,  and  all  measurements  taken  from  the 
cordon.  This  first  range  of  ramparts  and  parapets  that  enclose  the 
place  is  called  the  body  of  the  place,  or  the  enceinte  ;  in  front  of  it  runs 
the  main  ditch. 

The  reader  should  make  himself  familiar  with  the  names  of  the  dif- 
ferent lines  and  angles,  as  shown  in  Fig.  4,  in  order  that  he  may  be 
enabled  to  follow  the  construction ;  thus  he  will  perceive  that  the  sa- 
lient,* or  flanked  angle  of  the  bastion  is  formed  by  the  meeting  of  the 
faces ;  that  the  face  and  flank  form  between  them  the  shoulder  angle 
of  the  bastion  ;  the  curtain  and  flank,  the  curtain  angle,  &c. 

All  the  works  constructed  upon  any  one  side  of  the  polygon  that  en- 
closes the  place,  is  a  front  of  fortification  ;  here  a  front,  in  the  body  of 
the  place,  evidently  consists  of  two  half  bastions  connected  together  by 
a  curtain,  as  CEFGHD.  To  construct  a  front,  the  exterior  side  of  the 
polygon  CD  is  made  about  three  hundred  and  sixty  yards  in  length  ; 
then  bisected  by  a  perpendicular  line  ki,  which  is  made  equal  to  one- 
sixth  of  the  exterior  side,  or  sixty  yards  ;  through  the  inner  extremity 
of  this  perpendicular,  lines  are  drawn  from  the  extremities  of  the  ex- 
terior side,  known  as  the  lines  of  defence,  DF,  CG ;  the  faces  of  the 
bastion  coincide  with  the  lines  of  defence,  and  are  made  equal  to  one- 
third  of  the  exterior  side,  or  a  hundred  and  twenty  yards  :  the  angle 
formed  between  the  line  of  defence  and  the  flank  of  the  bastion,  (called 
the  angle  of  defence,)  should  be  a  right  angle.  The  main  ditch  is 
thirty  yards  wide  before  the  flanked  angle  of  the  bastion,  and  the 
counterscarp  is  directed  from  thence  to  the  shoulder  angle  of  the  next 
bastion.  The  fire  of  the  flanks  is  intended  to  defend  the  whole  of  the 
main  ditch  ;  therefore  the  fire  of  the  men  on  the  banquette  of  the  flank 
GH,  with  their  muskets  levelled  over  the  superior  slope. of  its  para- 
pet, should  strike  the  bottom  of  the  main  ditch  on  the  perpendicular 
ik,  and  consequently  defend  all  the  ground  from  thence  up  to  the  ad- 
joining flank,  as  well  as  all  the  ditch  before  the  face  of  the  opposite 
bastion  as  far  as  C.  Each  flank  performing  this  office,  gives  a  full  de- 
fence to  the  main  ditch,  so  that  there  is  no  undefended  or  dead  ground, 
in  which  an  enemy  can  get  cover  in  the  main  ditch. 

The  effective  range  of  a  musket  is  three  hundred  yards,  therefore 
the  flank  GH  should  not  be  removed  from  the  farthest  part  C  (that  it 
has  to  defend)  more  than  this  distance;  and  this  is  the  reason  that 
the  sides  of  the  exterior  polygon  are  made  about  three  hundred  and 
sixty  yards ;  or  in  other  words,  that  the  flanked  angles  of  the  bastions 

*  All  angles  that  point  towards  the  country  are  called  salient  angles,  and  all 
angles  pointing  towards  the  place  are  called  re-entering  angles. 


FORTIFICATION    AND   GUNNERY.  57 

are  about  three  hundred  and  sixty  yards  from  each  other,  that  the  lines 
of  defence  may  be  within  the  range  of  musketry. 

Beyond  the  main  ditch  and  opposite  to  the  curtain,  is  a  large  salient 
work  called  the  ravelin  or  demi-lune,  composed  of  two  faces ;  its  ditch 
is  twenty  yards  wide,  and  of  the  same  depth  as  the  main  ditch  into 
which  it  runs ;  and  it  is  defended  by  the  fire  from  the  faces  of  the 
bastion  that  look  into  it. 

Beyond  the  counterscarp  of  the  main  ditch  and  the  ditches  of  the 
ravelins,  and  following  their  windings  all  round  the  fortress,  runs  the 
covered  way,  which  has  been  already  described,  having  enlargements 
at  the  salient  and  re-entering  angles  of  the  counterscarp,  called  places 
of  arms,  where  bodies  of  troops  can  be  formed  securely  under  cover, 
beyond  the  ditch  of  the  place,  for  sorties  or  other  duties. 

As  the  covered  way  is  a  low  work,  (the  crest  of  its  glacis  being 
usually  from  seven  to  nine  feet  above  the  level  of  the  ground.)  it  can 
.  be  easily  enfiladed  or  raked  by  the  enemy's  batteries  from  the  country, 
to  prevent  which,  mounds  of  earth,  of  the  shape  and  dimensions  of 
parapets,  are  thrown  across  the  covered  way ;  these  traverses,  as  they  are 
called,  should  never  be  more  than  thirty  or  forty  yards  apart,  that  they 
may  stop  all  the  bounding  shot  from  the  enemy's  guns.  Small  pas- 
sages (about  nine  feet  in  the  clear)  are  cut  into  the  glacis  to  enable  the 
defenders  to  circulate  round  these  traverses.  The  traverses  likewise 
enable  the  defenders  to  dispute  the  possession  of  the  covered  way  with 
the  assailants,  who  being  generally  obliged  to  enter  at  the  salient  places 
of  arms,  the  defenders  bring  a  cross  fire  upon  them  from  their  position 
on  the  banquettes  of  the  adjoining  traverses,  which  are  always  made  to 
face  the  saliant  places  of  arms  ;  the  defenders  being  forced  from  these 
traverses,  retire  behind  the  next,  and  thus  prolong  the  defence  of  the 
covered  way.  Traverses  are  fur.nished  with  palisades  like  the  covered 
way,  to  prevent  an  enemy  forcing  himself  over  them  ;  and  these  pali- 
sades usually  form  a  barrier  gate  to  shut  in  the  passage  between  the 
head  of  the  traverse  and  the  crest  of  the  glacis.  The  interior  of  the 
glacis  is  cut  away  here  and  there,  (generally  at  the  faces  of  the  re- 
entering  places  of  arms)  in  sloping  roads,  called  ramps,  SS,  about 
twelve  feet  broad,  for  the  egress  and  ingress  of  sorties,  &c. :  these 
ramps  are  closed  by  barrier  gates  formed  in  the  palisading  of  the 
covered  way. 

The  faces  of  the  bastions  and  faces  of  the  ravelins  are  made  high 
enough  to  carry  their  fire  of  cannon  and  musketry  to  the  foot  of  the 
glacis,  without  injury  to  the  defenders  that  man  the  banquettes  of  the 
covered  way  directly  before  them.  Thus,  in  examining  Fig.  4,  if  we 
suppose  the, fire  of  cannon  and  musketry  from  the  faces  of  the  bastions 
and  ravelins,  as  well  as  the  fire  of  musketry  from  the  whole  of  the 
covered  way,  to  be  in  operation,  we  see  that  we  have  a  cross-fire  of 
cannon  and  musketry  brought  upon  all  the  approaches  to  the  place, 
from  the  crest  of  the  glacis  as  far  as  the  effective  range  of  these  wea- 
pons ;  the  bastion  is  usually  from  three  to  six  feet  higher  than  the 
ravelin,  but  as  the  ravelin  is  nearer  to  the  covered  way  than  the  bas- 
tion, it  can  be  made  lower  or  submitted  to  the  observation  of  the  latter, 
though  it  still  preserves  a  height,  or  command,  necessary  to  carry  its 
fire  clear  of  the  defenders  on  its  covered  way.  It  has  been  shown,  that 
the  office  of  the  flanks  of  the  bastions  is  to  defend  the  main  ditch  ;  but 


58      A  POPULAR  VIEW  OF  FORTIFICATION  AND  GUNNERY. 

the  curtain  is  too  far  removed  from  the  works  before  it,  to  permit  it  to 
have  so  active  a  defence  as  the  faces  of  the  bastion  and  ravelin.  The 
curtain  is  about  the  same  height  as  the  bastion ;  it  closes  in  the  en- 
ceinte, and  having  a  command  of  observation  over  the  works  before  it, 
it  prevents  an  enemy  establishing  himself  in  them  easily. 

Thus  we  see  that  a  strong  cross-fire  of  cannon  and  musketry  can  be 
brought  upon  all  the  surrounding  ground  within  the  range  of  these 
weapons,  while  the  defenders  are  covered  behind  shot-proof  parapets ; 
and  that  all  the  ditches  can  be  fully  swept  at  the  same  time  by  a 
flanking  fire-  Thus  a  formidable  height  of  wall  is  preserved  that  ren- 
ders escalade  or  surprise  very  difficult,  while  it  is  so  entirely  hid  from 
the  view  of  the  assailant  without,  that  to  open  a  passage  for  himself 
through  the  wall,  he  has  to  bring  his  battering  guns  to  the  very  crest 
of  the  glacis  before  he  can  see  these  revetements,  an  operation  to  per- 
form which  costs  him  time,  labour,  and  loss.  It  now  becomes  neces- 
sary to  define  the  other  works.  In  Fig.  4,  we  see  two  works  in  the 
main  ditch,  called  the  Tenaille  and  Caponniere.  These  are  outworks,  as 
well  as  all  works  constructed  between  the  enceinte  and  the  covered  way. 
Hence  the  outworks  on  a  regular  front  BC,  are  the  Tenaille,  Capon- 
niere, and  Ravelin.  Advanced  works  lie  beyond  the  glacis,  but  within 
the  defensive  range  of  its  musketry.  Detached  works  are  without  the 
range  of  the  weapons  of  the  place,  and  have  usually  to  depend  on  their 
own  resources.  The  Tenaille  is  a  low  work  in  the  main-ditch,  oppo- 
site to  the  curtain ;  it  is  made  forty-eight  feet  thick,  and  supported  all 
round  by  revetement  walls  ;  it  has  a  parapet  on  its  exterior  edge,  and 
furnishes  a  fire  of  musketry,  which  aids  obliquely  in  the  defence  of  the 
ditch,  and  bears  upon  the  interior  of  the  ravelin.  We  will  soon  show 
what  the  relief*  of  the  Tenaille  should  be,  and  that  it  will  always  vary 
according  to  the  tracing  of  the  works  and  the  nature  of  the  ditches. 
By  its  height  and  mass,  it  covers  nearly  all  the  revetements  of  the 
curtain  and  flanks  of  the  bastions,  from  the  fire  of  an  enemy's  lodgment 
on  the  crest  of  the  glacis :  thus  it  prevents  the  assailant  from  making 
a  practicable  breach  in  these  revetements,!  and  forces  him  to  make  his 
breaches  for  the  assault  in  the  faces  of  the  bastions.  The  Tenaille 
likewise,  by  its  mass,  affords  cover  in  a  dry  ditch  for  the  assembling 
of  troops  in  its  rear,  to  oppose  the  enemy's  passage  of  the  ditch  ;  and 
in  a  wet  ditch,  boats  and  rafts  of  communication  find  shelter  behind  it. 
The  Caponniere  is  merely  two  parapets  of  earth  at  the  bottom  of  a  dry 
ditch,  to  form  a  covered  passage  from  the  Tenaille  to  the  Ravelin  ; 
these  parapets  have  their  superior  slope  made  into  a  small  glacis,  and 
from  them  a  fire  of  musketry  is  obtained  to  flank  the  ditch;  this  work 
is  usually  palisaded. 

*£*  The  readers  of  this  Journal  are  requested  to  preserve  these  numbers  on 
Fortification  and  Gunnery,  as  they  are  intended  to  form  a  whole  ;  and  reference 
will  often  be  made  to  these  diagrams  in  other  numbers. 

*  The  total  height  of  a  work  from  the  bottom  of  its  ditch  to  the  summit  or  crest  of  its 
parapet,  is  called  its  relief.  The  relief  of  the  Tenaille  is  usually  about  twenty-three  feet. 

t  To  make  a  practicable  breach,  the  artillery  should  see  nearly  to  the  bottom  of  the 
wall  to  be  battered  down.  To  begin  at  the  upper  part  of  the  wall  is  injudicious,  as  the 
rubbish  detached  from  it  would  hide  the  bottom  part,  and  prevent  its  being  battered  : 
breaching  batteries  begin  near  the  bottom  of  the  wall,  the  destruction  of  which  involves 
the  ruin  of  all  above. 


59 


PRELIMINARY  NAVAL  EDUCATION. 

ONE  great  peculiarity  of  our  Navy  is  its  exclusiveness.  The  gene- 
rality of  people  are  incompetent  to  understand  the  systems  of  society 
and  education  which  prevail  in  it.  The  world  is  contented  to  remain 
in  ignorance  of  our  rules,  which  are  dependent  upon  causes  and  con- 
tingencies unknown  on  shore,  and,  unavoidably  in  the  dark,  people  are 
compelled,  on  all  subjects  connected  with  the  sea,  to  seek  the  advice 
and  abide  by  the  experience  of  those  to  whom  that  element  is  a  pro- 
fession. 

On  no  occasion  is  that  experience  more  solicited  than  on  that  of 
first  sending  a  boy  to  sea.  The  early  period  (the  age  of  thirteen), 
at  which  the  service  is  entered,  soon  awakens  the  anxieties  of 
parents  and  friends,  desirous  of  doing  justice  by  their  charge,  and 
sensible  of  the  vast  influence  of  good  early  impressions  upon  the 
future  destinies  of  the  youth,  as  well  as  upon  his  character  and  un- 
derstanding. Inquiry  is  betimes  on  foot,  to  ascertain  how  those  two 
or  three  precious  years  are  to  be  best  disposed  of,  which  occur  be- 
tween his  choice  of  the  navy  as  his  profession,  and  the  period  of  his 
first  entering  it. 

There  are  three  plans  which  present  themselves  for  adoption. 
First,  that  of  home  education,  in  which  we  include  education  at 
private  schools.  This,  however  it  may  be  good  in  other  classes  of 
life  as  a  preparation  for  public  schools,  is  totally  unsuited  to  the 
embryo  sailor.  Through  it  he  acquires  no  knowledge  of  the  world, 
nor  any  glimmering  of  the  profession  into  which  he  is  about  to  be 
launched. 

Secondly,  we  shall  advert  to  public  schools.  They  offer  great  in- 
ducements, and  it  is  but  just  to  say,  that  to  them  the  service  is  in* 
debted  for  many  of  its  brightest  ornaments.  From  the  number  of 
their  associates,  boys  acquire  a  certain  manliness  of  character  and  gen- 
tlemanlike feeling.  Fagging  prepares  them  to  beur  with  good  humour 
the  hardships  which  they  may  expect ;  and  the  extensive  acquaintance 
which  they  are  likely  to  form  with  their  contemporaries,  must  always 
be  a  source  of  comfort  to  them  in  after-life.  But  then  at  these  schools 
what  do  they  learn  ?  Greek  and  Latin :  nothing,  absolutely  nothing 
else.  Now  Greek  must  be  placed  entirely  out  of  the  question  ;  that 
language  can  be  of  no  service  to  them  as  seamen.  More  may  be  said 
in  favour  of  Latin ;  but  surely  at  an  age  when  the  understanding 
and  tastes  are  palpable  to  any  bias,  and  entering  a  profession  purely 
mechanical  and  mathematical,  more  positively  useful  subjects  should 
be  selected,  wherewith  to  store  the  mind,  and  towards  which  to  direct 
the  attention. 

Many  argue  in  favour  of  the  acquirement  of  Latin  as  absolutely  ne- 
cessary to  the  young  naval  officer,  but  for  the  mere  purposes  of  his  profes- 
sion he  will  find  the  modern  languages  suffice.  Latin,  it  is  urged,  is  the 
key  of  all  the  languages  of  Europe;  but  Italian  and  Spanish,  whose  gram- 
mars are  composed  upon  the  same  model.,  and  which  in  all  respects  so 
much  resemble  it,  will  be  found  to  answer  the  same  purpose,  being  in 
the  meantime  more  practically  useful.  Many  an  officer  is  indebted  to  a 


60  PRELIMINARY    NAVAL    EDUCATION. 

knowledge  of  French*  for  his  promotion,  his  success,  his  safety,  and  in 
some  cases  on  record,  even  for  his  life.  Without  having  read  Virgil  and 
the  ancients,  no  man,  it  is  held,  can  attain  to  the  polish  of  literature,  can 
write  elegantly  or  express  himself  eloquently  ;  but  our  young  seaman 
may  cull  all  the  substantial  good  of  the  classics  from  translations ;  and 
a  wise  man  has  said  that  "  the  beauties  of  eloquence  and  rhetoric 
oftener  serve  ill  turns  than  good  ones."  Moreover,  what  shall  we  say 
of  the  morality  of  the  ancients  ?  Ignorance  of  the  Divine  Revelation 
with  which  we  are  blessed,  is  pleaded  in  extenuation  j  but  whilst  we 
pity  their  intellectual  darkness,  we  may  be  allowed  to  shun  the  conta- 
mination of  their  productions.  We  are  far  from  intending  to  insinuate 
that  the  dead  languages  are  not  requisite  to  him  who  aspires  to  literary  or 
political  eminence,  or  whose  whole  life  is  devoted  to  study  ;  but  to  him 
who  reads  only  for  instruction,  and  whose  whole  purpose  is  not  to  deck 
himself  with  the  honours  of  literature,  but  to  be  qualified  for  profes- 
sional usefulness,  the  modern  languages  are  sufficient  to  fill  up  all  the 
vacancies  of  his  time,  and  gratify  most  of  his  wishes  for  information. 
Finally,  we  will  state  without  fear  of  contradiction,  and  will  revert  to 
the  experience  of  the  last  war  for  the  truth  of  our  assertion,  that,  had 
the  time  which  our  officers  at  school  spent  on  Greek  and  Latin,  been 
bestowed  upon  the  English  Grammar,  we  should  not  have  had  at  that 
eventful  period,  and  even  now,  so  frequently  to  blush  at  the  blunders 
and  inaccuracies  of  our  naval  dispatches.* 

We  have  been  led  into  this  digression  not  with  a  view  of  depre- 
ciating classical  attainments,  for  which  we  entertain  the  greatest  re- 
spect ;  nor,  of  discouraging  the  higher  branches  of  the  profession,  at 
their  leisure,  from  luxuriating  in  a  taste  for  classic  lore — far  from  it  ; 
but  in  the  hopes  of  correcting  an  error  in  preparatory  education,  the 
baleful  effects  of  which  are  daily  observable  on  board  men-of-war.  Be- 
coming suddenly,  in  a  great  measure,  their  own  masters,  boys  are  too 
apt,  when  they  go  to  sea,  to  throw  away  in  disgust  studies  which  have 
offended  them  by  th^ir  unprofitableness,  and  never  to  look  into  a  book 
again  till  the  period  of  their  examination  is  at  hand. 

Lastly,  we  shall  advert  to  the  Naval  College,  an  institution  which 
professes  to  combine  all  the  benefits  of  a  public  school,  with  more  pro- 
fitable objects  of  attainment.  It  has,  moreover,  these  peculiar  advan- 
tages :  that  by  this  means  boys'  talents  and  dispositions  become  known 
to  the  heads  of  the  profession  at  their  earliest  stage;  that  they  form 
those  connexions  and  make  those  acquaintances,  which,  of  all  others, 
are  the  most  likely  to  prove  useful  and  agreeable  to  them  in  after-life ; 
that  Government  undertakes  to  employ  them  until  they  are  eligible  to 
be  made  lieutenants ;  and  that  this  establishment  being  at  Portsmouth, 
they  have  an  opportunity  of  justly  estimating  the  nature  of  the  service 


Wolfe  effected  his  landing  at  Quebec  by  having  an  officer  in  his  boat  who  spoke 
French  :  we  could  adduce  many  other  instances. 

t  It  is  an  acknowledged  fact,  that  every  one  is  more  speedily  instructed  by  his  own 
language  than  by  any  other.  Yet,  as  if  to  increase  the  difficulties  of  the  learner,  at 
Eton  School  the  Greek  Grammar  is  actually  published  and  taught  with  a  Latin  text. 
This  is  marking  time  indeed  in  the  march  of  intellect. 


PRELIMINARY    NAVAL    EDUCATION.  61 

which  they  are  about  to  enter,  and  of  giving  it  up  if  it  falls  short  of 
their  expectations.  If,  however,  a  collegian,  which  is  not  often  the  case, 
does  this,  he  forfeits  two  hundred  pounds  ;  but,  after  having  pursued 
the  course  of  instruction  which  we  shall  detail,  it  must  be  allowed  that, 
in  the  mean  while,  he  will  not  have  misspent  his  time. 

The  plan  of  study  is  admirably  arranged.  Mathematics,  Astronomy, 
the  practice  and  principles  of  Gunnery,  Drawing,  Fortification,  Mo- 
dern languages,  and  a  smattering  of  Latin,  are  all  given  their  due 
preponderance  in.  the  scale  of  actual  utility,  and  administered  in  a 
form  pleasing  and  enticing  to  the  youth.*  Whilst  they  are  treated  in 
some  degree  as  officers,  the  salutary  rod  is  not  entirely  banished. 
Their  morals  (an  improvement  within  a  few  years)  are  strictly  at- 
tended to,  and  separate  apartments  are  allowed  to  the  pupils. 

Periodical  examinations  give  opportunities  for  talent  to  rise,  and 
medals  and  prospective  promotion  are  awarded  to  excellence.  An 
industrious  boy  may  complete  his  plan  and  gain  his  midshipman's  ap- 
pointment in  twelve  months,  whilst  the  idle  are,  by  the  regulations, 
discharged  at  the  end  of  two  years.  Thus  emulation  is  excited  and 
merit  rewarded,  and  the  profession  is  entered  with  an  established 
character. 

Having  thus  summed  up  the  merits  of  the  different  systems  of  pre- 
liminary Naval  education,  our  observations,  we  beg  to  observe,  are 
merely  general.  There  are  individual  cases  to  which  they  do  not  ap- 
ply. A  boy,  for  instance,  of  a  decidedly  studious  turn  of  mind  would 
be  perhaps  better  situated  at  a  public  school  than  elsewhere.  Navi- 
gation would  be  easily  acquired  by  him  when  at  sea,  and  in  the  mean 
while  he  would  enjoy  all  the  advantages  of  a  more  numerous  and 
select  society. 

On  the  whole,  and  upon  the  fullest  consideration  of  the  subject,  we 
give  the  palm  to  the  Naval  College,  and  we  shall  conclude  this  article 
by  quoting  the  words  of  Lord  Collingwood,  who,  although  a  dissatisfied 
man,  was  a  good  officer  and  a  good  scholar.  It  will  be  recollected  that 
the  establishment  in  Portsmouth  dock-yard,  in  those  days,  had  not  at- 
tained to  its  present  perfection,  and  was  little  known  or  regarded.  He 
says,  in  speaking  of  a  youth  about  whom  he  was  interested,  "  Boys 
make  little  progress  in  a  ship,  without  being  well  practised  in  naviga- 
tion :  if  his  father  intended  him  for  the  sea,  he  should  have  been  sent 
to  a  Mathematical  school." 


*  In  enumerating  the  acquirements  at  the  Naval  College,  we  have  omitted  to  mention 
dancing.  Surely,  if  the  rising  Nelsons  aspire  to  "  caper  nimbly  "  in  a  minuet,  or  to 
double-shuffle  in  a  pas  de  basque,  to  "  the  lascivious  pleasing  of  a  kit,"  they  ought  to  in- 
dulge their  harmless  ambition  in  private  and  at  their  own  expense.  The  public  and  the 
profession  ought  not  to  be  insulted  by  the  yearly  exposal  in  the  Navy  Estimates,  of  a 
salaried  naval  dancing -master.  We  shall  next  hear  of  a  music-master,  to  encourage 
that  cockpit's  curse,  the  incipient  flute-player. 


LAW    BY    WHICH    THE    RECRUITING    OF    THE    FRENCH 
ARMY    IS    NOW    REGULATED. 

TRANSLATED  FROM  THE  FRENCH. 

Paris,  loth  March,  1818. 
Louis,  by  the  Grace  of  God,  &c. 

WE  have  proposed,  the  Chambers  have  adopted,  we  have  ordered, 
and  do  order  as  follows  :— 

SECTION  I. 

OP    VOLUNTATY    ENROLMENT. 

ARTICLE  i. — It  is  intended  the  army  should  be  recruited  by  volun- 
tary enlistment,  but  if  a  sufficient  number  of  recruits  do  not  offer 
themselves,  the  deficiency  must  be  supplied  by  a  conscription,  conduct- 
ed according  to  the  rules  prescribed  in  Section  II. 

ART.  ii. — Every  Frenchman  shall  be  entitled  to  enrol  himself, 
provided  he  is  eighteen  years  of  age,  that  he  has  not  lost  his  civil 
rights,  and  that  he  is  in  all  respects  fit  for  the  corps  in  which  he 
wishes  to  enlist.  Vagabonds,  or  men  of  notoriously  bad  character,  are 
not  to  be  allowed  to  enlist  as  recruits  for  the  French  Army. 

ART.  in. — The  duration  of  a  voluntary  enrolment  shall  be  six 
years  in  the  Departmental  Legions,  and  eight  years  in  all  the  other 
classes  of  troops.  No  bounty  is  to  be  allowed  to  recruits. 

ART.  iv. — Recruits  must  contract  their  engagement  before  a  ma- 
gistrate, according  to  the  forms  prescribed  in  Articles  thirty-four  and 
forty-four  of  the  civil  code.  The  conditions  relative  to  the  period  for 
which  a  recruit  engages  are  to  be  recorded  in  the  deed  of  enrolment, 
and  all  other  conditions  are  to  be  read  to  the  contracting  parties  before 
the  prescribed  signatures  are  affixed.  Unless  it  be  certified  upon  the 
above-named  document  that  these  forms  have  been  complied  with, 
the  engagement  is  null. 

SECTION  II. 

OF    THE    LEVY    OP    TROOPS    BY    CONSCRIPTION. 

ART.  v. — The  full  complement  of  the  peace  establishment  of  the 
army,  including  officers,  non-commissioned  officers,  and  soldiers,  is 
fixed  at  240,000  men. 

The  annual  number  of  conscripts  drawn  must  not  exceed  40,000 
men,  and  the  strength  of  the  army  is  never  to  be  larger  than  the  peace 
establishment  already  indicated. 

When  a  larger  establishment  is  required,  the  contingency  will  be 
provided  for  by  a  specific  law. 

ART.  vi. — The  annual  number  of  conscripts  to  be  raised,  is  to  be 
apportioned  among  the  departments,  arrondissements,  and  cantons,  in 
proportion  to  the  population,  as  taken  by  the  last  census. 

A  return  of  the  numerical  proportion  or  assessment  of  conscripts  to 
be  called  out  in  each  department,  is  to  be  communicated  to  the  Cham- 
bers ;  it  is  also  to  be  made  public  by  posting  the  tables  up  in  places  of 
public  resort,  together  with  an  abstract  of  the  number  of  men  who  had 
enlisted  during  the  preceding  year. 


LAW    FOR    RECRUITING    THE    FRENCH    ARMY.  63 

ART.  vn. — The  contingent  apportioned  to  each  canton  will  be  fur- 
nished by  lot  from  the  youths  who  have  a  legitimate  residence  in  the 
canton,  and  who  shall  have  reached  the  age  of  twenty  during  the  pre- 
ceding year. 

For  the  first  operation  of  this  law,  the  youths,  who  completed  their 
twentieth  year  during  the  years  1816  and  1817*  are  to  be  included  in 
the  levy  for  1818,  but  the  contingent  for  each  of  these  years  is  not  to 
exceed  40,000,  as  prescribed  in  Article  v. 

All  persons  comprehended  in  the  above  two  classes  who  have  con- 
tracted marriage  previously  to  the  promulgation  of  this  law  are  to  be 
exempted  from  serving  in  the  army. 

ART.  viu. — The  following  classes  of  persons  shall  be  considered  to 
have  a  legal  residence  in  a  canton. 

1.  Young  men  who  have  received  a  dispensation,  and  those  who  are 
residing  abroad,  expatriated  or  detained  as  prisoners,  provided  their 
father,  mother,  or  tutor,  has  their  residence  in  one  of  the  communes  of 
the  said  canton,  or  if  they  be  the  sons  of  an  expatriated  father,  who 
had  his  last  residence  in  said  canton. 

2.  Persons  that  are  married,  whose   father  or  mother,   should  the 
father  be  dead,  resides  in  the  canton,  provided  they  do  not  prove  that 
they  have  a  fixed  residence  in  another  canton. 

3.  Married  persons  who  reside  in  a  canton,  although  their  father  or 
mother  be  domiciled  elsewhere. 

4.  Young  persons  born  and  residing  in  a  canton,  who  have  neither 
father  nor  mother  nor  tutor. 

5.  All  persons  that  reside  in  a  canton,  although  they  may  not  be  in- 
cluded in  any  of  the  above   classes,  provided  they  fail  to  prove  that 
their  names  have  been  inscribed  in  another  canton. 

ART.  ix. — Persons  who  fail  to  produce  an  extract  from  the  parish 
register,  specifying  the  time  they  were  born,  will  have  their  age  esti- 
mated according  to  public  notoriety. 

ART.  x. — Should  it  be  discovered  that  a  young  man  has  escaped  en- 
rolment in  the  conscription  list,  he  is  to  be  included  in  the  list  for  the 
succeeding  year. 

ART.  xi. — The  conscription  list  of  a  canton  is  to  be  compiled  by  the 
Mayors,  and  made  public  in  each  commune  or  parish,  according  to  the 
form  prescribed  in  articles  sixty-three  and  sixty -four  of  the  civil  code. 

Public  notice  shall  be  given,  which  will  announce  the  place  and 
time  when  the  conscription  list  shall  be  examined,  and  the  drawing  by 
lot  of  the  contingent  of  the  canton  is  to  commence. 

ART.  xn. — When  a  canton  comprehends  several  communes,  the  ex- 
amination of  the  lists  and  the  drawing  of  the  contingent  are  to  take 
place  at  the  capital  of  the  canton.  These  duties  are  to  be  publicly 
performed,  and  in  the  presence  of  the  Sub-prefect  and  Mayors  of  the 
canton.  In  cantons  composed  of  one  commune,  or  of  a  portion  of  a 
commune,  the  Sub-prefect  will  be  assisted  by  the  Mayor  and  his 
assistants. 

The  names  of  the  conscripts  shall  be  read  in  an  audible  voice,  and 
objections  may  then  be  adduced  by  them,  or  their  relations,  should 
they  have  cause  to  complain.  The  Sub-prefect  and  the  Mayor  shall 
decide  upon  the  case  of  a  remonstrant.  The  corrected  list  of  the  con- 
scripts is  next  to  be  verified  by  the  signature  of  the  requisite  authorities. 


64  LAW    FOR    RECRUITING    THE    FRENCH    ARMY. 

Immediately  after  the  lists  have  been  thoroughly  sifted  and  deemed 
correct,  the  conscripts  are  to  be  called  one  by  one,  according  as  they 
stand  upon  the  roll,  and  each  is  to  draw  a  number  from  an  urn,  which 
is  to  be  publicly  announced  and  registered.  When  a  conscript  is  ab- 
sent, his  relations  or  the  Mayor  of  the  commune  may  draw  for  him. 

As  the  drawing  proceeds,  the  names  of  the  young  men  are  to  be 
arranged  according  to  the  priority  of  the  numbers  they  have  drawn. 
When  a  young  man  that  has  drawn  a  number  within  the  amount  of 
the  contingent  claims  a  dispensation,  his  reasons  are  to  be  recorded. 
In  regard  to  all  such  cases,  the  Sub-prefect  is  directed  to  add  his  own 
opinion  respecting  the  validity  of  the  claims. 

The  roll  of  the  names  of  the  persons  who  have  drawn  numbers  is  to 
be  publicly  read  in  the  same  manner  as  the  verified  list  of  the  con- 
scripts, and  to  the  said  roll  is  to  be  annexed  an  abstract  of  the  pro- 
ceedings. 

This  list  is  to  be  published  and  posted  up  in  each  commune  of  the 
canton. 

ART.  xin. — The  whole  proceedings  are  to  be  revised  in  open  court 
by  a  council  composed  of  the  Prefect,  who  is  to  be  the  President,  a 
counsellor  of  the  Prefecture,  a  member  of  the  general  council  of  the 
Department,  a  member  of  the  council  of  the  Arrondissement,  and  a 
general  officer  specially  appointed  by  the  King.  The  council  will 
hold  its  sittings  in  the  chief  towns  of  an  arrondissement  or  canton. 

The  young  men  that  have  drawn  numbers  which  indicate  that  they 
are  to  belong  to  the  contingent,  are  to  be  assembled,  examined,  arid 
heard  in  their  own  cause. 

Should  the  young  men  fail  to  appear,  or  omit  to  assign  a  reason  for 
their  absence,  the  revisal  of  the  proceedings  by  the  council  is  to  take 
place,  and  the  business  concluded  as  if  they  were  present,  provided 
they  have  not  obtained  leave  to  postpone  their  attendance. 

The  cases  of  men  who  claim  an  exemption  from  serving  on  account 
of  disabilities,  are  to  be  investigated  by  medical  officers. 

All  other  classes  of  alleged  claims  to  exemption  are  to  be  decided 
upon  by  authentic  documents  or  certificates  of  the  Mayor  of  the  com- 
mune where  the  claimant  resides,  and  three  heads  of  families  belong- 
ing to  the  same  canton,  whose  sons  are  liable  to  the  conscription  law, 
or  are  serving  at  the  time  in  the  army. 

With  the  exception  of  cases,  such  as  are  mentioned  in  number  six- 
teen, the  decision  of  the  council  of  revision  is  conclusive. " 

ART.  xiv. — Young  men  who  have  drawn  numbers  which  indicate 
that  they  belong  to  the  contingent,  are  for  the  following  reasons  to  be 
exempted  and  replaced.  The  dispensations  are  to  take  place  in  the 
order  of  the  subsequent  numbers  or  reasons  for  exemption. 

1.  All  conscripts  who  are  not  one  metre  fifty-seven  centimetres  in 
height,  five  feet  two  inches  English  measure. 

2.  All  persons  who  suffer  under  infirmities  which  render  them  un- 
fit for  the  army. 

3.  The  eldest  son  of  a  family  of  orphans  where  both  parents  are  dead. 

4.  The  only  son,  the  eldest  son,  or  if  there  be  no  son,  the  grandson, 
or  the  eldest  of  the  grandsons  of  a  widow,  a  father,  if  blind,  or  a  man 
of  seventy  years  of  age. 

5.  The  eldest  of  two  brothers  who  have  both  been  drawn  for  the 
same  levy. 


LAW    FOR    RECRUITING    THE    FRENCH    ARMY. 


65 


6.  All  conscripts  who  have  a  brother  actually  serving  in  the  army 
under  whatever  denomination,  or  who  had  a  brother  died  in  the  ser- 
vice, or  one  discharged  as  unfit  for  military  duty  on  account  of  wounds 
received,  or  disabilities  contracted  in  the  service. 

The  above  claims  of  exemption  will  be  sanctioned  in  the  same  family 
as  often  as  the  circumstances  occur. 

With  the  exception  of  persons  who  have  been  exempted  on  account 
of  disabilities,  the  aforesaid  causes  of  dispensation  are  not  to  prevent 
young  men  from  being  inscribed  in  the  subsequent  conscription  list. 

ART.  xv. — Young  men  whose  numbers  indicate  that  they  belong  to 
the  contingent,  are  under  the  following  circumstances  to  be  exempted 
from  serving  without  being  replaced. 

1.  All  persons  who  have  voluntarily  enlisted  in  the  army. 

2.  Seamen  that  are  registered  according  to  the  law  of  the  25th  Dec. 
1795,  and  ship  carpenters,  borers,  sailmakers  and  caulkers,  if  they  be 
registered  according  to  the  44th  Article  of  the  said  law. 

~  O 

3.  Medical  officers  who  belong  to  the  Navy  or  Army. 

4.  Young  men  regularly  authorized  to  continue  their  ecclesiastical 
studies,  on  condition  that  they   forfeit  the  benefit  of  a  dispensation 
should  they  not  take  orders. 

This  rule  applies  to  all  the  different  persuasions  or  sects  whose  Mi- 
nisters are  paid  by  the  State. 

5.  Pupils  of  the  Ecole  Normal,  together  with  the  teachers  attached 
to  them,  provided  the  latter  engage  to  devote  ten  years  to  this  duty. 

This  article  applies  to  students  of  theology  ;  the  students  of  lan- 
guages ;  the  students  of  the  polytechnique  schools,  and  schools  intended 
to  qualify  young  men  for  employment  in  the  service  of  the  State. 

The  student  of  schools  specifically  calculated  to  qualify  young  men 
for  the  Army  or  Navy.  Provided,  however,  that  the  said  pupils  con- 
tinue to  prosecute  their  studies,  or  have  been  admitted  into  the  service 
for  which  they  were  preparing  themselves ;  and  under  the  condition 
that  they  forfeit  the  benefit  of  the  dispensation  if  they  abandon  the 
aforesaid  studies,  or  are  not  admitted  into  the  service,  or  if  they  quit  it 
before  the  time  fixed  for  a  soldier  to  serve. 

6.  Young  men  who  shall  have  been  a'warded  a  considerable  prize  by 
the  Royal  Institute,  or  the  honourable  mark  of  merit  decreed  by  the 
Council  of  the  University. 

ART.  xvi. — Should  any  young  men  who  belong  to  the  contingent  of 
a  canton,  claim  an  exemption  from  serving  in  consequence  of  questions 
involving  civil  rights,  the  conscripts  next  in  rotation  according  to  their 
number,  are,  until  their  claims  be  judicially  decided,  to  supply  the 
place  of  the  appellants,  in  the  same  manner  as  if  they  had  received  a 
dispensation. 

The  questions  at  issue  are  to  be  peremptorily  decided  by  the  Prefect, 
when  urged  by  one  of  the  parties. 

The  courts  of  law  shall  deliver  their  verdict  on  these  cases  without 
delay,  when  an  officer  of  Government  is  to  be  heard.  An  appeal  may 
be  made  from  this  decision. 

ART.  xvn. — When  the  whole  business  of  the  conscription,  including 
the  list  of  exemptions,  dispensations,  or  appeals,  has  been  examined, 
the  roil  of  the  names  of  the  contingent  of  each  canton  is  to  be  finally 
closed  and  signed  by  the  Council  of  Revision. 

U.  S.  JOURN.  No.  13  JAN.  1830.  F 


66  LAW    FOR    RECRUITING    THE    FRENCH    ARMY. 

Young  men  who,  in  compliance  with  Article  16,  may  be  called  upon 
to  replace  others,  are  to  be  entered  on  the  list  of  the  contingent  condi- 
tionally only,  their  rights  being  duly  guarded. 

It  is  the  business  of  the  Council  next  to  announce,  that  all  persons 
whose  names  are  not  inscribed  on  this  list,  are  definitively  exempted 
from  serving  in  the  army.  This  announcement,  with  the  last  number 
of  the  contingent,  is  to  be  published  and  posted  up  in  each  commune  of 
the  canton. 

When  the  courts  of  civil  judicature  shall  have  decided  upon  the 
cases  comprehended  in  No.  16,  the  Council  is,  according  to  their  deci- 
sion, to  announce  the  exemption  of  the  appellant,  or  that  of  the  con- 
script who  was  conditionally  called  upon  to  replace  him. 

ART.  xviii. — Substitutes  will  be  accepted  in  place  of  young  men 
who  belong  to  the  contingent,  provided  a  substitute  be  beyond  the 
reach  of  the  conscription  law,  that  he  is  not  above  thirty  years  of  age, 
or  thirty-five  if  he  has  been  a  soldier,  and  that  he  has  the  height  and 
other  qualities  requisite  to  fit  him  for  the  army. 

Substitutes  shall  be  admitted  by  the  Council  of  Revision,  and  the  act 
of  substitution  is  to  be  annexed  to  the  proceedings  of  the  Council. 

A  conscript  who  does  not  form  part  of  the  Contingent,  may  exchange 
with  one  who  is  included  in  it ;  but  both  persons  must  belong  to  the 
same  drawing. 

Any  agreements  which  are  made  between  principals  and  substitutes 
are  to  be  subjected  to  the  same  rules  and  forms  as  other  civil  contracts. 

The  principal  is  responsible  for  his  substitute  in  case  of  desertion 
during  a  period  of  one  year,  to  be  reckoned  from  the  day  the  act  of 
substitution  receives  the  signature  of  the  Prefect.  He  will,  however, 
be  liberated  from  his  responsibility  should  the  deserter  be  arrested 
within  the  year,  or  if  the  substitute  dies  in  the  army. 

ART.  xix. — The  young  men  included  in  the  contingent,  or  their  sub- 
stitutes, are  to  be  told  off  to  different  regiments,  and  registered  in  the 
books  of  the  respective  corps  of  the  army. 

They  will  be  permitted  to  return  to  their  usual  place  of  residence, 
and  considered  as  soldiers  on  leave  of  absence. 

These  recruits  will  not  be  ordered  to  join  the  corps  to  which  they 
belong  but  in  proportion  to  the  wants  of  the  army  ;  and  they  will  be 
called  out  according  to  the  priority  of  their  respective  classes. 

ART.  xx. — The  duration  of  the  period  of  service  of  soldiers  levied 
by  conscription  shall  be  six  years,  which  is  to  be  reckoned  from  the  1st 
Jan.  of  the  year  they  are  inscribed  on  the  books  of  a  corps  of  the  army. 

The  contingent  of  the  year  1816  shall  be  required  to  serve  only  five 
years. 

In  time  of  peace,  all  the  soldiers  who  have  served  the  required  pe- 
riod shall  be  discharged  on  the  31st  Dec. 

But  in  time  of  war  they  shall  not  be  discharged  until  a  new  contin- 
gent has  joined  the  corps  to  replace  them. 

SECTION  III. 

RE-ENGAGEMENTS. 

ART.  xxi. — Soldiers  who  re-enlist,  must  engage  to  serve  before  the 
<e  intendans,  or  sous  intendans  militaires"  according  to  the  forms  pre- 
scribed in  Art.  4.  Upon  the  production  of  the  documents  requisite  in 


LAW    FOR    RECRUITING    THE    FRENCH    ARMY.  67 

such  cases,  depends  the  right  of  a  soldier  to  remain  in  the  corps  to 
which  he  formerly  belonged,  or  to  join  another. 

ART.  xxn. — The  period  during  which  a  soldier  may  re-engage  to 
serve,  is  never  to  exceed  that  of  a  primary  enlistment ;  but  a  man  may 
be  permitted  to  engage  for  two  years  only. 

Soldiers  who  re-enter  the  service  are  entitled  to  an  advance  of  pay, 
and  they  may  be  received  into  the  Gendarmerie,  or  the  Veterans  of 
the  Line. 

All  other  conditions  shall  be  determined  by  the  King,  and  made 
public. 

SECTION  IV. 

OP   VETERANS. 

ART.  xxin. — During  war,  all  non-commissioned  officers*  and  soldiers 
who  have  served  the  prescribed  period,  and  returned  to  their  former 
place  of  residence,  shall  be  for  a  period  of  six  years  subjected  to  a  local 
service,  under  the  denomination  of  Veterans. 

Veterans  may  marry  and  settle  themselves. 

In  time  of  peace  they  shall  not  be  liable  to  any  duty,  and  even  dur- 
ing war  they  will  not  be  required  to  extend  their  services  beyond  the 
military  division  in  which  they  reside,  except  in  consequence  of  a  law 
made  for  that  purpose. 

ART.  xxiv. — Non-commissioned  officers  or  soldiers,  who  have  served 
the  prescribed  period,  cannot  be  again  taken  into  the  army,  but  with 
their  own  consent. 

They  are  liable  only  to  the  local  service  of  Veterans. 

Discharged  soldiers,  who  are  thirty-two  years  of  age,  or  who  have 
served  twelve  years  in  the  army,  or  who  were  discharged  in  conse- 
quence of  wounds,  or  some  important  disease,  will  be  exempted  from 
the  local  service. 

SECTION  V. 

PENAL    ENACTMENTS. 

ART.  xxv. — All  the  enactments,  laws,  ordonnances,  rules,  or  in- 
structions, formerly  promulgated  in  regard  to  the  recruiting  of  the 
army,  are  and  remain  annulled. 

The  civil  and  military  tribunals  before  whom  causes  in  respect  to 
the  recruiting  of  the  army  may  be  brought,  will  be  guided  in  their  de- 
cision by  this  law. 

With  respect  to  crimes  of  a  military  character,  judges  are  to  be 
guided  in  their  conclusions,  &c.  by  the  595th  Art.  of  the  Criminal 
Code. 

ART.  xxvi. — Every  functionary  or  public  officer,  civil  or  military, 
who  shall  under  any  pretext  whatever  authorize  or  sanction  exemp- 
tions, dispensations,  or  exclusions,  except  in  compliance  with  the  pre- 
sent law,  or  who  shall  on  his  own  responsibility  make  any  alteration  in 
its  enactments,  either  in  regard  to  the  duration,  or  as  to  the  rules  or 
conditions  of  engagements,  appeals,  re-engagements,  or  of  the  service 
of  the  Veterans,  shall  be  accounted  guilty  of  an  abuse  of  authority, 
and  subjected  to  the  penalties  directed  in  the  185th  Art.  of  the  Pe- 
nal Code,  and  this  without  being  exempted  from  the  still  more  heavy 

*  Under  the  term  non-commissioned  officers  are  included  Serjeants  and  serjeant-ma- 
jors  in  the  [infantry  ;  marechaux-des-logis,  and  marcchaux-des-logis  chefs  in  the  cavalry, 
and  adjutants  in  both  branches  of  the  service. 

F  2 


68  LAW    FOR    RECRUITING    THE    FRENCH    ARMY. 

penalties  awarded  by  that  code  in  the  other  cases  which   it  has  pro- 
vided for. 

SECTION  VI. 

PROMOTION. 

ART.  xxvu. — A  soldier  is  not  to  be  promoted  to  the  rank  of  a  non- 
commissioned officer  before  he  is  twenty  years  of  age,  and  has  served 
two  years  in  the  regular  army. 

No  soldier  is  to  be  promoted  to  the  rank  of  a  commissioned  officer 
before  he  has  served  two  years  as  a  non-commissioned  officer,  or,  if  he 
has  not  for  the  same  period  prosecuted  a  course  of  education  at  a  special 
military  school,  and  undergone  a  satisfactory  examination  at  the  said 
school. 

ART.  xxvin. — One  third  of  the  vacant  commissions  of  second-lieu- 
tenant will  be  given  to  non-commissioned  officers. 

Two-thirds  of  the  vacant  commissions  of  the  ranks  of  lieutenant, 
captain,  chef  de  battailon  or  squadron,  and  lieutenant-colonel,  shall  be 
given  according  to  seniority. 

The  majors  shall  be  selected  from  captains  employed  as  paymasters, 
or  who  have  had  the  charge  of  the  clothing  of  a  corps ;  or  adjutant- 
majors.  Paymasters,  and  officers  of  clothing,  are  to  be  selected  from 
officers  who  shall  have  been  serjeant-majors,  or  marechaux-des-logis 
chefs.  Adjutant-majors  are  to  be  chosen  from  lieutenants,  who  had 
been  adjutants  and  serjeant-majors,  or  marechaux-des-logi,s  chefs  ;  and 
adjutants  from  serjeant-majors  or  marechaux-des-logis  chefs. 

ART.  xxix. — All  officers  must  serve  four  years  in  each  rank  before 
they  can  be  promoted  to  another. 

This  rule  is  never  to  be  infringed  except  during  war,  upon  extraor- 
dinary occasions,  or  in  consequence  of  remarkable  examples  of  bravery, 
which  must  have  been  recorded  in  the  Order  Book  of  a  corps. 

ART.  xxx. — In  conformity  with  these  general  views,  the  promotion 
of  the  army  is  to  be  conducted.  The  requisite  rules  which  may  be  ne- 
cessary on  this  subject,  shall  be  promulgated  in  the  collection  of  laws. 

Hence  all  former  enactments,  ordonnances,  rules,  instructions,  or 
decisions,  respecting  promotion,  are  and  remain  abrogated. 

This  law,  which  has  been  discussed  and  adopted  by  the  Chamber  of 
Peers,  as  also  by  that  of  the  Deputies,  and  has  this  day  received  Our 
sanction,  shall  be  considered  a  law  of  the  State.  Our  desire,  there- 
fore, is,  that  it  be  kept  and  observed  throughout  our  kingdom  and  the 
territories  under  our  authority. 

We  therefore  order  and  command  Our  Courts  and  Tribunals,  Pre- 
fects, Administrative  bodies,  arid  others,  concerned  by  these  presents, 
to  keep  and  maintain  this  law,  and  to  cause  it  to  be  kept  and  main- 
tained ;  and  it  is  Our  will  and  pleasure,  that  for  the  purpose  of  duly 
promulgating  this  law,  the  said  authorities  shall  cause  it  to  be  regis- 
tered and  published  as  may  seem  necessary  ;  and  to  the  end  that  it  be 
duly  authorised,  We  have  affixed  Our  Seal. 

Given  at  Paris,  the  17th  March,  1818,  and  of  the  Twenty-third  year 
of  Our  reign. 

(Signed)  By  the  King, 

Seen  and  Sealed  with  the  Great  Seal.  Louis. 

(Signed)     PASQUIER,  Keeper  of  the  Great  Seal,  and  Secretary 

of  State  for  the  Administration  of  the  Laws. 
(Signed)     M.  GOUVION-SAINT-CYR,  Secretary  at  War. 


69 

NAVAL   GUNNERY.* 

COMMANDER    MARSHALL^    NEW    MODE    OF    MOUNTING    AND    WORKING 

SHIPS'   GUNS. 

THE  vital  advantages  of  Naval  Gunnery  were  so  manifest,  even  in  the  early 
periods  of  our  maritime  career,  that  they  were  set  forth  in  various  publications, 
as  those  of  Master  Digs,  Master  Bourn,  and  Master  Norton,  authors,  who, 
though  perhaps  not  aware  of  the  real  trajectory  of  a  shot  or  shell,  were  more 
proficient  in  most  points  of  practice  than  many  of  the  Mentors  of  the  present 
day.  In  describing  the  necessary  qualifications  of  a  gunner  so  far  back  as 
1626,  the  celebrated  Capt.  John  Smith  observes  : 

"  Supposing  him  to  be  a  Christian  fearing  and  serving  the  true  God,  and  living  in 
good  repute  and  esteem  among  men  ;  he  ought  (besides  this)  to  be  competently  expe- 
rienced in  several  arts  and  sciences,  and  especially  in  these  following. 

"  1.  In  Arithmetic,  both  vulgar  and  decimal,  whereby  he  may  be  able  to  work  the 
Rule  of  Three  (or  Golden  Rule)  both  direct  and  reverse,  to  extract  the  square  and  cube 
roots,  &c. 

"  2.  In  Geometry,  whereby  he  may  be  able  to  take  heights,  depths,  and  distances;  to 
take  the  true  plot  of  any  piece  of  ground  ;  and  thereby  to  mine,  or  counter-mine  under 
the  same,  or  any  part  thereof. 

"3.  He  ought  to  be  experienced  in  making  of  ramparts,  cannon,  baskets  of  earth, 
and  fire -works,  both  for  service  and  recreation. 

"  4.  He  ought  to  be  acquainted  with  the  names  of  every  member  of  which  a  piece  of 
ordnance  is  composed,  and  to  what  use  every  member  is  appropriated. 

"5.  He  ought  to  know  how  to  search  and  pry  into  the  conditions  of  any  gun  or  guns 
committed  to  his  charge,  as  to  know  whether  truly  bored,  or  taper  bored  ;  whether  with 
or  without  a  chamber;  whether  free  from  flaws  (or  honey-combs).  To  know  what 
quantity  of  powder  will  serve  for  a  due  charge  for  each  piece  ;  what  shot  will  fit  ;  how 
many  matrasses  to  attend  ;  how  many  horses  or  oxen  will  serve  to  draw  any  piece,  or 
(in  case  they  cannot  be  had)  how  many  men  may  serve." 

This  statement  cannot  be  perused  without  exciting  bitter  regrets  over  the  con- 
dition into  which  gunners'  warrants  have  latterly  fallen,  nor  ought  the  very 
questionable  claims  of  numbers  who  obtained  them  to  be  hidden.  "  This  com- 
memorator  of  gunpowder  treason,  with  a  treason  upon  gunpowder,"  says  an  old 
writer,  "  is  commonly  a  spawn  of  the  captain's  own  projection :"  but  whether 
the  lucky  candidate  for  the  ostensible  office  was  an  old  seaman  mistakenly  re- 
warded thus  for  past  services,  or  a  favourite  minion,  the  appointment,  though 
not  equally  guiltless,  was  equally  absurd,  as  in  either  case  a  total  incapacity  in 
the  art  of  killing  and  destroying  with  celerity  must  be  looked  for.  A  lamenta- 
ble consequence  resulted, — the  training  of  officers  and  seamen  to  the  theory  and 
practice  of  gunnery  was  so  neglected,  as  to  consist  merely  in  adroitness  of  cast- 
ing loose,  and  then  securing  the  guns,  after  an  irregular  and  noisy  substitute  for 
exercise,  in  which  the  hasty  delivery  of  the  word  "  done  "  superseded  the  know- 
ledge of  dimensions,  windage,  and  dispart  of  ordnance  ;  the  proportion,  force, 
and  effect  of  ammunition ;  and  the  loading,  pointing,  and  giving  effectual  fire. 
A  career  of  triumph  over  enemies,  as  neglectful  as  ourselves,  prevented  the  sore 
from  being  painful,  till  the  unexpected  success  of  a  wary  opponent  exposed  the 
defect.  It  must  not  be  concealed  that  our  vexatious  defeats  were  owing  to  well- 
concerted  plans,  as  well  as  mere  weight  of  broadsides.  The  personal  courage  of 
our  officers  and  men  was  never  more  exemplary  ;  but  the  bold  and  till  then  suc- 
cessful mode  of  attack  by  which  we  had  annihilated  the  navies  of  Europe,  was 
of  no  avail  with  those  who  determined  to  allow  of  no  closing  but  on  their  own 
terms.  When  the  Shannon  engaged,  she  brought  tactics  and  gunnery,  as  well  as 
heroism,  into  play  ;  and  the  consequence  was  no  more  than  was  to  be  looked  for : 

*  A  description  of  Commander  Marshall's  new  mode  of  mounting  and  working  ships' 
guns  ;  wherein  the  nature  and  advantages  of  its  novel  properties  are  shown,  and  illus- 
trated by  the  results  of  official  experiments,  4to.  with  plan  :  John  Murray. 


70  NAVAL    GUNNERY. 

while  the  gallant  captain  of  this  frigate  was  so  impressed  with  the  decisive  power 
of  horizontal  fire,  as  to  fit  quadrants  on  all  his  ordnance, — a  British  vessel  of 
war  was  captured,  which  had  not  even  cast  her  guns  adrift  till  she  cleared  for 
action  with  her  conqueror  ! 

It  is  a  singular  fact,  considering  how  popular  an  appropriation  of  public  mo- 
ney naval  expenses  have  been  deemed  by  all  parties,  that  little  or  no  powder  or 
shot  were  allowed  for  practice ;  while,  on  the  other  hand,  its  wanton  expenditure 
in  action  was  a  subject  for  vaunting,  for  there  extravagance  was  authorized,  as 
not  only  admissible,  but  requisite.  In  this  state,  the  Transatlantic  hints  that  we 
had  slackened  our  vigilance,  aroused  the  Admiralty  to  the  necessity  of  improve- 
ment; and  our  "  Affectionate  Friends"  of  the  Navy  Office,  with  the  warmth  of 
an  ice-berg,  seconded  their  endeavours  :  but  unless  both  Boards  make  the 
theory  and  practice  of  Naval  Gunnery,  with  the  doctrine  of  projectiles  in  a  re- 
sisting medium,  more  an  object  of  zealous  excitation  for  officers  to  attain,  the 
waste  of  ammunition  will  continue.  Few  of  our  future  antagonists  will  permit  us 
to  resort  to  our  old  "  rule  of  thumb  "  system,  of  coming  at  once  to  close  quar- 
ters, after  estimating  a  distance  by  the  discreditable  practice  of  "  trying  the 
range/'  which, like  "  calling"  at  whist,  often  betrays  more  than  is  desirable  to 
the  opposite  party.  The  Nelsonian  maxim  of  reserving  fire  till  the  "  white  of 
the  enemy's  eye  "  is  perceivable,  so  worthy  of  that  valorous  chief,  is  admirable 
whenever  the  foe  permits  its  practice,  because  it  allows  many  of  the  niceties  of 
gunnery  to  be  overlooked  ;  but  that  day  has  perhaps  fled,  and  our  bold,  but 
not  always  prudent  daring,  may  in  future  be  met  with  the  circumspection  of 
skill. 

It  is  therefore  manifest,  that  he  who  renders  our  equipment  more  efficient, 
confers  a  benefit  not  only  to  the  service,  but  to  the  nation  at  large ;  and  that 
such  is  the  claim  of  Commander  Marshall  will  be  evinced  by  a  perusal  of  his 
pages.  Although  we  are  not  quite  convinced  that  projects  for  the  advancement 
of  our  naval  prowess  should  be  promulgated  by  the  medium  of  the  press,  we 
congratulate  the  discoverer  of  so  useful  an  adaptation, — one  which  cannot  fail 
of  being  adopted,  because  it  possesses  too  many  advantages  to  be  overlooked. 

This  invention  having  been  for  upwards  of  two  years  under  trial,  both  in  men- 
of-war  and  East  Indiamen,  and  constantly  reported  in  high  terms  of  praise,  may 
be  said  to  demand  a  more  special  investigation  by  the  public.  It  consists 
chiefly  in  cutting  the  old  carriage,  in  a  diagonal  direction  close  to  the  trunnions 
of  the  gun,  and  reserving  the  after-part  only ;  as  a  substitute  for  the  other  half, 
the  muzzle  is  supported  by  a  crutch,  resting  on  a  kind  of  bracket,  which  is  at- 
tached to  the  ship's  side  by  a  stout  pivot,  answering  the  purpose  of  -a  vertical 
hinge,  and  assisted  in  its  fore  and  aft  motion  on  the  deck,  by  resting  on  a  tra- 
versing truck.  The  two  parts  of  the  carriage  are  connected  by  a  simple  breech- 
ing, which,  without  being  liable  to  entanglement,  yet  allowing  throughout  of  a 
more  equal  recoil  than  with  the  old  carriage,  at  whatever  angle  the  gun  may  be 
trained,  is  less  subject  to  accident  from  unequal  strain.  When  the  gun  is  run 
out,  the  crutch  supports  it  near  the  trunnions  ;  and  when  run  in,  after  firing, — 
under  the  muzzle;  with  less  inclination  to  tilt,  yet  permitting  far  greater  de- 
pression and  elevation  in  pointing  than  heretofore,  since  the  crutch  in  the  first 
instance  raises  the  gun's  muzzle,  in  recoiling,  free  from  the  sill  of  the  port, — and 
in  the  second,  the  breech  is  allowed  to  sink  lower  in  the  carriage;  by  this 
scope,  both  the  windward  and  leeward  guns  are  rendered  available  in  very  bad 
weather.  They  also  command  a  greater  range,  from  bow  to  quarter,  of  12°  on 
either  side  the  beam,  by  the  removal  of  the  fore  trucks,  which  in  the  old  car- 
riage "  wooded,"  or  came  in  contact  with  that  hitherto  insurmountable  obstruc- 
tion, the  water-way,  long  before  the  side  of  the  port  interfered  with  their  direc- 
tion. But  a  most  decided  advantage  still  remains  to  be  told,  which  is,  that  of 
an  inferior  number  of  men  being  thus  required,  since  five  men  instead  of  nine, 
amply  suffice  for  the  most  expeditious  working  of  an  18-pounder. 

It  certainly  is  surprising  that,  much  as  the  defects  of  the  established  carriages 
have  been  felt,  no  essential  improvement  has  been  introduced  since  the  reign  of 


NAVAL   GUNNERY.  71 

Henry  VIII.  The  great  difficulty  of  imparting  lateral  motion  to  them  is  self- 
evident;  yet,  independent  of  the  objects  which  a  ship  aims  at,  continually  vary- 
ing in  their  bearing,  either  by  their  or  her  motion,  and  consequently  requiring  a 
corresponding  azimuthal  change  in  the  direction  of  the  gun,  we  all  know  how 
very  irregular  the  recoil  becomes  in  quick  firing,  and  how  great  the  labour  of 
squaring  the  after-axletree  is,  since  the  weight  of  the  gun  so  much  preponde- 
rates there.  But  in  the  new  carriage,  when  the  gun  is  run  out,  the  centre  of 
gravity  resting  on  the  crutch,  lateral  motion  becomes  perfectly  easy,  since  even 
the  pressure  on  the  pivot  is  greatly  relieved  by  the  traversing  truck  supporting 
the  breast  carriage.  The  author's  words  deserve  insertion. 

"  The  chief  novelty  of  this  principle  of  mounting,  consists  in  having  removed  the 
bearing  of  the  gun  upon  its  carriage,  from  the  trunnions  (which  have  now  nothing  to  do 
with  supporting  the  gun)  to  a  fixed  point  at  the  breech,  and  a  inoveable  pne  somewhere 
between  the  muzzle  and  the  trunnion/' 

An  increase  of  24°  in  the  horizontal  arc,  which  the  muzzle  of  a  gun  can  de- 
scribe, adds  a  great  deal  to  our  sphere  of  action  even  in  near  objects ;  but  the 
geometrical  progression  with  which  it  advances,  the  farther  the  enemy  is  remov- 
ed, can  scarcely  be  conceived  without  a  diagram.  It  requires  but  to  compare 
the  duration  of  contest  and  the  number  of  shot  fired,  with  the  amount  of  execu- 
tion done,  in  most  of  our  naval  battles,  to  be  convinced  how  few  are  well  aim- 
ed :  here  again  Commander  Marshall's  carriage  affords  a  ship  in  motion  the 
advantage  of  instantly  adjusting  her  guns  to  the  yawing  of  her  head,  when  the 
roll  has  given  them  the  proper  elevation,  thus  uniting  the  vertical  and  horizontal 
angle  required  for  the  aim,  without  waiting  for  the  former  numerous  crew  re- 
tiring clear  of  their  recoil  before  they  can  be  fired. 

In  answer  to  those  who  might  suppose  many  of  the  inconveniences  of  the  old 
carriage  would  be  removed  by  narrowing  the  fore-axletree,  it  may  be  observed, 
that  this  would  favour  the  gun's  inclination  to  upset,  from  the  check  it  necessa- 
rily receives  in  its  recoil.  Moreover,  in  securing  guns  at  sea,  when  the  bed  and 
coin  are  removed  as  usual,  the  chief  weight  of  Marshall's  will  bear  on  the  axle- 
tree  ;  but  in  the  old  carriage,  although  the  same  operation  is  gone  through,  the 
pressure  still  resting  by  the  trunnions  on  the  high  sides,  it  is  strained  in  pro- 
portion to  the  motion  of  the  ship.  So  much  for  preventing  accident ;  but  when 
it  has  by  any  means  happened,  the  difficulty  of  remounting  a  gun  on  another 
square  carriage,  is  next  to  insurmountable  during  action ;  whereas,  with  the  new 
construction,  even  if  both  the  breast  and  breech  carriage  should  require  renew- 
ing, they  can  be  made  alternately  to  bear  the  gun,  and  thus  be  successively 
fitted  by  its  own  crew ;  "  the  breech  carriage  of  a  24-pounder  was  removed  by 
seven  men  in  twenty  seconds,  and  the  gun  again  mounted  in  an  equally  short 
space  of  time."  Nor  would  there  be  the  same  objection  to  carrying  a  few  spare 
carriages,  since  the  breech  part  will  contain  the  breast  "  in  half  the  stowage  of 
the  old  one." 

For  transporting  a  gun,  either  the  breast  part  may  be  left,  resting  the  fore 
part  of  the  gun  on  a  transporter,  easily  constructed,  upon  two  trucks,  or  the 
breast  carriage  itself  may  be  disengaged  from  the  ship's  side,  and  an  axletree 
with  trucks  put  under  it  for  its  removal  to  another  port ;  and  the  new  carriage 
is  convertible  also  into  a  square  one,  should  the  gun  be  required  on  shore. 

Much  has  been  said  in  favour  of  round  sterns,  because  they  can  bring  more 
guns  in  defence  of  the  otherwise  helpless  quarter ;  but  from  the  greater  angle 
obtainable  in  training  guns  with  Commander  Marshall's  carriage,  it  will  be 
found  defended  both  by  stern  chasers  and  broadside  guns,  since  they  now  can 
all  be  fired  in  a  parallel  direction.  Nor  will  the  curvature  of  the  bow  prevent 
the  new  carriage  from  training  to  at  least  45°.  This  possibility  of  defending  a 
ship  on  every  side,  is  rendered  the  more  valuable  by  the  growing  proficiency  of 
foreign  powers  in  Naval  Gunnery,  and  the  general  use  of  steam-vessels,  as  the 
latter,  from  admirable  facility  of  transit,  are  able  to  select  a  station  whence 
they  may  annoy  their  foe  unmolested.  The  superior  ease  and  accuracy  in 
pointing  a  gun  on  the  new  carriage,  would,  it  is  to  be  hoped,  introduce  a  more 


78  NAVAL    GUNNERY. 

regular  system  of  tiring;  and  by  reducing  the  confusion,  which  a  crowd  of  men*, 
scarcely  having  room  to  exert  themselves,  necessarily  creates,  with  the  violence 
required  in  training  the  old  carriages,  enable  officers  to  exact  more  attention  to 
any  point  of  attack  which  they  may  think  the  most  eligible. 

From  the  deep  interest  which  the  discussion  possesses,  we  trust  the  reader 
will  not  be  displeased  with  a  few  random  shot  on  this  head.  While  we  under- 
value the  nicely-balanced  weight  of  broadsides  which  have  lately  been  brought 
forward  with  all  the  grave  precision  of  Cocker,  we  are  well  aware  of  the  decided 
advantages  of  heavy  metal.  But  there  are  various  important  considerations  why 
we  should  not  overload  our  ships  ;  for  in  the  present  "  march-of-mind"  times, 
every  thing  is  altered  by  wholesale.  Raleigh,  to  whom  we  are  indebted  for 
more  good  things  than  mere  tobacco-smoking,  says  it  "  was  very  behooveful 
that  his  Majesty's  ships  were  not  so  overpestered  and  clogged  with  great  ord- 
nance as  they  are,  whereof  there  is  such  superfluity,  as  that  much  of  it  serves  to 
no  better  use  but  only  to  labour  and  overcharge  the  ship's  sides  in  any  growne 
seas  and  foule  weather."  This  remark  of  a  great  seaman  should  be  borne  in 
mind  by  those,  who,  drawing  all  their  conclusions  from  a  few  recent  instances, 
are  sighing  for  unwieldy  batteries.  Now,  in  "gunning"  a  man-of-war,  we  can- 
not agree  that  our  secondary  frigates  will  be  improved  by  giving  them  24,  in- 
stead of  18-pounders, — they  being  too  heavy  for  the  tonnage  of  such  ships. 
Increasing  the  weight  on  the  main-deck  will  assuredly  diminish  the  stability  and 
add  to  the  labour  which  the  scantling,  or  frame,  would  endure  in  a  gale,  be- 
sides occupying  more  room,  and  requiring  more  hands  for  the  working.  The 
space  occupied  by  24-pounders  is  of  greater  importance  than  is  generally  consi- 
dered ; — when  fighting  in  light  winds  and  smooth  water,  it  is  of  little  conse- 
quence ;  but  blowing  fresh,  with  so  much  swell  as  to  ship  water,  it  requires 
attention  to  keep  clear  of  the  side,  as  well  as  of  the  trucks  of  the  guns,  and 
relieving  tackle-falls. 

The  advocates  for  mounting  ships  with  large  metal  must  suppose,  consider- 
ing the  difference  of  working  a  heavy  and  a  light  gun,  that  the  damage  done  to 
a  ship  is  in  proportion  to  the  diameter  of  the  ball.  That  this  is  the  case,  few 
who  have  been  much  in  action  will  allow ;  and  even  if  it  was  so,  we  would 
prefer  an  1 8  to  a  24-pound  battery,  from  the  time  taken  up  in  loading  and 
firing  the  latter  to  what  would  be  necessary  in  the  former.  The  number  of 
rounds  in  a  given  time  which  an  18-pounder  could  be  fired  oftener  than  a  24, 
say  forty  of  the  former  to  thirty  of  the  latter,  would  more  than  compensate  for 
the  size  of  the  balls, — the  weight  in  this  instance  is  the  same,  but  the  small  gun 
inflicts  forty,  while  the  other  gives  only  thirty  wounds.  Lord  Keppel  found 
that  a  32-pounder  could  be  fired  thrice  in  the  time  requisite  to  fire  a  42- 
pounder  twice,  he  therefore  very  properly  gave  up  the  latter.  If  we  command 
a  line-of-battle-ship,  and  have  the  option  of  receiving  from  an  enemy  either 
twenty  shots  of  42  pounds,  or  thirty  of  32  pounds,  could  we  hesitate  ?  No : 
let  us  receive  the  former  dose  ;  the  difference  of  the  diameter  of  the  two  calibres 
is  very  little  in  actual  perforation ;  but  in  one  case  we  have  thirty  instead  of 
twenty  leaks  to  stop,  supposing  they  all  strike  between  wind  and  water; 
if  they  hit  the  upperworks,  we  shall  have  to  lament  the  loss  of  men  occasioned 
by  a  third  more  shots ;  and  if  they  fly  over  the  hull,  but  affect  the  rigging, 
who  can  doubt  the  difference  of  effect  between  them  ?  If  they  all  miss,  the 
consequence  is  0 ;  but  surely  the  chance  of  some  shot  doing  execution  is  in 
favour  of  the  32-pounder,  in  the  proportion  of  3  to  2.  In  much  of  the  late 
argument  respecting  heavy  metal,  the  deductions  are  drawn  from  particular  ex- 
amples ;  and  the  effect  arising  from  practical  skill  has  been;  confounded  with 
weight  of  missile,  in  assigning  a  superiority  which  is  rather  relative  than  abso- 
lute. 

The  necessity  of  frequently  exercising  the  guns  cannot  be  too  warmly  urged  ; 
for  though  a  man  may  be  unable  to  open  an  oyster  at  a  cable's  length,  it  should 
be  held  disgraceful  to  miss  the  hull  of  a  ship.  Many  a  person,  formerly,  might 
find  himself  in  the  ^presence  of  an  enemy  before  he  knew  which  end  of  a  ball 


NAVAL    GUNNERY.  73 

cartridge  to  place  downwards;  and  the  remedy  was  put  off  till  the  disease  be- 
came almost  incurable.  Part  of  the  former  clamorous  brawling  was  suppressed 
by  the  Admiralty  quarter  bills  of  1817;  but  we  deem  that  much,  very  much, 
remains  to  be  done  in  this  department ;  and  it  is  evident  that  the  substitution  of 
numbers  for  appellations  will  not  conduce  to  the  perfection  of  naval  practice. 
The  old  exercise,  though  combining  bustle  without  business,  and  confusion 
without  variety,  possessed  most  of  the  materials  which,  under  a  different  modifi- 
cation, were  capable  of  constructing  a  code  upon  juster  principles.  Before  the 
new  regulation  was  established,  we  had  trained  the  men  of  a  small  vessel  to  a 
simple  and  silent  practice  derived  therefrom,  which  consisted  of  but  eight  words 
of  command ;  and  to  avoid  unnecessary  complications,  the  preparatory  placing 
of  requisite  implements,  and  falling  into  the  allotted  stations,  were  part  of  the 
routine  on  the  "  beat  to  quarters."  The  orders  were  then  given  by  the  officers, 
who,  being  strictly  enjoined  to  see  the  operations  actually  performed,  required  no 
noisy  replies  from  the  people.  This  scheme  may  be  imperfect ;  but  we  prefer 
to  be  convicted  of  inability  rather  than  lukewarmness ;  and  as  attention  must  no\r 
be  strongly  directed  towards  this  urgent  branch  of  duty,  we  obtrude  it,  in  the 
hope  that  every  contributed  mite  may  prove  acceptable  to  those  who  are  intent 
upon  the  subject. 

1.  PREPARE  FOR  ACTION. — The   gun   is   to  be   cast   loose   and   levelled; 
breechings  to   be  middled,  and  relieving  tackles  hooked;  crows,  handspikes, 
powder  horns,  tubes,  wads,  and  match  tub,  in  their  places ;  and  the  aprons  and 
tompions  to  be  removed. 

2.  LOAD  YOUR  GUNS. — Care  is  to  be  taken  to  enter  the  cartridges  with  the 
closed  end  outwards,  and  the  seam  down ;  and  it  is  to  be  rammed  till  the  cap- 
tain of  tiie  gun  finds  by  the  priming  wire  that  it  is  home.     Except  in  yard-arm 
and  yard-arm  affairs,  a  wad  is  to  be  put  between  the  cartridge  and  shot,  a  pre- 
caution too  often  neglected.     In  shotting,  the  ball  and  its  outer  wad  are  rammed 
down  together,  and  driven  home  by  a  couple  of  smart  blows,  previous  to  with- 
drawing the  rammer. 

3.  RUN  OUT  YOUR  GUNS. — The  side  tackles  are  to  be  manned,  and  the  gun 
steadily  bowsed  out,  while  the  captain  attends  the  breeching.     The  use  of  crows 
should  seldom  be  resorted  to  in  mere  exercise,  as  they  tear  the  decks ;  and  we 
would  even  take  the  shoes  off  the  handspikes. 

4.  PRIME  YOUR  GUNS. — The  captain  of  the  gun  is  to  apply  the  priming  wire, 
and  when  the  cartridge  is  thoroughly  pierced,  he  is  to  place  the  tube  in  the 
touch-hole  with  its  cap  torn.     If  he  primes  with  powder,  he  should  place  his 
hand  under  and  thumb  over  the  horn,  in  case  of  its  blowing  up. 

5.  POINT  YOUR  GUNS. — This  should  be  executed  with  the  quarter  tackles, 
it  being  speedier,  when  well  plied,  than  with  handspikes,  and  less  injurious  to 
the  decks,  while  it  leaves  those  implements  ready  for  the  important  office  of  ele- 
vation or  depression.     This  done,  the  men  stand  in  their  stations. 

6.  FIRE! — This  electric  order  is  to  be  executed  with  peculiar  care;  and  if 
the  jerk,  which  the  captain  of  the  gun  gives  the  trigger  string,  makes  only  a  flash 
in  the  pan,  a  match  or  salamander  should  be  applied  the  second  time.     The 
moment  the  piece  is  fired,  stop  the  vent  to  extinguish  any  sparks  which  may  re- 
main in  the  chamber. 

7.  SPUNGE  YOUR  GUNS. — This  order  should  be  executed  briskly,  the  vent 
being  served.     The  spunge  is  to  be  turned  round  once  or  twice  in  the  chamber; 
and  the  spunger,  on  drawing  it,  is  to  beat  its  head  outside  the  port-cell,  to  shake 
off  any  adhering  sparks.     Every  third  round,  the  gun  is  to  be  wormed.     While 
the  exercise  continues,  the  second  word  of  command  will  be  here  given, — but  at 
the  conclusion,  the  following  : — 

8.  SECURE  YOUR  GUNS. — The  gun  is  now  properly  secured,  the  breeching 
taken  up  and  seized,  the  apron  and  tompion  replaced,  and  every  implement  re- 
turned to  its  station.     The  magazine  to  be  shut,  and  the  decks  carefully  swabbed, 
to  take  off  whatever  grains  of  powder  may  have  dropped. 

The  latter  part  of  Commander  Marshall's  description  relates  to  the  facility  of 


74  NAVAL   GUNNERY. 

traversing  his  carriage,  by  merely  inserting  the  crutch  into  a  fixed  pivot.  This 
very  material  advantage  will  render  it  available  in  flotilla  armaments,  a  descrip- 
tion of  force  which  has  hitherto  been  greatly  neglected,  although,  on  several  oc- 
casions, an  important  stake  has  depended  on  the  issue  of  their  efficiency.  We 
would  strongly  recommend  regular  training  to  this  active  branch  of  offence  and 
defence; — and  from  much  gun-boat  experience,  would  consider  as  axioms,  1.  To 
exercise  on  every  opportunity  which  may  offer ;  for  as  the  motion  of  an  engine 
depends  on  the  adjustment  of  its  parts,  so  the  power  of  artillery  will  be  in- 
fluenced by  the  dexterity  with  which  it  is  handled.  2.  To  be  certain  of  a  de- 
cisive range.  3.  To  fire  judiciously  rather  than  quickly.  4.  To  let  no  annoy- 
ance from  the  enemy  divert  attention  from  the  main  object  of  attack.  5.  In 
affairs  with  small  craft,  if  any  of  them  strike,  to  cut  away  their  masts  and  rig- 
ging, and  throw  then*  arms  and  sweeps  overboard,  but  not  to  retain  possession  of 
one,  until  the  whole  shall  be  defeated.  6.  To  be  as  sure  of  an  orderly  retreat  as 
is  consistent  with  the  nature  of  the  service :  it  is  true,  that  a  line-of-battle-ship  in 
a  calm  resembles  a  palsied  giant,  and  is  a  fair  object  for  a  mosquito  fleet ;  but  it 
should  not  be  forgotten,  that,  if  resuscitated  by  a  breeze,  she  will  run  over  her 
puny  adversaries,  like  a  jackass  amongst  chickens, — they  therefore  should  be  on 
the  alert  to  sweep  off  with  the  first  perceptible  air  of  wind. 

To  enforce  the  necessity  of  exercise,  even  in  the  smaller  classes  of  vessels,  we 
submit  a  recent  example  of  the  power  of  precision  and  coolness  over  the  "  bru- 
tumfulmen"  of  ill-directed  force;  as  evinced  in  the  battle  between  the  Almi- 
rante,  a  Spanish  slaver,  and  the  Black  Joke.  Indeed,  without  entering  some- 
what into  detail,  it  would  appear,  from  the  great  disparity  between  them,  that 
the  former  was  captured  by  surprise,  but  she  was  taken  by  downright  "  ham- 
mering,"— and  Commodore  Collier  asserts,  that  he  "  never  in  his  life  witnessed 
a  more  beautiful  specimen  of  good  gunnery,  than  the  stern,  and  quarter  of  the 
Spaniard  exhibited  after  the  action." 

It  seems  that  the  Almirante  was  a  remarkably  fine  brig,  of  360  tons,  pierced 
for  twenty  guns,  but  with  fourteen  only  mounted,  four  of  which  were  long  nines, 
and  the  rest  eighteen-pound  govers.  She  had  a  crew  of  eighty  picked  men,  and 
was  commanded  by  a  resolute  fellow,  who  had  determined  not  to  surrender  but 
to  a  superior  force.  She  was  formerly  ship-rigged,  and  called  the  Oroonoko, 
but  was  altered  to  a  "  clipper,"  at  an  expense  of  35,000  dollars,  expressly  for 
security  in  the  flesh  traffic.  Thus  equipped,  she  arrived  on  the  coast  of  Africa, 
in  August  1828,  and  was  generally  at  anchor  in  Lagos  Roads, — the  captain  on 
shore  purchasing  slaves,  and  the  mate  under  orders  to  weigh,  and  prepare  for 
battle,  on  any  suspicious  sail  heaving  in  sight.  As  both  her  business  and  her 
destination  were  notorious,  Commodore  Collier  was  anxious  for  her  capture, 
and  the  Black  Joke,  commanded  by  Lieut.  Downes,  was  ordered  to  watch  her 
closely.  The  latter  was  also  a  beautiful  brig ;  but  she  was  a  hundred  tons 
smaller,  while  her  force  was  only  one  long  eighteen  on  a  pivot,  and  a  twelve- 
pounder  carronade,  with  a  crew,  including  supernumeraries,  of  fifty-seven  men. 

On  the  28th  of  Jan.  1829,  having  embarked  466  slaves,  the  Almirante  took 
advantage  of  a  favourable  moment,  and  sailed  for  Havannah.  On  missing  her, 
Downes  with  great  judgment  anticipated  her  course,  and  at  daybreak  on  the 
31st,  she  was  perceived  from  the  mast-head,  standing  to  the  southward  under  a 
heavy  press  of  canvass.  An  arduous  pursuit  now  commenced ;  and  a  letter  with 
which  we  were  favoured  from  Fernando  Po,  dated  a  week  after  the  affair,  affords 
the  following  interesting  details. 

"  Thus  we  at  length  got  sight  of  our  rakish-looking  friend,  and  though  every 
man  with  me  was  well  acquainted  with  her  superiority  of  strength,  they  appear- 
ed delighted  at  the  chance  of  a  brush.  By  half-past  nine  the  wind  had  died 
away,  on  which  we  out  sweeps,  and  helped  her  full  thirty  miles  a-head.  About 
5  P.M.  we  had  neared  the  chase  sufficiently  to  smack  a  shot  at  her,  and  at  45 
past  5,  she  shortened  sail,  fired  a  gun  to  windward,  and  hoisted  Spanish  co- 


NAVAL   GUNNERY.  75 

lours;    afterwards  she  wore  twice,  giving  us  her  broadside  each  time,  but — 
though  from  having  no  bulwarks  our  men  were  all  exposed — without  effect. 

"  It  being  now  sunset,  and  not  considering  it  prudent  to  sweep  under  the 
range  of  her  guns,  I  merely  kept  close  to  her  during  the  night,  and  baffled  every 
manoeuvre  which  was  made  for  escape.  At  dawn  of  day,  the  brigs  were  be- 
calmed within  a  mile  and  a-half  of  each  other,  and  remained  so  till  noon,  thus 
allowing  full  time  to  prepare  for  mutual  civilities.  At  30  past  12,  the  wind 
springing  up  from  the  westward,  enabled  the  Almirante  to  lay  up  for  us,  on  which 
I  tacked,  to  get  on  her  weather  quarter,  and  after  a  stretch,  tacked  again  and 
edged  away  to  close.  At  40  past  2,  when  we  had  taken  a  station  within  grape 
range,  she  wore  and  engaged  us  with  a  rapid  fire  of  her  larboard  broadside; 
this  was  answered  by  three  hearty  cheers,  and  cool  discharges  from  our  long 
gun  and  carronade,  till  she  wore  at  about  15  past  3.  Considering  the  great  dis- 
parity of  our  equipment,  I  resolved  to  board  at  once ;  the  helm  was  therefore 
put  up,  the  sails  trimmed,  and  we  stood  directly  for  her ;  but  the  wind  falling 
scant  before  we  could  close,  she  succeeded  in  bringing  her  starboard  guns  to 
bear,  with  a  quick  fire  of  round  and  grape,  which  better  directed  might  have 
proved  fatal,  but  the  shot  mostly  passed  over  us.  At  30  past  3,  a  light  air  sprang 
up,  when  she  endeavouring  to  wear,  brought  us  so  close  as  to  enable  me  to  take 
up  a  commanding  position  on  her  larboard  quarter,  whence  we  raked  her  com- 
pletely, fore  and  aft,  for  twenty  minutes,  when  her  fire  being  silenced,  we  were 
hailed  with  the  tidings  that  she  had  struck.  The  breeze  freshening  at  this  mo- 
ment, I  laid  her  on  board. 

"  On  taking  possession,  we  found  the  deck  abandoned  to  the  dead  and  the 
dyine;,  for  she  did  not  strike  till  the  captain,  his  two  mates,  and  the  boatswain 
were  killed, — the  third  mate  being  the  only  surviving  officer.  In  the  latter  part  of 
the  action,  our  fire  had  been  so  warm,  that  the  Spaniards  deserted  their  quarters, 
seeking  refuge  amongst  the  terrified  slaves ;  and  I  was  happy  to  find  that  of 
these  poor  wretches,  only  one,  a  female,  was  wounded.  The  vessel  was  in  excel- 
lent fighting  order,  the  running  ropes  being  unrove  from  the  fair  leaders  of  the 
lower  rigging,  and  frapped  snugly  round  the  masts;  the  topsail  sheets  were 
stoppered,  the  yards  slung  with  chains,  peak  halliards  stopped  in  two  places, 
and  all  lumber  thrown  overboard.  On  drawing  the  guns,  we  found  a  round 
shot  and  two  grape  in  each,  and  demanding  of  the  people  the  reason  of  their 
firing  so  high,  they  answered,  '  that  it  was  the  captain's  intention  to  dismast  us 
first,  and  then  sink  us  at  leisure.'  There  were  several  men  stationed  in  the  tops, 
who  were  to  have  been  handsomely  rewarded  for  all  the  officers  they  killed ; 
but  our  carronade,  with  its  shower  of  musket-balls,  soon  settled  this  matter.  All 
the  starboard  main  shrouds  of  the  Almirante  were  cut  off  in  a  line,  as  smoothly 
as  if  it  had  been  done  with  an  axe.  I  found  out  afterwards,  that  the  black  cook 
had  stowed  away  about  two  fathoms  of  chain,  promising  that  the  first '  negro 
catcher'  we  had  a  i  palaver'  with  should  have  it  as  a  present  from  an  African. 
He  faithfully  put  his  promise  into  execution,  for  he  contrived  to  get  it  into  the 
long  gun,  in  the  course  of  the  loading ;  and  I  have  no  doubt  but  this  accounts  for 
the  rigging  being  cut  in  the  remarkable  way  it  was." 

Thus  ended  an  action  not  more  creditable  for  intrepidity  than  for  tact.  Both 
vessels  sustained  considerable  injury  in  the  hulls,  masts,  yards,  sails,  and  rig- 
ging ;  but  the  other  effects  of  cannonade  were  widely  different,  for  while  the 
Spaniard,  of  14  guns,  only  wounded  six  people,  her  opponent,  with  two  pieces  of 
ordnance,  killed  fifteen,  and  wounded  thirteen.  It  may  be  added,  as  an  anec- 
dote of  "  keen  cruising,"  that  when  the  victors  were  burying  the  dead,  *'  Avast 
there  !"  cries  one,  "  that  fellow  's  an  officer — let 's  overhaul  him  a  bit  before  he 
goes  overboard  :"  they  did  so,  and  found  a  belt  round  his  waist,  which  inclosed 
a  zone  of  doubloons  1 


76 


ROYAL    MILITARY    COLLEGE,    SANDHURST. 

HAVING  recently  undertaken  to  correct  some  misapprehensions 
which  appeared  to  have  arisen  on  the  subject  of  our  System  of  Military 
Education,  and  to  exhibit  from  unquestionable  data  the  actual  theory 
and  course  of  that  system,  more  particularly  as  regards  Sandhurst,  we 
now  proceed  to  detail  such  of  its  practical  results  as  may  be  gathered 
from  the  evidence  of  the  last  Half-yearly  Examination,  which  we  had 
the  gratification  to  witness :  indeed,  the  important  and  highly  national 
principle  upon  which  this  Institution  is  based  and  regulated  being  Uni- 
versally appreciated,  there  is  no  question  except  as  to  its  co-efficient 
administration. 

Thursday  and  Friday,  the  10th  and  llth  of  December,  were  ap- 
pointed by  the  General  Commanding-in- Chief  for  the  Half-yearly 
Public  Examination  of  the  Gentlemen  Cadets  of  the  Junior  Depart- 
ment, and  Saturday  the  12th,  for  that  of  the  Officers  studying  at  the 
Senior  Department. 

The  Board  of  Commissioners  which  assembled  to  hold  the  Examina- 
tions consisted  of  the  Secretary  at  War,  the  Governor  of  the  College, 
(Gen.  the  Hon.  Sir  Edward  Paget,)  Lieut.-Gen.  the  Right  Hon.  Sir 
George  Murray,  Secretary  of  State  for  War  and  Colonies,  the  Quarter- 
Master-General  of  the  Army,  (Lieut.-Gen.  Sir  Willoughby  Gordon,) 
the  Adjutant-General  of  the  Army,  (Lieut.-Gen.  Sir  Herbert  Taylor,) 
the  Deputy-Adjutant-General,  (Major-Gen.  Macdonald,)  and  Sir 
George  Scovell,  the  Lieutenant-Governor  of  the  Institution.  Major- 
Gen.  Sir  Howard  Douglas  was  also  present  on  the  last  day.  Capt. 
Garvock  attended  as  Secretary  to  the  Board. 

FIRST    DAY. 

On  Thursday,  after  the  Military  Inspection  of  the  Battalion  of  Gentle- 
men Cadets,  who  received  the  Commissioners  with  their  band  and  co- 
lours, the  business  of  the  day  commenced  with  the  Examination  of  one 
Gentleman  Cadet  in  Conic  Sections  and  Spherical  Trigonometry,  and  of 
five  others  in  the  ordinary  Collegiate  course  of  Mathematics,  consisting 
of  Plane  and  Solid  Geometry,  Plane  Trigonometry,  Mensuration  of 
Heights  and  Distances,  &c.  In  Conic  Sections  and  Spherical  Trigo- 
nometry, Gent.  Cadet  Clement  Edwards  passed  a  very  distinguished 
examination  :  and  we  understood  that  the  general  merit  of  this  Cadet 
was  favourably  estimated  by  his  superiors.  In  the  ordinary  Mathema- 
tical course,  Gent.  Cadet  Robert  JPetley  displayed  most  ability,  and 
generally  maintained  his  superiority  throughout  the  other  branches  of 
study  in  which  he  successively  appeared.  This  examination,  of  which 
Professor  Ley  burn  was  the  medium,  was  conducted  principally  on  those 
parts  of  the  elementary  Mathematics  which  are  immediately  applicable 
to  practical  and  professional  purposes :  such  as  the  Trigonometrical  mea- 
surement of  inaccessible  Heights  and  Distances,  the  calculation  of  the 
cubic  contents  of  parapets  and  ditches,  for  apportioning  the  remblai  and 
deblai  of  works,  and  other  Military  propositions*  of  Plane  and  Solid 
Geometry. 

A  class  of  thirteen  Gentlemen  Cadets  were  next  examined  in  Latin. 
The  book  they  brought  up  was  Tacitus,  an  author  whose  terse  and 
elliptical  style  renders  him  frequently  obscure  even  to  the  professed 


ROYAL    MILITARY    COLLEGE,    SANDHURST.  77 

scholar ;  yet  a  portion  of  the  Germania,  chosen  at  hazard  by  the  Com- 
missioners from  the  volume,  was  construed  with  a  fluency  and  elegance 
which  surprised  us. 

The  class  for  examination  in  French,  consisting  of  eight  Gentlemen 
Cadets,  was  next  called  up,  and  rendered  a  portion  of  Fenelon's  Tele- 
machus  into  English,  and  of  a  History  of  England  into  French.  This, 
from  the  discrepancies  and  peculiarities  of  national  idioms,  is  a  process 
of  no  slight  difficulty  to  be  correctly  done, — and,  making  due  allow- 
ance, the  respective  translations  were,  in  the  present  instance,  very 
fairly  and  fluently  executed.  We  are  bound  to  observe  that,  in  every 
case,  the  matter  selected  for  trial  was  named  from  the  volumes  at  large 
by  the  Commissioners,  who  severally  probed  the  acquirements  of  the 
Cadets  in  each  branch  of  study  with  a  close  and  searching  scrutiny. 

The  last  class  which  appeared  for  the  day  was  composed  of  twelve 
Gentlemen  Cadets  for  examination  in  German,  a  language  as  useful  to 
the  military  as  delightful  to  the  literary  student.  They  translated  the 
Geschichte  des  Sieben-j  cihrigen  Krieges  (History  of  the  Seven  Years' 
War)  of  Von  Archenholtz,  with  great  accuracy,  and  displayed  a  re- 
markable command  of  the  classic  German  pronunciation  and  accent. 
The  Adjutant-General  took  an  active  part  in  the  examination  of  this 
class,  and  at  its  close  paid  a  just  tribute  to  their  proficiency. 

In  the  intervals  of  this  day's  examination,  two  complete  courses  of 
military  surveying  and  sketching,  which  had  been  performed,  the  one 
by  eight,  the  other  by  seven,  Gentlemen  Cadets,  during  the  half-year, 
were  submitted  to  the  inspection  of  the  Commissioners.  We  would 
gladly  give  all  the  details  of  these  courses,  did  our  space  permit ;  their 
merit  and  utility  will,  however,  be  understood,  when  we  state  that  they 
consisted  of  sketches  of  ground,  plots  of  road  and  boundaries,  surveyed, 
in  detached  parts,  by  Theodolite,  and  laid  down  by  Protractor,  plans 
of  triangulation  taken  by  the  Pocket-Sextant,  diagrams  of  measured 
heights  and  distances,  &c.  done  generally  under  the  direction  of  the 
Professor  by  the  several  Cadets  in  separate  sketches  and  surveys, 
^hich  were  subsequently  connected  in  plans :  each  course  closing  with 
several  series  of  combined  sketches,  of  which  a  part  was  executed  by 
each  Cadet  without  Professor  or  instruments,  and  in  a  single  morning. 
Of  these  specimens  in  surveying,  all  of  them  well,  and  many  of  them 
beautifully  executed,  the  sketches  of  Gent.  Cadet  Petley  were  infi- 
nitely the  best ;  indeed,  the  drawings  of  this  deserving  Cadet  appeared 
to  us  altogether  of  a  masterly  character,  surpassing  what  we  could  have 
expected  from  a  youthful  pupil.  On  the  whole,  this  feature  of  the 
College  course  struck  us  as  being  eminently  conclusive  of  its  practical 
utility,  as  well  as  of  its  superior  power  and  mode  of  imparting  essen- 
tial instruction. 

The  side-tables  of  the  Board  Room  were  also  covered  with  military 
drawings,  both  in  pen  and  brushwork,  and  some  very  boldly-pencilled 
delineations  of  ground  from  models,  ail  copied  in  a  business-like  style 
in  the  halls  by  the  Gentlemen  Cadets  of  the  lower  class  of  this  useful 
study,  who  are  thus  accurately  trained  for  the  subsequent  operation  of 
sketching  in  the  field.  Amongst  these  specimens,  we  observed  a  map 
of  the  Bombay  Presidency,  comprising  about  fifteen  square  feet  of  ela- 
borate work,  which  had  been  copied  by  some  of  the  Gentlemen  Cadets 
for  the  use  of  the  Quarter-Master-General's  Department  at  the  Horse 


78  ROYAL   MILITARY    COLLEGE,   SANDHURST. 

Guards,  from  an  original  Military  Survey,  by  Lieut.-Colonel  Suther- 
land. Several  Books  of  Landscape  Drawing  were  also  exhibited,  and 
in  this  department  Gent.-Cadet  Petley  also  excelled.  The  pupils  of 
Mr.  De  la  Motte  produced  some  sketches  of  forest  trees  in  the  excellent 
manner  of  their  master,  so  popularly  known  by  his  published  etchings 
of  that  subject. 

SECOND    DAY. 

On  Friday  morning,  the  Commissioners,  after  the  usual  military  re- 
ception, proceeded  to  the  Board  Room,  where  the  examination  was 
resumed.  A  class  of  twelve  Gentlemen  Cadets  were  examined  in  Eu- 
clid's Geometry ;  after  which,  another  class  of  eight  came  forward  to 
complete  their  qualifications  for  commissions  and  certificates,  by  exami- 
nation in  Fortification.  In  this  Inquiry,  which  was  most  rigidly  carried 
through  the  intricacies  of  permanent  and  field  fortification,  the  candi- 
dates acquitted  themselves  admirably — proving  themselves  thoroughly 
acquainted  with  their  subject.  Gent.-Cadets  George  Grey  and  Petley 
were  particularly  distinguished.  We  have  never  heard  a  more  lucid 
and  intelligent  exposition  of  a  given  subject,  than  the  process  and 
rationale  of  forming  Inundations  in  Field  Fortification,  as  described  by 
the  former,  whose  manner  of  acquitting  himself  on  this  occasion  drew 
a  warm  eulogium  from  the  Secretary-at-War,  who  had  taken  a  promi- 
nent part  in  the  examination. 

From  the  Board  Room  the  Commissioners  then  adjourned  to  the 
Model  Room,  to  prosecute  the  examination  of  the  same  class  through 
the  attack  and  defence  of  places,  illustrated  by  the  superb  model  con- 
structed on  the  principles  of  Cormontaingne,  the  most  complete  and 
beautiful  work  of  its  kind  probably  in  Europe,  and  reflecting  great 
credit  on  Mr.  Polchet,  the  Professor  of  Fortification,  by  whom  its  exe- 
cution was  superintended.  Here  the  class  was  closely  examined  through 
the  whole  progress  of  a  siege,  from  the  formation  of  the  first  parallel  to 
the  assault  of  the  last  retrenchment  in  the  body  of  the  place.  Having 
passed  this  ordeal  in  a  most  satisfactory  manner,  the  class  was  senl^ 
without  their  Professor,  who  remained  in  close  custody,  to  trace  a  field 
work  on  ground  in  front  of  the  College,  while  the  Commissioners  re- 
paired to  the  Riding  School. 

Here  we  were  greatly  delighted  with  the  exhibition  of  twenty  of  the 
Cadets,  most  advanced  in  the  drill  of  this  manly  and  graceful  branch 
of  military  instruction,  who,  with  well-trained  precision,  put  their 
steeds  through  the  various  paces,  filed  through  several  evolutions,  and 
finally,  cleared  the  leaping-bar  in  file,  at  a  walk,  trot,  and  gallop,  with 
the  skill  and  steadiness  of  veteran  Hussars.  The  Commissioners  being 
pressed  for  time,  could  not  view  the  very  useful  practice  in  taking  up 
positions  and  distances  in  line  and  column  on  horseback,  in  which  Capt. 
Chadwick,  the  active  and  intelligent  Riding  Master,  had  for  some  time 
been  daily  exercising  this  class. 

From  the  Riding  School  the  Commissioners  proceeded  to  inspect  the 
task  which  the  Fortification  Class  had,  meanwhile,  executed.  From  a 
list  of  every  variety  of  Field  Work,  the  Commissioners  had  chosen,  for 
this  trial,  a  bastioned  Fort,  to  serve  as  a  tele  either  for  a  bridge  or  other 
object ;  and  in  less  than  an  hour  the  tracing  with  lines  and  pickets 
was  completed ;  and  two  profiles  were  set  up  for  the  direction  of  a 


ROYAL    MILITARY    COLLEGE,    SANDHURST.  79 

working  party.     This  proof  alone  formed  a  practical  commentary  on 
the  merits  of  our  ft  Military  Education." 

The  Commissioners  having  returned  to  the  Board  Room,  the  exami- 
nation of  two  more  classes,  one  in  History,  consisting  of  seven  Gentle- 
men Cadets,  and  another  in  Latin,  of  nine,  closed  the  business  of  the 
Junior  Department.  The  periods  selected  by  the  Commissioners  from 
the  Course  of  Antient  and  Modern  History,  for  the  trial  of  this  Class, 
were  "  The  First  Triumvirate,"  and  the  Reigns  of  Henry  VIII.  of  Eng- 
land, and  his  three  successors.  The  former  period  was  concisely  nar- 
rated by  the  Cadets ;  and  the  examination  in  the  latter  was  conducted 
by  leading  questions  from  the  Secretary-at-War  and  Quarter-Master- 
General.  The  result  proved  that  the  Class  was  possessed  of  a  mass  of 
sound  Historical  information.  It  struck  us,  that  the  course  of  Mo- 
dern History,  which  is  now  confined  to  Russel,  might  be  advanta- 
geously extended  or  rather  varied.  Every  writer  does  not  relate 
every  fact — and  each  has  some  modification  of  cause  and  effect,  authen- 
ticated or  inferential. 

The  Seconcf  Latin  Class  was  examined  in  Juvenal  from  the  expur- 
gate Edition  provided  for  the  use  of  the  Gentlemen  Cadets,  the  2d,  6th 
and  9th  Satires  being  omitted.  The  translation  was  excellently  done; 
we  could  perhaps  have  wished  the  reading  of  the  Latin  Text  had  been 
more  measured  and  distinct.  At  the  close  of  the  Examinations,  the 
Commissioners  decided  upon  recommending  the  following  Gentlemen 
Cadets,  on  the  completion  of  their  qualifications,  to  the  General  Com- 
manding-in-Chief,  to  receive  commissions  in  the  army, — 

Robert  Petley,  John  A.  Cole, 

William  P.  K.  Browne,          James  T.  Airey, 

George  Grey,  Robert  T.  Eagar. 

And  the  following  Gentlemen  Cadets,  all  of  whom  had  received 
commissions  as  the  result  of  public  examinations  which  they  passed  in 
June  last,  were  now  presented  with  certificates,  recording  the  special 
approbation  of  the  Commissioners  at  the  farther  advancement  which 
they  had  made  in  their  studies, — 

Ensign  Clement  Edwards       .     .     .     18th  Foot. 

„       Robert  O.  Jones     ....    97th  do. 

„       James  N.  Boyd      ....     26th  do. 

„       James  H.  C.  Robertson  .     .     17th  do. 

„       Henry  Bates 38th  do. 

„       Morris  R.  Campbell    .     .     .    95th  do. 

The  whole  of  these  young  gentlemen  had  been  actively  employed 
during  the  half-year  in  the  Practical  Course  of  Military  Surveying  and 
Constructing  Field  Works,  with  a  detachment  of  the  Royal  Sappers 
and  Miners. 

Gentlemen  Cadets  Grey  and  Cole  having  also  completed  the  number 
of  steps  by  public  examination,  entitling  them  to  special  certificates, 
were  presented  with  these  honourable  distinctions,  in  addition  to  being 
recommended  for  commissions. 

The  general  result  of  the  Public  Examinations  of  the  Gentlemen 
Cadets  may  be  thus  stated : 

Fifteen  Gentlemen  Cadets  had  completed  their  qualifications  in  prac- 
tical Military  Surveying. 


80  ROYAL    MILITARY    COLLEGE,    SANDHURST. 

Thirteen  had  completed  the  practical  Course  of  Fortification,  by  the 
Construction  of  Field  Works,  and  had  been  instructed  in  the  actual 
process  of  Sapping. 

Eighteen  had  passed  public  examinations  in  various  parts  of  the  Ma- 
thematics. 

Eight  in  the  French  Language. 
Twelve  in  the  German. 
Twenty-two  in  Latin. 
Seven  in  History. 

Each  of  which  examinations  was  recorded  as  one  step,  of  five,  to- 
wards a  commission  or  certificate ;  the  number  of  commissions  now 
fully  gained  being  six,  and  the  number  of  certificates  eight. 

SENIOR  DEPARTMENT. 

Saturday  being  devoted  to  the  public  examination  of  the  Students 
at  the  Senior  Department  of  the  College,  the  following  Officers,  who 
had  completed  their  course  of  study,  appeared  before  the  Commission- 

r>T*C    __ 
d  Oj^^ 

Major  G.  Johnstone,  unattached. 
Capt.  W.  Eyre,  73d  Regiment. 
Lieut.  E.  K.  Young,  18th  ditto. 
Lieut.  R.  G.  Craufurd,  2d  Dragoons. 
Lieut.  W.  Rogers,  half-pay  Cape  Cavalry. 

The  portion  of  the  Mathematical  Course  selected  by  the  Commis- 
sioners for  the  examination  of  these  officers  was  principally  Conic 
Sections  and  Spherical  Trigonometry,  applied  to  the  purposes  of  Prac- 
tical Astronomy.  The  following  were  among  the  propositions  given:— 

Major  Johnstone. 

Find  the  relation  between  the  abscissae  and  ordinates  of  an  ellipse, 
viz.  Prove  that  the  square  of  the  transverse  axis  is  to  the  square  of 
the  conjugate,  as  the  rectangle  of  the  abscissae  is  to  the  square  of  the 
semi-ordinate. 

Find  the  latitude  of  a  place  by  two  altitudes  of  the  sun,  with  the 
interval  of  time  between  the  observations. 

Prove  that  the  distance  of  the  centre  of  a  projected  great  circle  from 
the  centre  of  the  primitive,  is  equal  to  the  tangent  of  the  inclination. 

Captain  Eyre. 

Prove,  that  when  a  tangent  is  drawn  to  an  ellipse,  and  an  ordinate 
from  the  point  of  contact,  the  semi-transverse  axis  is  a  mean  propor- 
tional between  the  distances  of  the  ordinate  and  tangent  from  the  cen- 
tre of  the  ellipse. 

Find  the  latitude  of  a  place,  having  given  an  altitude  of  the  sun, 
and  the  time  of  the  observation. 

Lieut.  Rogers. 

Prove  that  a  line  drawn  from  any  point  in  a  parabola  to  the  focus  is 
equal  to  the  distance  of  that  point  from  the  direction. 

Given  the  sun's  altitude  and  declination ;  find  his  azimuth,  the  va- 
riation of  the  compass,  and  the  time  of  the  observation. 

Lieut.  Young. 

When   ordinates  are  drawn  to  any  diameter  of  an  hyperbola,  the 


ROYAL    MILITARY    COLLEGE,    SANDHURST.  81 

rectangks  of  the  segments  between  the  curve  and  assymptotes  are 
equal  to  each  other. 

Find  the  error  of  a  watch  by  equal  altitudes  of  the  sun. 

In  the  stereogruphical  projection,  find  the  projected  diameter  of  a 
given  circle. 

Lieut.  Craufurd. 

Find  the  longitude  of  a  place  by  the  moon's  distance  from  the  sun, 
&c. 

Find  the  sides  of  a  spherical  triangle,  having  given  the  three 
angles. 

The  examination  of  the  Officers  in  Fortification  was  conducted  upon 
precisely  the  same  system  as  that  of  the  Gentlemen  Cadets ;  and  while, 
at  its  close,  the  five  proceeded  together  to  trace  a  field  work  on  the 
ground,  the  Commissioners  minutely  inspected  the  drawings,  surveys, 
and  plans  of  fortification  performed  at  the  Senior  Department  during 
the  half-year.  This  Course,  which  was  exceedingly  well  executed  and 
highly  interesting,  comprised  many  admirable  military  sketches  of 
parts  of  the  adjacent  country  ;  and  also  the  joint  survey  of  the  officers 
under  examination,  consisting  of  a  considerable  portion  of  the  chain 
of  heights,  or  South  Downs,  extending  across  the  county  of  Sussex — a 
work  which  evinced  a  perfect  knowledge  of  the  theory,  and  great  skill 
in  the  practice,  of  this  most  important  branch  of  military  science. 

At  the  conclusion  of  the  examination,  all  the  five  officers  were  pre- 
sented by  the  Commissioners  with  recommendatory  certificates  of  the 
first  class  to  the  General  Commanding-in-Chief.  Before  quitting  this 
subject,  we  must  remark,  that  the  very  limited  period  (twelve  months 
only  being  allowed  to  those  officers  who  have  previously  been  at  the 
Junior  department,  and  not  more  than  two  years  to  those  who  have  not) 
occupied  by  the  several  officers  in  preparing  themselves,  greatly  en- 
hanced the  merit  of  their  distinguished  proficiency;  nor  must  we 
omit  a  deserved  tribute  to  the  popular  and  accomplished  Professor, 
Mr.  Narrien,  by  whose  anxious  and  able  instruction  they  were  enabled 
to  make  so  rapid  yet  effectual  a  progress. 

The  Commissioners  concluded  by  inspecting  the  various  and  highly 
useful  models  in  plaster  of  Paris,  one  of  which  exhibits  most  accurately 
the  country  for  many  miles  round  the  College,  and  was  modelled  from 
the  surveys  of  the  Cadets.  These  models  are  intended  to  be  copied 
from,  in  order  that  the  Cadets  may  more  readily  master  the  actual  fea- 
tures of  ground.  We  should  also  enumerate  plans  of  the  field  works 
actually  constructing  by  the  Students  of  both  Departments,  as  well 
as  of  the  astronomical  problems  and  observations  carried  on  during 
the  term  by  the  officers  of  the  Senior  Department,  at  the  Observatory 
of  the  Royal  Military  College. 

Thus  terminated  an  examination,  calculated  to  impress  a  visitor  with 
the  very  highest  opinion  of  the  judicious  distribution  arid  practical  effi- 
cacy of  the  system  of  education  pursued  at  this  Institution,  although 
surpassing  the  late  exhibitions  of  the  same  kind  at  the  College 
only  in  such  a  fitting  ratio  as  its  principle  of  progressive  improve- 
ment insures.  To  the  sceptical  on  these  matters  we  would  say,  "  Go 
and  see  with  your  own  eyes,  and  judge  accordingly," — we  will  guaran- 
tee their  conviction,  if  not  conversion ;  as  we  have  reason  to  assume  in 
U.  S.  JOURN.  No.  13.  JAN.  1830.  G 


82 

the  case  of  an  inquiring  Member  of  the  Lower  House,  to  whom  we 
ascribe  none  but  the  most  honest  motives,  and  who  minutely  inspected 
the  Establishment,  as  those  should  do  who  undertake  to  criticise  its 
administration.  While  on  this  subject,  we  may  be  permitted  to  offer  a 
few  suggestions  which  strike  us  as  worthy  of  attention.  The  present 
Board  Room  appears,  from  its  situation  arid  confined  dimensions,  incon- 
venient and  inadequate  as  the  scene  of  the  general  examinations  ; 
from  its  construction,  it  is  also  extremely  ill  calculated  for  hearing  the 
more  subdued  voices  of  the  Gentlemen  Cadets.  We  would  therefore 
propose  that  this  apartment  should  be  converted  into  a  Library  and 
General  Reading  Room  for  the  Cadets,  for  which  purpose  it  seems  pe- 
culiarly adapted  and  well  placed  ;  and  in  its  stead,  we  would  recom- 
mend that  one  of  the  extensive  halls  on  the  ground-floor,  and  adjoining 
the  grand  entrance,  should  be  converted  into  a  theatre  for  the  public 
examinations,  with  suitable  accommodation  for  the  attendance  of  the 
whole  of  the  Cadets,  upon  whom  the  spectacle  might  have  a  more  ex- 
citing and  beneficial  effect  than  results  from  their  present  exclusion. 
Respectable  visitors  might  also  be  admitted,  perhaps  invited  ;  and  the 
examination  might  altogether  assume  a  more  public  character.  We 
are  perfectly  aware  of  the  dignified  disregard  of  any  thing  like  display 
entertained  by  the  Authorities  of  the  College ; — but  the  effect  of  en- 
creased  publicity,  we  are  persuaded,  would  be  to  promote  materially  the 
popularity  of  this  truly  national  institution.  It  also  occurred  to  us  as 
an  omission  which  might  be  supplied  in  some  such  arrangement  as 
the  above,  that  the  succession  of  Governors  is  not  recorded,  as  they 
might  be,  in  a  series  of  portraits :  the  hall  might  also  be  permanently 
decorated  with  select  specimens  of  drawing  in  every  branch,  and  other 
proofs  of  merit  and  proficiency  on  the  part  of  the  Students  of  both 
departments. 

We  were  forcibly  struck  by  the  spirit  of  improvement  which  obvi- 
ously pervades  every  department  of  the  College,  extending  its  salutary 
influence  to  the  very  face  of  Nature.  Throughout  all  classes  of  its 
personnel,  we  observed  an  unaffected  zeal  and  efficient  co-operation  for 
the  public  ends  in  view : — while,  from  that  which,  a  few  brief  years 
since,  was  but  a  dreary  and  unprofitable  desert,  a  varied  and  romantic 
domain  has  been  created,  adorned  with  noble  buildings,  tufted  with 
thriving  woods,  and  ornamented  by  a  fine  and  picturesque  sheet  of 
water,  collected  from  the  reclaimed  swamps  which  tainted  and  deform- 
ed the  estate,  into  a  noble  and  salubrious  reservoir  for  the  aquatic  sports 
of  the  Cadets.  Nor  is  this  all.  A  Town,  supported  by  the  College, 
has  sprung  up  in  the  waste,  and  the  means  of  subsistence  and  compe- 
tence have  been  thus  extended  to  hundreds  of  families. 

Bowing,  as  we  implicitly  do,  to  the  principle  of  a  just  and  per- 
vading economy,  we  confess  to  have  felt  involuntary  regret  at  the 
diminished  extent  of  the  line  as  we  first  approached  the  parade, 
shorn,  as  it  appeared,  of  one-half  its  former  numbers  and  staff.  Alas  ! 
the  shears  of  reduction  have  been  ruthlessly  at  work  here :  A  and 
D  have  been  lopped  from  B  and  C,  and  the  flanks  of  Majors  Wright 
and  Diggle  are  enfiladed  by  the  winds  of  Heaven.  It  is  in  self-de- 
fence, we  presume,  that  the  surviving  Juniors  are  throwing  up  an  en- 
trenchment en  cremaitliere,  (beautifully  and  scientifically  traced,)  to 
flank  and  defilade  their  left,  and  have  closed  and  thickened  the  sylvan 
defences  upon  their  right ; — that  the  Seniors  are  constructing  a  bastion 


EAST  INDIA  COMPANY'S  MILITARY  SEMINARY.       83 

field  fort,  neatly  encompassing  an  opportune  knoll,  to  repel  incur- 
sions from  the  rear :  while  Government  House  forms  an  admirable 
bulwark  in  front,  impregnable  to  outward  force  or  treachery,  though 
Jbospitably  accessible  by  its  gorge. 

We  could  extend  our  remarks  much  farther,  but  our  limits  warn  us 
it  is  high  time  to  conclude.  We  would  add  a  parting  and  general  ad- 
monition to  our  younger  comrades,  the  Gentlemen  Cadets,  to  profit  by 
the  peculiar  advantages  of  instruction  they  enjoy,  and  to  qualify  them- 
selves for  future  eminence  by  present  distinction — to  recollect  that  the 
character  of  their  preparatory  trial  will  infallibly  influence  that  of  their 
professional  career — and  that  neglected  opportunities  of  gaining  general 
knowledge  and  professional  qualification  rarely,  if  ever,  return  ;  and  are 
only  remembered  to  be  bitterly  deplored : — let  them  also  never  forget 
that  subordination,  the  link  of  all  society,  is  the  key-stone  of  military 
discipline  and  success.  W"e  advise  as  one  of  themselves — alive  to  their 
hopes  and  fears  and  youthful  prospects,  and,  haply,  not  unmindful  of 
some  natural,  though  unreasonable,  repugnance  to  restraints,  which, 
while  curbing  the  youthful  spirit,  temper  and  train  it  to  the  pursuits 
of  manhood. 

We  have  only  to  add,  that  we  derive  the  highest  gratification  from 
the  power  thus  afforded  us  of  doing  justice  to  the  practical  utility  and 
exemplary  administration  of  this  noble  Establishment  ;  and  of  referring 
the  successful  results  we  have  just  detailed  to  the  able  and  popular 
management  of  its  Governor  and  Lieutenant-Governor,  aided  by  the 
zealous  co-operation  of  the  Officers  and  Professors. 


INDIA  COMPANY'S  MILITARY  SEMINARY. 

THE  half-yearly  public  examination  at  this  institution  took  place  at 
Addiscombe,  on  Friday,  the  llth  instant,  in  presence  of  John  Lock, 
Esq.  Chairman  to  the  Hon.  the  Court  of  Directors,  William  Astell, 
Esq.  M.P.  Deputy  Chairman,  and  a  deputation  of  Directors.  Amongst 
the  many  distinguished  visitors  present,  were  his  Grace  the  Archbishop 
of  Canterbury,  the  Bishop  of  Rochester,  Sir  Howard  Douglas,  Sir  Au- 
gustus Frazer,  Col.  Williamson,  Col.  Drummond,  Lieut.  Col.  Jones, 
Ass.  Dep.  Adj.  Gen.  Royal  Artillery,  Lieut.  Col.  Pasley,  Royal  En- 
gineers, and  many  other  eminent  officers  of  the  Royal  and  of  the  Indian 
Armies. 

Having  in  our  number  for  August  last  given  a  detailed  account  of 
this  line  establishment,  it  is  unnecessary  for  us  on  the  present  occa- 
sion to  give  more  than  an  outline  of  the  proceedings  of  the  day. 

The  examination  was  conducted  by  the  distinguished  public  exami- 
ner Col.  Sir  Alexander  Dickson,  K.C.B.  of  the  Royal  Artillery.  There 
appeared  twenty-seven  Cadets  for  examination.  Their  mathematical 
acquirements  were  conspicuous  in  their  demonstrations  in  Geometry, 
Trigonometry,  Mensuration,  Mechanics,  Statistics,  &c.  and  (some  of 
the  most  advanced  Cadets)  in  Fluxions.  The  examination  in  Hindos- 
tanee  followed  the  Mathematics,  and  we  understand  that  some  of  the 
Directors,  well  acquainted  with  the  language,  expressed  very  great  sa- 
tisfaction at  the  proficiency  of  the  candidates.  The  examination  in 
Fortification  closed  the  proceedings,  and  we  were  more  gratified  at  the 
intelligence  of  the  Cadets  than  at  the  previous  examination  in  June. 
They  evidently  understood  the  subject,  though  the  explanation  of  the 

G  2 


84  APHORISMS    OF    SIR    PHILIP    SIDNEY. 

attack  was  somewhat  hurried,  arising,  we  presume,  from  the  day  clos- 
ing in  so  fast,  as  scarcely  to  leave  sufficient  light  to  conclude.  The 
drawings  of  fortification,  guns  and  gun-carriages,  of  saps  and  field- 
works,  were  exceedingly  good.  Those  of  the  guns  and  gun-carriages 
are  always  done  from  models. 

As  usual,  there  was  a  most  interesting  display  in  the  landscape 
drawing  department.  The  surveys  of  the  surrounding  country  in  the 
military  drawing  department  were  very  numerous :  some  of  them, 
considering  the  short  time  employed  on  them,  were  well  finished, 
and  executed  in  various  styles.  We  were  glad  to  recognise  some  plans 
taken  from  Marechal  Suchet's  beautiful  Atlas  of  his  Campaigns  in  Ca- 
talonia, as  nothing  in  the  shape  of  examples  can  exceed  his  plans  for 
correctness  and  expression.  If  this  important  department  is  useful  to 
the  King's  army,  it  is  particularly  so  to  the  Company's,  since  their  offi- 
cers are  scattered  over  so  vast  a  space,  much  of  which  remains  to  be 
surveyed  j  and  it  is  wisdom  in  the  Hon.  Company  thus  to  lay  a  foun- 
dation for  a  corps  of  good  surveyors.  Too  much  time  and  pains  cannot 
be  bestowed  on  practice  in  surveying,  reconnoitring,  and  in  the  exe- 
cution of  field-works,  and  we  rejoice  to  see  these  matters  gaining 
ground  at  our  military  institutions. 

Col.  Houstoun,  C.B.  the  Lieutenant-Governor  of  Addiscombe,  made 
his  report  of  the  conduct  and  discipline  of  the  establishment,  which,  on 
the  whole,  was  most  pleasing  and  satisfactory. 

Seven  Cadets,  Messrs.  Douglas,  Jacob,  Hill,  Siddons,  Wemyss, 
Horsley,  and  Tremenheere,  as  the  most  advanced  and  talented,  were 
appointed  to  the  corps  of  Engineers,  and  ordered  to  Chatham  to  attend 
Col.  Pasley's  establishment  for  instruction  in  sapping,  mining,  pon- 
tooning,  &c. ;  fourteen  were  appointed  to  the  Artillery,  and  six  to  the 
Infantry. 

The  Cadets  passed  in  review,  fired  a  salute  to  the  Chairman,  and 
performed  in  the  infantry  and  cavalry  sword  exercise  after  the  exami- 
nation. 


APHORISMS    OF    SIR   PHILIP    SIDNEY. 

COURAGE AND    HEROISM. 

I.  In  victory,  the  Hero  seeks  the  glory,  not  the  prey. 

II.  The  truly  valiant  dare  every  thing,  but  doing  anybody  an  injury. 

III.  In  a  brave  bosom,  honour  cannot  be  rocked  asleep  by  affection. 

IV.  The  brave  man  teacheth  his  son,  at  one  instant,  to  promise  him- 
self the  best,  and  to  despise  the  worst. 

V.  Courage  ought  to  be  guided  by  skill,  and  skill  armed  by  cou- 
rage.     Neither  should  hardiness  darken  wit,  nor  wit  coo]  hardiness. — 
Be  *  iliant  as  men  despising  death,  but  confident  as  unwonted  to  be 
overcome. 

VI.  The  first  work  of  valour,  is  defence. 

VII.  Whosoever  in  great  things  will  think  to  prevent  all  objections, 
must  be  still  and  do  nothing. 


85 


FOREIGN    MISCELLANY. 

"  Omnibus  errantem  tevris  et  fluctibus." — VIRGIL. 

In  presenting  our  readers  with  the  first  series  of  a  "  Foreign  Mis- 
cellany," intended  from  henceforth  to  occupy  a  distinct  compartment 
of  the  United  Service  Journal,,  we  beg  leave  to  lay  before  them  a  gene- 
ral view  of  the  objects  which  it  is  intended  to  embrace. 

The  foreign  naval  and  military  periodicals  being  in  little  circulation 
in  this  country,  we  have  reason  to  believe  that  an  occasional  insight 
into  their  contents  might  prove  acceptable  to  many,  if  not  to  most 
of  our  readers ;  the  information  respecting  the  existing  ordinances,  pro- 
jected improvements  %in,  and  general  character  of  the  naval  and  mi- 
litary system  of  the  European  and  Asiatic  continent,  together  with  the 
opportunity  of  becoming  acquainted  with  the  professional  productions 
of  other  countries,  which  an  acquaintance  with  these  journals  would 
afford,  were  advantages  which  decided  us  on  appropriating  a  portion 
of  our  columns  to  this  purpose,  and  we  have  accordingly  made  such 
arrangements  as  will,  when  matured,  enable  us  to  fulfil  effectually  the 
proposed  design. 

The  intended  selection  from  periodicals  will  not,  however,  prevent 
us  from  giving  independent  notices  of  such  foreign  professional  works 
as  may  appear  to  require  it ;  and  we  shall  make  it  our  duty  to  admi- 
nister that  "  even-handed  justice"  to  the  literary  productions  of  the 
stranger,  which  we  continue  scrupulously  to  distribute  to  those  of  our 
own  countrymen. 

FRANCE. 

"  Philosophie  de  la  Guerre,  suivie  de  Melanges,  par  le  Marquis  de  Chambray, 
Auteur  de  1'Histoire  de  TExpedition  de  Russie.  Deuxieme  Edition.  Paris, 
1829."  ("  Philosophy  of  War,  followed  by  Miscellaneous  Articles,  by  the 
Marquis  de  Chambray,  Author  of  the  History  of  the  Expedition  to  Russia. 
Paris.  Second  Edition/') 

The  first  edition  of  this  work,  which  appeared  in  1827,  was  perused  by  us 
with  much  interest,  and  we  were  then  gratified  at  seeing  the  acute  reasoning  and 
liberal  views  of  the  author,  acknowledged  by  a  contemporary  English  writer  ;* 
the  appearance  of  a  second  edition  has  marked  M.  de  Chambray *s  treatise  with 
the  seal  of  public  approbation,  and  placed  the  author  among  the  first-class-mili- 
tary writers  of  the  present  day.  In  the  revised  work  now  before  us,  some  ad- 
visable alterations  from,  and  additions  to  the  original  have  been  made,  and  an 
interesting  appendix,  under  the  title  of  Melanges,  has  been  subjoined,  forming 
together  an  octavo  volume,  nearly  twice  the  size  of  the  first  edition. 

To  those  yet  unacquainted  with  the  Philosophie  de  la  Guerre,  we  must  pre- 
mise that  the  author's  main  object  appears  to  have  been  an  investigation  of  the 
causes  which  operate  to  form  and  direct  the  feelings  and  actions  of  the  military 
character  in  all  its  branches,  and  in  all  situations — the  true  philosophy  of  war. 
This  application,  however,  of  the  term  to  which  Milton  has  given  the  epithet  of 
"  divine,"  f  did  not,  it  appears,  meet  with  the  approbation  of  the  French  critics ; 
and  M.  de  Chambray  opens  his  second  edition  with  a  defence  of  the  exclusive 
word,  which,  on  the  authority  of  Linnceus,  Voltaire,  Fourcroy,  and  other  emi- 
nent authors,  he  shows  to  have  been  justifiably  employed  by  him  in  the  title  to 

*  See  Beamish's  Bismark,  p.  113. 

t  "  How  charming  is  divine  philosophy  !  " — Comus,  Scene  2. 


86  FOREIGN    MISCELLANY. 

his  work.  In  tracing  the  varied  and  sinuous  courses  from  effect  to  cause,  M. 
de  Chambray  has  adopted  a  clear  and  comprehensive  plan ;  general  principles 
being  first  laid  down,  and  their  truth  afterwards  demonstrated  by  historical 
facts  :  no  coup  d'ceil  of  this  investigation  could  do  justice  to  the  singular  ability 
with  which  it  has  been  performed  ;  and  we  shall  therefore  confine  ourselves,  at 
least  for  the  present,  to  a  few  of  those  points  which  are  first  treated  of.  The 
author  recognises  two  principal  classes  among  troops,  namely,  those  who  em- 
brace the  military  life  as  a  profession,  and  those  who  are  brought  into  tempo- 
rary service  by  the  law  of  the  land,  the  dangers  of  their  country,  or  a  feeling  of 
honour.  "  There  are  scarce  any  armies  in  Europe,"  he  says,  "  composed  en- 
tirely of  soldiers  by  profession."  The  generally  acknowledged  superiority  of  a 
standing  army  is  then  insisted  on  ;  but  the  author  is  not  of  opinion  that  it  is 
most  trust-worthy  for  home  service,  when  composed  of  national  troops,  who,  he 
observes,  "  no  matter  what  their  composition,  are  more  apt  to  take  part  in  dis- 
turbances than  foreign  troops,  and  most  revolutions  have  been  aided  by  them. 
It  was  with  national  troops  that  Caesar  and  Cromwell  enslaved  their  country. 
The  French  guards  marched  with  the  mob  against  the  Bastile ;  the  Swiss,  faith- 
ful to  their  engagements,  perished  in  defending  the  King's  palace."  (p.  7.)  The 
military  qualities  of  troops  are  divided  into  permanent  and  temporary  qualities. 
u  Permanent  causes,"  says  the  author,  "  are  good  military  institutions,  and  good 
modes  of  making  war;  temporary  causes,  the  habits  of  war,  a  feeling  of  honour, 
love  of  glory,  desire  of  gain,  fanaticism,  patriotism,  love  of  liberty,  hatred 
against  a  rival  nation,  and  ambition  among  those  who  aspire  to  honours  and 
preferment.''  (p.  16.) 

After  detailing  the  qualifications  which  a  true  soldier  should  possess,  the 
Marquis  ventures  on  the  following  anti-matrimonial  doctrine,  which,  though  not 
likely  to  obtain  the  sanction  of  that  sex  whose  value, 

"  When  pain  and  anguish  wring  the  brow," 

the  great  Northern  bard  has  so  truly  painted,  must  yet  be  allowed  by  all  candid 
observers  of  cause  and  effect  to  be  too  well  grounded. 

"  The  qualities  of  which  I  have  just  spoken,  are  more  often  shared  by  those 
military  men  who  are  single,  than  those  who  are  married,  and  have  children ; 
by  those  who  have  no  family  but  their  companions  in  arms,  who  know  no  home 
but  their  colours,  than  by  those  who  are  influenced  by  other  and  more  powerful 
interests  than  the  interests  of  their  military  career,  or  who,  serving  for  a  limited 
period  only,  have  always  their  eyes  fixed  upon  the  time  when  they  will  be  able 
to  quit  the  service."  (ib.)  He,  who  makes  the  army  his  profession,  no  matter  of 
what  country,  or  in  what  service  he  is,  must  unquestionably  be  the  best  soldier, 
and  therefore  we  find  the  generally  good  conduct  of  mercenary  troops;  on  this 
subject,  the  learned  author  brings  forward  a  mass  of  evidence.  "  The  memor- 
able 10,000  of  Xenophon,"  says  he,  "were  part  of  an  army  consisting  princi- 
pally of  13,000  Greek  mercenaries  taken  into  pay  by  Cyrus  for  the  purpose  of 
dethroning  his  brother  Artaxerxes ;"  the  mutiny  of  these  troops,  and  this  conse- 
quent return  to  obedience  on  being  promised  more  pay,  is  also  alluded  to  in  a 
note  on  this  passage,  and  made  use  of  by  the  author  to  show,  that  although  self- 
interest  was  their  only  motive,  Cyrus  placed  his  chief  reliance  upon  their  exer- 
tions. "  The  Romans,"  continues  the  author,  "  were  often  beaten  by  the  famous 
mercenaries  in  the  pay  of  the  Carthaginians;  and  it  was  a  condition  of  the  treaty 
made  after  the  second  Punic  War,  that  the  latter  republic  should  no  longer  em- 
ploy such  auxiliaries.  The  best  troops  of  Germanicus  were  the  Bafavian  co- 
horts. 8000  Spanish  mercenaries,  commanded  by  Roger  de  Flor,  were,  in  1303, 
taken  into  the  pay  of  Andronicus  II.  Emperor  of  the  East,  and  notwithstanding 
their  inferiority  in  number  to  the  Ottomans,  gained  several  battles,  reconquered 
the  greater  part  of  Asia  Minor,  and  retarded  the  fall  of  the  empire ;  and  these 
same  troops,  to  avenge  themselves  for  the  death  of  their  leader,  who  had  been 
assassinated  by  Michael  Paleologus,  made  war  with  the  Greeks,  whom  they 
beat,  although  much  inferior  in  number,  in  several  engagements,  and  had  not 
discord  arisen  among  their  chiefs,  they  would  probably  have  caused  the  down- 
fall of  the  empire,  See.  On  the  death  of  Duke  Bernard  of  Saxe  Weimar,  seve- 


FOREIGN    MISCELLANY.  87 

ral  powers  endeavoured  to  attach  to  themselves  that  army,  with  which,  composed 
entirely  of  mercenaries,  he  had  made  himself  so  formidable  to  the  Imperialists. 
France  succeeded,  and  may  be  said  to  have  purchased  the  troops,  for  it  was  a 
money  matter ;  they  served  long  under  Turenne,  and  constantly  distinguished 
themselves;  they  formed  the  left  of  the  French  army  at  Nordlingen,  and  Conde 
owed  his  victory  to  their  valour,  &c.  In  the  present  day,  during  the  seven  years 
that  Napoleon  endeavoured  to  subjugate  Spain,  his  troops  gained  the  battles 
which  they  fought  against  the  Spaniards,  and  lost  the  greater  part  of  those  in 
which  they  were  opposed  to  the  British :  the  former  were,  however,  national 
troops,  filled  with  patriotism,  and  sometimes  with  fanaticism,  they  fought  for  the 
independence  of  their  country,  they  were  animated  with  feelings  of  hatred  against 
the  troops  of  Napoleon :  the  English  armies,  on  the  contrary,  were  composed 
of  men  of  different  nations,  and  almost  the  whole  of  the  individuals  who  com- 
posed them  were  soldiers  by  profession."  (pp.  12 — 16).  The  latter  illustration 
contains  a  just  eulogium  on  our  German  allies,  than  whom  no  better  or  braver 
ever  fought  in  the  ranks  of  the  British  army ;  but,  after  all,  these  facts  brought 
forward  in  favour  of  mercenary  troops,  might,  we  conceive,  be  applied  with 
equal  fitness  to  the  uncontested  position,  that  a  well-disciplined  army  is  better 
than  one  which  is  not  so ;  for  whether  the  former  be  mercenaries,  or  national 
troops,  they  must,  according  to  all  experience,  prove  superior  to  less  disciplined 
armies  which  may  far  exceed  them  in  number. 

The  popular  opinion  that  troops  show  the  greatest  valour  in  the  heart  of  their 
own  country,  and  in  defence  of  their  own  homes,  is  next  ably  combated ;  but 
we  must  check  our  disposition  to  make  farther  reference  to  this  interesting  book 
at  present,  promising  to  return  to  the  noble  Author  in  our  next  number. 


Among  some  otherwise  excellent  observations  of  Lieut.-Gen.  Brennier,  on  the 
Manoeuvres  of  Infantry,  inserted  in  the  Spectateur  Militaire  of  Sept.  1829,  we 
find  the  following  exact  and  modest  version  of  the  attack  by  the  20th  at  Rorica. 
The  survivors  of  the  old  29th,  who  were  present,  could,  we  think,  tell  a  some- 
what different  story. 

"  At  the  affair  of  Rorica,  or  rather  Azamlugeira,  I  had  sent  two  companies  of 
the  70th  regiment  to  the  left  for  the  purpose  of  guarding  the  debouche  of  a  defile 
which  I  had  luckily  observed :  these  two  companies  were  suddenly  attacked  by 
an  English  regiment ;  the  rest  of  Delaborde's  division  was  still  engaged  in  the 
principal  defile  which  debouched  upon  Azambugeira ;  all  was  lost  if  the  move- 
merit  of  the  English  regiment  could  not  be  arrested.  The  remainder  of  the  troops 
under  my  orders  was  indispensably  necessary  upon  the  different  points  where  I 
had  posted  them,  and  where,  in  fact,  I  was  successively  attacked  ;  I  could  not, 
therefore,  send  reinforcements,  I  had  not  even  time  to  do  so.  I  ran  myself  to- 
wards the  two  companies,  who,  not  believing  themselves  able  to  resist  the  great 
superiority  of  the  enemy,  were  retiring  in  good  order.  I  made  them  face  about, 
and  immediately  after,  fire,  and  charge  the  English  regiment,  which  was  thrown 
into  complete  disorder,  after  having  had  its  Colonel  (Lake)  killed,  and  many 
others  (among  whom  several  officers)  killed,  wounded,  and  prisoners."  The 
note  upon  this  passage  adds,  "  Gen.  Foy,  and  afterwards  Colonel  Napier,  in 
giving  an  account  of  the  affair  at  Rorica,  have  said  that  the  enemy  was  charged 
by  a  battalion,  but  I  was  upon  the  ground  and  these  gentlemen  were  not :  and  I 
am  certain  that  all  the  old  officers  of  the  brave  70th  will  testify  that  the  English 
regiment  which  attacked  our  left  was  only  charged  by  two  companies ;  I  will 
also  aver  that  we  were  not  more  than  2000  men  in  the  field  of  battle  at  Azam- 
bugeira :  Geri.  Foy  says,  according  to  authentic  documents,  we  were  less  than 
2500,  including  the  two  companies  detached  to  Bombarral  and  Cadoval.  Gen. 
Foy's  version  is  the  only  true  one ;  I  think  Colonel  Napier  is  wrong,  in  saying 
that  it  would  be  diminishing  the  glory  of  Gen.  Laborde  to  give  him  less  than 
5000  men,  it  appears  to  me  that  it  would  be  quite  the  contrary."  The  General 
proceeds — 

"  I  take  this  opportunity  to  contradict  the  question,  more  than  silly,  (plus  que 
niuise,}  and  above  all  things,  little  soldierlike,  which  Colonel  Napier  lias  attri- 


88 


FOREIGN    MISCELLANY. 


buted  to  me  on  my  arrival  at  the  English  head-quarters  at  Maceira,  after  I  had 
been  taken  prisoner  at  Vimeiro.  Being  wounded,  I  was  provided  with  a  horse, 
and  the  detachment  which  conducted  me  having  led  me  a  tolerably  long  detour, 
I  arrived  on  the  coast.  Here  I  found  an  English  Commodore,  who,  having  left 
his  ship  for  the  moment,  was  examining  the  movements  of  the  battle  with  his 
telescope  ;  on  perceiving  me,  he  approached  and  asked  me  several  questions ;  to 
those  which  appeared  to  me  insignificant,  I  replied;  but  not  thinking  it  my  duty 
to  answer  others,  I  put  to  him,  in  my  turn,  the  following  question.  '  If 
you,  Sir,  were  yourself  a  prisoner,  and  I  had  addressed  to  you  the  questions 
which  you  have  just  put  to  me,  would  you,  Sir,  I  ask,  answer  them  ? '  The 
Commodore  (Sir  Charles  Adam)  abashed,  made  many  apologies,  and  suffered 
me  to  continue  my  journey.  On  arriving  at  Maceira,  I  found  Sir  Arthur  Wel- 
lesley,  who  having  only  just  left  the  field  of  battle,  was  still  on  horseback,  arid 
as  I  preferred  embarking  immediately,  he  had  the  courtesy  to  send  one  of  his 
aide-de-camps  with  me  to  the  vessel,  into  which  I  went.  We  only  exchanged  a 
few  words ;  and  it  will,  I  hope,  be  believed,  that  after  my  reply  to  the  questions 
of  the  Commodore,  I  did  not  put  such  an  awkward  question  to  Sir  Arthur,  as 
'  Has  the  reserve  of  Gen.  Kellerman  come  up  ?'" — See  Napier,  Vol.  i.  p.  278. 

NAVAL    STEAM    CANNON. 

The  first  experiments  made  with  Perkins's  Steam  Cannon  at  Vincennes,  near 
Paris,  were  not  attended  with  very  brilliant  results,  and  it  appears  that  the  last 
have  not  been  more  fortunate.  The  enormous  apparatus  of  which  this  machine 
is  composed,  was  placed  at  about  forty  paces  distance  from  a  wooden  figure, 
formed  to  represent  the  hull  (carcasse)  of  a  man-of-war;  the  projectiles  thrown 
were  about  four-pound  calibre,  and  remained  fixed  in  the  thickness  of  the  wood  ; 
a  four-pounder  was  afterwards  fired  off  at  the  same  distance,  and  the  ball  pene- 
trated the  figure.  Other  experiments  may  possibly  give  different  results,  but 
even  allowing  that  the  superiority  of  Perkins's  Cannon  becomes  established,  the 
complication  of  the  machinery,  and  its  enormous  proportions,  will  render  its 
application  to  the  arming  of  ships  almost  impossible. — (Journal  du  Commerce,  in 
Bull,  des  Sciences,  Mil.  Aug.  1829.) 

NAVAL    FORCE    IN    FEANCE. 

The  naval  force  of  France  consisted,  on  the  1st  of  Jan.  of  this  year  (1829), 
of  276  ships  of  the  line  of  various  ranks,  viz.  33  men-of-war,  41  frigates,  6  cor- 
vettes, 25  brigs,  of  16  to  20  guns  each,  8  tenders  carrying  18  guns,  15  brigs  of  16 
guns,  and  151  vessels  of  other  calibre.  The  number  of  vessels  building  is  80. 

The  various  stations  will  require  for  the  year  1830,  should  no  extraordinary 
event  happen,  128  ships  of  war,  viz.  1  line-of-battle-ship,  14  frigates,  79  other 
vessels  of  less  calibre,  27  transports,  and  7  steam-vessels. 

The  following  is  the  comparative  pay  of  the  naval  officers  of  the  various 
Powers,  not  including  mess  allowances : — 

Francs.  Francs. 

36,000  A  United  States  Commander        7,120 

38,700  A  French  ditto                                6,000 

28,000  An  English  Commander  of  a  fri- 

27,000  gate                                              7,475 

24,250  A  Dutch  ditto                                 6,450 

12,000  A  Russian  ditto                              4,740 

12,911  A  United  States  ditto                     4,212 

17,200  A  French  ditto                                4,200 

10,920  (French  Journal.) 

PRUSSIA. 

NAPOLEON    IN    BERLIN. 

After  the  Prussian  troops  had  evacuated  Berlin,  the  administration  of  foreign 
affairs  was  carried  on  there  by  Prince  Hatzfeldt,  one  of  the  duties  of  whose  office 


An  English  Vice- Admiral 

A  Dutch  ditto 

A  French  ditto 

An  English  Rear-Admiral 

A  Dutch  ditto 

A  French  ditto 

An  English  Commander 

A  Dutch  ditto 

A  Russian  ditto 


FOREIGN    MISCELLANY.  89 

was  to   dispatch  a  daily    report  to  the  King   so   long  as  the  communications 
remained  open. 

At  noon  on  the  24th  of  October,  the  French  advanced-guard  entered  Berlin, 
and  the  next  day  was  followed  by  the  corps  of  Marshal  Davoust;  and  on  Sun- 
day, the  26th,  a  deputation  went  to  Potsdam,  to  compliment  Napoleon  on  his 
arrival  there.  Prince  Hatzfeldt  was  at  the  head  of  this  deputation,  and  was  re- 
ceived, as  is  said  on  such  occasions,  "  very  graciously."  In  the  evening  of  the 
same  day  the  Emperor  went  to  Charlottenburg,  and  at  four  o'clock  in  the  after- 
noon of  the  27th,  made  his  public  entry  into  Berlin. 

At  the  Brandenburg  gate  he  was  received  by  a  deputation  of  the  Chief  Ma- 
gistrates, who  came  to  present  him  with  the  keys  of  the  city ;  without  deigning 
to  honour  them  with  a  look,  he  rushed  by,  and  they  were  told  to  follow  him  to 
the  palace ;  there  Napoleon  received  Prince  Hatzfeldt  with  great  coldness,  and 
finally  told  him  that  he  did  not  require  his  services.  Astonished  at  this  reception, 
the  Prince  went  home,  and  sought  in  vain  the  key  of  his  house  ;  the  next  day  an 
officer  of  the  gendarmerie  waited  upon  him  with  an  arrest,  and  conducted  him 
on  foot  to  the  palace  guard-house.  The  Princess,  ignorant  of  the  cause  of  this 
arrest,  hurried  to  the  palace  of  the  Princess  Ferdinand,  and  there  received  from 
her  husband  a  note  written  in  pencil,  mentioning  what  had  occurred,  and  be- 
seeching her  to  go  herself  to  the  Emperor.  She  flew  to  the  palace,  and  found 
that  Napoleon  had  ridden  out  to  inspect  the  troops  of  Davoust.  One  of  the 
royal  servants  who  knew  her,  told  her  that  Duroc  was  at  home,  and  conducted 
her  to  him ;  she  was  most  kindly  received,  and  Duroc  had  the  Prince  brought 
from  the  guard-house  into  his  own  room,  at  the  same  time  promising  to  take  an 
opportunity  of  speaking  to  Napoleon,  whose  return  being  just  at  this  moment 
announced  by  the  drums,  he  had  only  time  to  lead  the  Princess  to  a  place  which 
the  Emperor  must  pass,  and  went  to  meet  his  master. 

When  Napoleon  approached  the  Princess,  he  inquired  her  name,  and  imme- 
diately ordered  M.  de  Segur  to  conduct  her  to  Marshal  Berthier,  but  she  had 
only  been  there  a  few  minutes  when  he  sent  for  her.  The  antichamber  was  filled 
with  officers  of  the  Emperor's  suite ;  beyond  this  were  yet  two  apartments  to 
cross  before  she  could  reach  Napoleon's  cabinet.  As  she  opened  the  door,  he 
came  towards  her  and  said,  "  You  tremble,  Madam !  approach,  I  am  not  so  for- 
midable." He  then  inquired  after  her  family,  &c.  and  conversed  witli  her  for 
more  than  half  an  hour  upon  all  sorts  of  indifferent  subjects ;  at  length  the 
Princess  reminded  him  of  the  object  of  her  visit,  upon  which  he  asked  her,  whe- 
ther she  knew  the  cause  of  her  husband  being  arrested,  she  replied  in  the  nega- 
tive ;  he  then  rang  for  Berthier,  from  whom  he  demanded  Prince  Hatzfeldt's 
letter.  "  You  shall  judge  yourself,  Madam,"  said  he  ;  "  if  this  letter  is  your 
husband's,  he  is  guilty;  if  not,  I  will  give  you  all  possible  satisfaction."  The 
Princess,  having  looked  at  the  letter,  answered,  *'  The  hand-writing  is  certainly 
that  of  my  husband,  but  he  is  a  man  of  honour, — he  is  well  known, — he  can  have 
written  nothing  that  could  compromise  him ;  let  him  be  called,  Sire,  and  he  will 
justify  himself."  Upon  this,  Napoleon  took  the  letter,  folded  it,  and  returned  it 
to  the  Princess  with  these  words,  "  Here,  take  the  letter,  and  then  I  shall  possess 
no  proof  against  your  husband — lead  him  home,  he  is  free !"  Here  ended 
the  farce  which,  probably  to  increase  the  effect,  appeared  to  have  been  first  ar- 
ranged as  a  drama.  On  Thursday  the  30th  of  October,  the  following  article,  in 
German  and  French,  appeared  in  the  Berliner  Zeitung. 

"  The  day  before  yesterday  (28th  inst.)  Prince  Hatzfeldt  was  arrested,  in  con- 
sequence of  having  given  written  information  to  Prince  tlohenlohe  of  the  move- 
ments and  positions  of  the  French  army  :  the  letter  which  contained  this  intel- 
ligence was  written  by  the  Prince  himself,  but  it  was  intercepted  and  laid 
before  his  Majesty  the  Emperor.  The  wife  of  Prince  Hatzfeldt  flew,  therefore, 
to  the  Palace,  and  on  her  knees  implored  from  his  Majesty  her  husband's  par- 
don. The  Emperor  was  gracious  enough  to  lay  the  letter  before  her,  and  she 
could  not  help  acknowledging  the  hand-writing  of  the  Prince.  '  See,  now, 
Madam/  said  the  Emperor,  '  and  judge  yourself  whether  your  husband  is 
guilty.'  However,  as  the  Emperor  is  ever  gracious  and  magnanimous,  even 


90  FOREIGN    MISCELLANY. 

towards  his  enemies,  he  returned  the  Princess  the  letter,  and  pardoned  the 
Prince." 

But  what  did  this  awful  letter  contain  which  could  make  it  so  injurious  to 
Prince  Hatzfeldt  ?  The  reader  shall  himself  judge.  Here  follows  the  whole 
corpus  delicti)  now  printed  for  the  first  time. 

"  Berlin,  24th  Oct.  1806,  5  A.M. 

"  Lieut.  Braun,  of  the  Artillery,  who  is  attached  to  the  General  Staff,  has 
just  been  with  me,  and  told  me  that  he  has  been  charged  by  you  to  destroy  all 
the  bridges  over  the  Havel :  the  half  of  his  commission  has  been  accomplished, 
but  the  completion  of  it,  after  the  intelligence  which  he  has  received,  appears 
to  him  impossible.  I  mentioned  to  him  that  a  strong  cavalry  patrole  had  been 
in  Potsdam  yesterday,  that  the  bridge  over  the  Havel  there  was  in  the  enemy's 
possession,  and  that  in  my  opinion  he  might  with  still  greater  reason  return, 
because,  under  existing  circumstances,  the  remaining  bridges  are  necessary  for 
the  provisioning  of  Berlin.  Lieut.  Braun  has  requested  me  to  mention  this  to 
you,  and  I  accordingly  do  so.  I  know  nothing  official  of  the  French  army,  ex- 
cept that  I  saw  yesterday  a  summons,  signed  "  D'Aultanne,"  addressed  to  the 
Magistrates  of  Potsdam.  The  French  say  that  their  corps  is  80,000  strong, 
others  assert  that  it  is  not  50,000,  and  the  horses  of  the  cavalry  are  said  to  be 
very  much  fatigued. 

"  I  have  the  honour  to  be,  &c. 

"  I  beg  of  you  not  to  answer  me.  "  PRINCE  VON  HATZFELDT. 

"  To  Major  v.  d.  Knesebeck." 

This  letter  was  written  and  sent  off,  as  the  date  shows,  seven  hours  before  the 
entry  of  the  French.  The  intelligence  concerning  their  army  which  it  contain- 
ed, is  so  trifling,  that  it  could  compromise  no  one ;  on  the  contrary,  Prince 
Hatzfeldt  was,  from  his  situation,  called  upon  to  give  all  the  information  he 
could  collect  relative  to  the  French,  and  this  duty  did  not  cease  until  they  had 
entered  Berlin,  &c.  (Abridged  from  the  Mililair  Wichenllatt,  of  14th  Nov. 
1829.) 

AUSTRIA. 

DESCRIPTION    OF    THE    MILITARY    BREEDING    STUDS    OF    AUSTRIA. 

The  empire  of  Austria  possesses  six  military  breeding  studs — Mezoehegyes, 
in  Hungary,  Radautz,  in  the  Buckowine,  Nemoschitz,  in  Bohemia,  Ossiak, 
in  Carmthia,  and  Biber,  in  Styria.  In  connection  with  these  studs  are  seven 
depots  of  stallions,  and  the  united  annual  expense  of  both  establishments  amounts 
to  half  a  million  of  florins  (about  125,000 1.}  The  administration  of  both  is  en- 
tirely military,  and  the  whole  is  under  the  direction  of  Major-Gen.  Count 
Henry  de  Hardegg.  The  stud  of  Mezoehegyes  received  the  distinction  of  Im- 
perial Stud  for  the  Light  Cavalry,  from  the  Emperor  Joseph,  in  1785,  and  was  at 
the  same  time  charged  with  the  rearing  of  young  horses  bought  for  that  service. 
Previous  to  1802,  the  principal  stock  consisted  in  Hungarian,  Transylvanian, 
and  Circassian  horses,  but  in  that  and  the  following  years,  the  establishment 
was  increased  by  a  considerable  import  of  Mecklenburgh  mares,  Spanish  stal- 
lions, and  Moldavian  horses  of  both  descriptions. 

Count  de  Bubna,  the  present  Inspector's  predecessor,  conceived  the  project  of 
increasing  this  establishment  to  such  an  extent,  as  to  render  its  production  alone 
sufficient  to  remount  the  whole  Imperial  cavalry ;  to  accomplish  which  object, 
he  made  every  cavalry  regiment  deliver  so  great  a  number  of  mares,  that  the 
equine  population  of  the  establishment  soon  amounted  to  20.000.  Unfortu- 
nately, however,  for  the  Count's  undertaking,  12,000  of  the  mares,  whether  worn 
out  by  the  privations  which  they  had  undergone  during  the  war,  or  by  the  long 
marches  and  want  of  care  on  their  journey  from  the  regiments,  died  between 
1809  and  1814.  These  enormous  losses  nearly  caused  the  ruin  of  the  establish- 
ment, and  it  had  fallen  into  general  discredit,  when  the  nomination  of  Count 
de  Hardegg  not  only  restored  it  to  life,  but  caused  a  beneficial  reform,  both 
among  the  studs  and  depots,  which  was  soon  evident.  His  exertions,  and  those 


FOREIGN    MISCELLANY.  91 

of  Major  Francis  Tavera,  and  the  officers  under  his  orders,  have  now  dissipated 
all  apprehensions  for  the  fate  of  the  establishment.  The  system  followed  by 
these  different  studs  and  depots  is  as  follows.  The  studs  are  intended,  first,  to 
produce  horses  and  mares  sufficient  to  support  the  establishment  itself  by  repro- 
duction ;  and  secondly,  horses  for  the  depots.  The  different  produce  is  divid- 
ed into  five  classes ;  the  first  are  producers ;  the  second,  horses  fit  for  the  de- 
pots ;  third,  those  not  suited  for  the  depots, — these  are  every  year  sold  by  auc- 
tion as  country  sires ;  fourth,  those  fit  to  remount  the  cavalry ;  and  fifth,  those 
intended  to  be  cast.  The  depots  of  stallions  were  originally  intended  for  the 
production  of  horses  for  the  army  alone ;  this  object  has,  however,  been  far  ex- 
ceeded, and  they  now  serve  to  benefit  all  the  neighbouring  provinces. 

The  establishment  at  Mezoehegyks  is  situated  in  a  plain  of  70,000  Frencli 
acres  in  extent,  which  is  separated  into  four  principal  divisions,  and  these  are 
again  subdivided.  Each  division  is  under  the  direction  of  a  Squadron  Chief, 
under  whom  is  a  Lieutenant,  charged  with  the  superintendence  of  a  subdivision, 
near  which  he  is  obliged  to  live.  The  total  number  of  horses,  of  all  descrip- 
tions, at  this  establishment,  amounted  in  the  foregoing  year  to  2846. 

In  the  purchase  of  stallions,  efforts  are  made  to  procure  those  of  the  Lipitzan 
and  Cladrup  breeds.  The  Arabian  and  Norman  horses,  which  the  army  brought 
from  France  in  1814  and  1815,  have  tended  much  to  restore  the  establishment. 
The  repeated  purchases  of  Arabian  horses  and  mares  show  that  the  Arab  blood 
is  adopted  as  the  first  principle  of  reproduction,  and  that  by  judicious  selections 
in  the  crossing,  a  stronger  and  larger  product  than  the  original  breed  is  ob- 
tained. 

In  the  beginning  of  April  the  horses  are  turned  into  the  pastures,  receiving 
dry  food  if  the  grass  is  not  sufficiently  grown,  and  having  the  power  of  takino- 
shelter  from  bad  weather  in  sheds  appropriated  to  that  purpose;  two  Csikos 
(horse-keepers)  are  constantly  in  attendance  upon  each  rudel  (troop) ;  one  is  al- 
ways on  horseback,  and  their  horses  are  rarely  unsaddled  during  summer.  In 
winter  the  horses  are  all  exercised  twice  a  day,  for  two  hours  each  time,  at  a 
walk.  All  the  officers,  and  the  greater  part  of  the  non-commissioned  officers 
who  are  attached  to  the  establishment,  are  taken  from  different  cavalry  regi- 
ments. Among  the  men,  the  Bohemians  are  considered  the  best  grooms,  the 
Hungarians  the  best  Csikos,  and  the  Hungarians  and  Poles  the  best  horsemen. 
The  officers  of  both  studs  and  depots  are  much  favoured  in  point  of  pay;  besides 
the  regular  pay  of  their  rank,  each  has  a  comfortable  house,  and  one  and  a  half 
silver  florins  daily  (about  three  and  fourpence)  extra ;  each  soldier  has  nine  kreutz- 
ers,  (about  fourpence  half-penny)  besides  lodging  and  two  pound  of  bread  daily. 
They  are  all  well  clothed ;  those  attached  to  the  Hungarian  studs  wear  the  gray 
uniform  of  the  Hussars,  the  others  have  uniforms  of  the  same  colour,  with  white 
pantaloons  and  hats ;  the  Csikos  wear  long  wide  waistcoats  of  waterproof  cloth, 
a  large  white  cloak,  a  white  pelisse,  and  high  felt  bonnets. 

It  is  expected,  that  in  the  course  of  four  years  this  establishment  will  contain 
a  total  of  4000  horses  of  different  descriptions.  (Abridged  from  the  Journal  des 
Haras ,  as  copied  into  the  Bulletin  des  Sciences  Militaires,  for  September,  1829. 

RUSSIA. 

A  new  Corps,  called  the  corps  of  Circassians,  has  just  been  incorporated  into 
the  Imperial  Guard;  the  officers  are  all  of  noble  family,  and  from  the  Caucasian 
provinces  :  the  Emperor,  accompanied  by  his  young  son,  the  hereditary  Grand- 
Duke,  lately  reviewed  this  corps,  which,  from  the  singularity  of  its  arms  and 
dress,  attracted  crowds  of  the  curious  from  St.  Petersburg. 

His  Majesty  has  permitted  the  regiment  of  Finland  riflemen  also  to  form  part 
of  his  guard  ;  they  will  be  placed  in  the  young  guard. 

The  central  school  of  Civil  and  Military  Engineers,  established  by  the  Em- 
peror Paul  at  St.  Petersburg,  has  just  undergone  a  complete  reorganization,  and 
is  henceforth  destined  to  form  officers  of  military  engineers  only,  the  professors 
being  taken  exclusively  from  officers  of  that  corps.  Those  officers  who  have 
already  obtained  commissions,  will  be  permitted  to  follow  the  course  of  instruc- 


FOREIGN    MISCELLANY. 


tion,  retaining  their  pay ;  they  will  be  allowed  lodgings,  and  will  not  be  required 
to  fee  the  professors.  Nobles  and  Commoners  will  be  admitted  without  dis- 
tinction, provided  they  are  from  fourteen  to  eighteen  years  of  age,  and  have  given 
proofs  of  good  conduct  and  manners  ;  the  Cadets  are  to  be  entirely  at  the  ex- 
pence  of  the  state. — Spectateur  Militaire,  November  1829. 

MONUMENT    TO    ALEXANDER    I. 

It  is  the  intention  of  the  present  Emperor  of  Russia  to  erect  a  monument  to 
the  late  Emperor  Alexander.  It  is  to  be  a  Doric  pillar,  resembling  the  column 
of  Trajan  at  Rome  :  the  shaft,  formed  of  one  block  of  red  granite,  is  to  be  eighty- 
four  feet  high,  and  the  whole  monument,  including  the  pedestal  and  the  cross  on 
the  pillar,  will  be  one  hundred  and  fifty-four  feet  high,  so  that  it  will  surpass 
any  similar  monument,  ancient  or  modern. 

The  pedestal  is  to  be  covered  with  bronze,  and  adorned  with  ancient  Russian 
arms,  and  Greek  and  Russian  trophies,  made  out  of  cannon  taken  from  the 
enemy ;  it  will  bear  the  simple  inscription  "  To  Alexander  I.  by  grateful 
Russia."  It  is  expected  to  be  finished  in  two  years. — Preussische  Stauts 
Zeitung,  Dec.  7. 


COMPARATIVE  STRENGTH  OF  THE  DIFFERENT  EUROPEAN  POWERS. — The 
French  have  been  complaining  much  of  the  relative  inferiority  of  their  military 
establishment  with  regard  to  the  other  European  States,  and  the  following  details 
have  received  the  authority  of  an  almost  official  announcement. 


Time  re- 

In 1780. 

In  1828. 

Peace  Establishment. 

WarEstablishment 

quired  to 

put  the  war 

establish- 

Extent. 

Population 

Extent. 

Population 

Regular 

Active 

Troop 

Men. 

Horses. 

ment  on  the 

Army. 

Reserve. 

Horses. 

peace  ditto. 

France 

10,000 

20,000,000 

10,086 

32,026,544 

235,000 

— 

29,299 

402,727 

86,417 

one  year. 

Russia  ~) 

in       V 

70,000 

36,000,000 

75,154 

47,820,900 

610,000 

— 

120,000 

1,004,000 

unknown. 

one  year. 

Enrope  ) 

Prussia 

3,977 

7,000,000 

5,208 

11,369,629 

100,000 

400,000 

37,000 

500,000 

70,000 

2  months. 

Austria 

10,500 

24,000,600 

12,153 

30,006,700 

270,000 

250,000 

50,000 

750,000 

unknown. 

4  months. 

The  expenses  of  the  French  army  amount  to  £7,041,666  sterling,  while  that  of 
the  Prussian  army  are  £3,250,000.  The  details  of  the  French  military  establish- 
ment, as  settled  by  the  law  of  1825,  which  is  still  in  force,  are  as  follow : — 


War  Establishment. 

Peace  Establishment. 

EffectiYe  Force. 

19,500 

18,823 

If  OfiC 

Men   ....... 

354,504 

240  794 

Total  of  the  Line 
Maison  Militaire  .    .    . 
Gendarmerie    .... 
Compagnies  Sedentaires 

374,004 
1,843 

14,987 
5,066 

259,017 

14,987 
5,666 

208,528 

14,987 
5,666 

Total    .     . 

396,500 

280,270 

229,181 

r  Officers     .    . 
Horses  <  Cavalry     .     . 
(.  Draught    .     . 

8,728 
46,520 
37,825 

6,455 
32,696 
5,632 

5,685 
25,801 
3,498 

Maison  Militaire  .     .    . 
Gendarmerie    .... 

93,073 
1,436 
10,838 

44,783 
1,436 

10,838 

34,984 
1,436 
10,838 

Total      .     . 

105,347 

57,057 

47,258 

GENERAL  CORRESPONDENCE. 

TO   THE    EDITOR    OF    THE    UNITED    SERVICE    JOURNAL. 

Breaking  the  Line. 

SIR, — I  beg  leave  to  inclose  for  insertion  in  your  Journal,  two  extracts 
from  the  Memoirs  of  Richard  Cumberland,  relative  to  the  statement  of  Sir 
Howard  Douglas  in  your  Nov.  Number,  wherein  he  claims  for  his  Father  the 
honour  of  having  first  suggested  the  decisive  operation  of  breaking  the  enemy's 
line  on  the  ever  glorious  12th  April,  1782. 

Permit  me  to  observe,  that  Sir  Howard  is  rather  late  in  the  day  in  putting 
forth  his  Father's  claim  to  this  honour.  As  to  the  evidence  with  which  he  at- 
tempts to  support  it,  I  would  remark,  that  he  has  placed  his  friends  Capt. 
Dashwood  and  Sir  Joseph  Yorke  in  rather  an  awkward  situation. 

In  conclusion,  I  will  only  say  that  I  entirely  concur  in  the  sentiments  quoted 
by  Sir  Howard  from  his  Father's  letters,  "  severely  reprobating  all  assumptions, 
whether  vain  or  just,  of  persons  claimant  of  credit,  which,  if  not  sufficiently  re- 
ported or  acknowledged  by  the  chief,  should  be  deemed  by  the  public  to  be 
derogatory  to  his  honour." 

I  am,  Sir,  your  obedient  servant, 

VINBEX. 

Junior  U.  S.  Club. 

"  It  happened  to  me  to  be  present,  and  sitting  next  to  Admiral  Rodney  at 
table,  when  the  thought  seemed  first  to  occur  to  him  of  breaking  the  French 
line,  by  passing  through  it  in  the  heat  of  the  action.  It  was  at  Lord  George 
Germaine's  house,  at  Stoneland,  after  dinner,  when,  having  asked  a  number  of 
questions  about  the  manoeuvring  of  columns,  and  the  effect  of  charging  with 
them  on  a  line  of  infantry,  he  proceeded  to  arrange  a  parcel  of  cherry  stones, 
which  he  had  collected  from  the  table,  and  forming  them  as  two  fleets  drawn  up 
in  line,  and  opposed  to  each  other,  he  at  once  arrested  our  attention,  which  had 
not  been  very  generally  engaged  by  his  preparatory  inquiries,  by  declaring  he 
was  determined  so  to  pierce  the  enemy's  line  of  battle,  (arranging  his  manoeuvre 
at  the  same  time  on  the  table,)  if  ever  it  was  his  fortune  to  bring  them  into  ac- 
tion. I  dare  say  this  passed  with  some  as  mere  rhapsody,  and  all  seemed  to 
regard  it  as  a  very  perilous  and  doubtful  experiment ;  but  landsmen's  doubts 
and  difficulties  made  no  impression  on  the  Admiral,  who,  having  seized  the 
idea,  held  it  fast,  and  in  his  eager  animated  way,  went  on  manoeuvring  his 
cherry  stones,  and  throwing  his  enemy's  representatives  into  such  utter  confu- 
sion, that,  already  possessed  of  that  victory  in  imagination  which  in  reality  he 
lived  to  gain,  he  concluded  his  process,  by  swearing,  he  would  lay  the  French 
Admiral's  flag  at  his  Sovereign's  feet,  a  promise  which  he  actually  pledged  to 
his  Majesty  in  his  closet,  and  faithfully  and  gloriously  performed." 

"  That  he  carried  this  projected  manoeuvre  into  operation,  and  that  the  effect  of 
it  was  successfully  decisive,  all  the  world  knows.  My  friend  Sir  Charles  Doug- 
las, Captain  of  the  Fleet,  confessed  to  me  that  he  himself  had  been  adverse  to 
the  experiment,  and,  in  discussing  it  with  the  Admiral,  had  stated  his  objections  ; 
to  these  he  got  no  other  answer,  but  that  l  his  counsel  was  not  called  for ;  he 
required  obedience  only,  he  did  not  want  advice.'  Sir  Charles  also  told  me, 
that  whilst  the  project  was  in  operation,  (the  battle  then  raging,)  his  own  atten- 
tion being  occupied  by  the  gallant  defence  made  by  the  French  Glorieux  against 
the  ships  that  were  pouring  their  fire  into  her,  upon  his  crying  out,  '  Behold, 
Sir  George,  the  Greeks  and  Trojans  contending  for  the  body  of  Patroclus!" 
the  Admiral  then  pacing  the  quarter-deck  in  great  agitation,  pending  the  expe- 
riment of  his  manoeuvre,  (which  in  the  instance  of  one  ship  had  unavoidably 
miscarried,)  peevishly  exclaimed,  l  D — n  the  Greeks  and  d — n  the  Trojans  ;  I 
have  other  things  to  think  of/  When  in  a  few  minutes  after,  his  supporting 
ship  having  led  through  the  French  line  in  a  gallant  style,  turning  with  a  smile 
of  joy  to  Sir  Charles  Douglas,  he  cried  out,  "  Now,  my  dear  friend,  I  am  at  the 


CORRESPONDENCE. 


service  of  your  Greeks  and  Trojans,  and  the  whole  of  Homer's  Iliad,  or  as  much 
of  it  as  you  please,  for  the  enemy  is  in  confusion,  and  our  victory  is  secure.' 
This  anecdote,  correctly  as  I  relate  it,  I  had  from  that  gallant  officer,  untimely 
lost  to  his  country,  whose  candour  scorned  to  rob  his  Admiral  of  one  leaf  of  his 
laurels,  and  who  disclaiming  all  share  in  the  manoeuvre,  nay,  confessing  he  had 
objected  to  it,  did,  in  the  most  pointed  and  decided  terms,  again  and  again  re- 
peat his  honourable  attestation  of  the  courage  and  conduct  of  his  commanding 
officer  on  that  memorable  day." — Memoirs  of  Richard  Cumberland,  London. 
1807.  Vol.  1.  page  407. 

\*  Referring  to  the  article  in  the  Naval  Chronicle,  vol.  25,  quoted  by  Sir 
Howard  Douglas  (see  our  Number,  for  Nov.  page  564),  it  is  clear  that  he  wa.s  not 
ignorant  of  the  extracts  from  the  Memoirs  of  Mr.  Cumberland,  with  which  Vin- 
dex  has  favoured  us.  Sir  Howard  has  distinctly  adverted  to  these,  as  well  as 
to  other  traditional  circumstances,  in  a  manner  which  satisfactorily  explains 
them,  where  he  tells  us,  that  his  Father  never  could  be  prevailed  on  to  claim 
more  than  Sir  George  Rodney  had  publicly  given  him. — "  that  there  are  many 
persons  still  living  who  remember  well  the  delicacy  with  which  his  Father 
waved  this  subject  when  pressed  or  complimented  on  it;" — "that  he  never 
would  accept,  when  so  complimented,  greater  share  in  the  honours  of  that  day 
than  had  been  officially  given  to  him ;"  and  that  "  these  high  principled  senti- 
ments are  beautifully  and  strongly  expressed  in  several  of  his  Father's  letters/' 

It  appears  to  us,  there  could  be  no  medium  line  of  conduct  for  Sir  Charles  to 
pursue  :  acting  on  the  just  and  proper  principle  of  devolving  the  whole  credit 
on  his  chief,  and  "  scorning,"  as  Mr.  Cumberland  says,  "  to  rob  him  of  one 
leaf  of  laurel,  but  that  of  attributing  to  him  the  whole  merit  of  the  brilliant 
achievement.  We  have  always  thought  that  there  is  nothing  in  Mr.  Cumber- 
land's account  but  what  necessarily  arose  from  the  determination  which  Sir 
Charles  Douglas  had  adopted  at  that  time,  not  to  say  or  admit  any  thing  to  dis- 
turb, in  the  slightest  degree,  the  current  of  public  applause,  and  consequently 
to  disclaim  publicly  all  share  in  the  manoeuvre. 

But  the  statement  now  put  forth  leads  us,  beyond  all  such  traditional  and 
conversational  circumstances,  to  the  facts  of  the  case  as  brought  forward  by  Sir 
Howard ;  and  these  are  not  only  proved  by  the  testimony  of  persons  now  living, 
who  were  actually  present  on  the  occasion,  and  saw  and  heard  what  passed,  but 
are,  moreover,  corroborated  by  the  actual  circumstances  of  the  operation ;  pro- 
nounced to  be  correct  by  several  other  highly  distinguished  officers  who  were 
present  in  the  action,  and  all  these  confirmative  of  what  has  been,  previously  to 
Sir  Howard's  Statement,  asserted  by  one  of  our  best  naval  historians,  upon  yet 
fuller  evidence,  for  some  of  his  informants  are  not  now  alive.  Upon  these  facts 
the  case  must  rest,  unless  they  can  be  disproved  or  discredited. 

Nor  do  we  think  that  Sir  Howard  Douglas  has  deviated  essentially  from  that 
principle  of  conduct  which  his  distinguished  parent  observed,  for,  as  Sir  Howard 
says,  the  question  lies  not  between  the  chief  and  his  captain  of  the  fleet ;  but  whe- 
ther the  act  would  have  been  done  at  all,  had  not  the  work  of  Mr.  Clerk  been 
published  and  studied  by  these  great  officers.  In  the  course  of  this  investiga- 
tion Sir  Howard  proves  incontestably,  that  the  suggestion  came  from  his  Father 
in  the  heat  of  action,  but  with  great  good  sense  devolves  the  whole  merit  of  the 
act  upon  Lord  Rodney  himself.  And  this,  in  our  opinion,  is  honourably  and 
judiciously  done,  because,  let  the  idea  or  suggestion  come  to  a  commander-in- 
chief  from  what  quarter  it  may,  the  merit  of  acting  upon  it  must  attach  wholly 
and  solely  to  that  officer,  upon  whom  falls  all  the  responsibility  to  which  such 
an  act  may  give  rise.  To  him  must  be  given  all  the  merit,  in  the  event  of  suc- 
cess, as  upon  him  must  fall  all  the  blame,  in  case  of  failure.  Thus,  Sir  Howard 
Douglas  says,  "  Sir  George  Rodney  determined  most  gallantly,  and  with  true 
greatness  of  mind,  to  adopt  the  advice  of  the  Captain  of  the  Fleet ;"  and  we 
confess,  that  whilst  a  great  service  is  done  to  historical  truth  and  to  professional 
merit  by  the  statement  of  these  interesting  facts,  there  is  positively  nothing  de- 


CORRESPONDENCE.  95 

rogatory  to  Lord  Rodney's  reputation  or  services,  unless  it  be  contended  that  a 
chief  should  never  listen  to  any  advice  or  suggestions  that  may  be  offered  in  a 
moment  of  peculiar  difficulty  and  promise  by  his  chief  executive  assistant. 

Another  Correspondent,  A.  C.  C.  seems  to  think  that  the  deduction  he  draws 
from  Mr.  Cumberland's  Memoirs,  conflicts  only  with  the  evidence  of  Sir  Charles 
Dashwood  ;  but  we  must  remark,  that  Sir  Joseph  Yorke  completely  corroborates 
the  testimony  of  Sir  George  Rodney's  other  aide-de-camp.  Some  part  of  the 
"  notes  written  at  the  time"  by  Sir  Joseph  Yorke  have  been  left  out  in  the 
Statement,  but  enough  is  shown  to  establish  the  fact,  that  the  suggestion  came 
from  Sir  Charles  Douglas  in  a  proper,  respectful  manner ;  and  we  repeat  that, 
unless  these  and  other  evidences,  positive  as  well  as  circumstantial,  be  disproved 
or  discredited,  the  case  is  settled ;  and  no  traditional  circumstances,  unsupported 
by  fresh  facts,  can  be  admitted  to  shake  the  case  which  Sir  Howard's  Statement 
has  so  clearly  made  out. 


Indian  Army. 

SIR, — I  apprehend  the  "  Old  Mulleegatawny,"  in  your  last  Number,  must 
have  sipped  his  pepper-water*  on  Choultry  Plain,  in  the  last  century,  and  have 
been  reposing  since  on  his  bed  of  laurels,  or  roses,  on  the  banks  of  the  Thames ; 
for  no  such  allowances,  or  any  equivalent  for  them,  have  been  known  in  Bengal 
within  the  present  century,  or  at  least  not  since  the  year  1801,  as,  he  has  stated 
to  exist  at  present.  Our  double  full  batta,  formerly  received  in  the  Upper 
Provinces,  was  abolished  by  the  regulations  of  1796;  but  an  allowance  in  lieu 
thereof  was,  by  the  local  government  of  that  day,  continued  under  the  head  of 
"  Vizier's  allowance,"  or  additional  full  batta,  to  the  officers  serving  in  the 
Vizier's  dominions  until  1801,  when  Lord  Wellesley's  government  abolished 
that  allowance,  and  granted  full  batta  at  all  the  stations  of  the  army,  in  lieu  of 
half  batta  and  quarters  supplied  by  government  at  those  stations  where  half  batta 
and  no  quarters,  but  a  contracted  scale  of  house-rent  in  lieu  of  quarters,  and 
watermen  and  sweepers,  formerly  furnished  by  the  government,  is  now  pre- 
scribed. There  is  much  reason  to  believe  that  this  equalization  propensity, 
which  has  been  pulling  down  the  Bengal  allowances,  in  many  ways,  since  the 
commotions  (to  use  no  stronger  term)  in  the  Madras  army  in  1808-9,  may  still 
exercise  a  very  sinister  influence  in  the  Divan  of  the  twenty-four  kings. 

Lord  Combermere,  in  the  generous  spirit  of  true  nobility,  has  said  to  his  pre- 
sent superior  in  office,  Lord  W.  Bentinck,  if  the  principle  of  equalization  must 
be  enforced,  raise  the  inferior  to  the  superior  level,  since  the  latter  is  no  more 
than  is  indispensably  necessary  for  the  comfort,  health,  and  efficiency  of  the 
officers. 

But  in  fact  there  is  very  little  or  no  such  discrepancy  in  the  allowances  of 
officers-,  since,  by  the  Court's  orders  of  1823,  the  regimental  allowances  at  all 
the  presidencies  were  equalized.  The  only  sense,  therefore,  in  which  any  differ- 
ence may  exist,  is  not  in  the  scale  or  amount  of  allowances,  since,  where  full 
batta  is  allowed,  all  receive  the  same  rate  ;  but  that  there  are  still  some,  per- 
haps several  of  the  home  stations  and  garrisons,  and  in  Madras  and  Bombay, 
where  the  officers  receive  only  half  batta,  but  therewith,  have  either  quarters 
found  them  by  Government,  or  house-rent  in  lieu  thereof,  as  now  prescribed  for 
the  named  stations  in  Bengal. f  In  a  spirit  of  just  and  equitable  legislation,  the 

*  I  believe  the  derivation  of  this  term  is  from  Mulleega,  pepper,  (perhaps  the  Cayenne, 
or  red  Pepper)  and  tawny,  water  ;  and  the  improved  good  mess,  with  the  aid  of  a  good 
old  cock,  or  piece  of  beef,  known  to  Orientals  as  mulleegatawny,  is  from  the  poorer 
mess  of  the  natives,  who  in  failure  of  better  fare,  add  a  little  pepper,  turmeric,  &c.  to 
render  their  rice  somewhat  more  palatable. 

t  The  abolition  of  which  system  in  1801,  by  the  grant  of  full  batta  in  lieu  of  quarters, 
produced  a  great  saving  of  expense  to  Government. — See  Lieut.' Col.  Baker's  Me- 
morial. 


96  CORRESPONDENCE. 

present  question  or  measure  ought,  I  apprehend,  to  be  decided  by  its  own  bear- 
ings, or  merits,  founded  on  the  necessity  of  economy,  which  is  the  professed 
object : — First,  if  such  deduction  of  the  cause  can  be  made  in  the  allowances  of 
officers  consistently  with  all  the  circumstances  of  their  situation,  and  the  good 
of  the  service:  and  Secondly,  supposing  this  to  be  decided  in  the  affirmative, 
but  which  has  been  negatived  by  the  noble-minded  and  illustrious  Lord  Has- 
tings and  his  successors  down  to  the  present  time,  whether  it  is  consistent  with 
those  principles  to  make  tiie  reduction  applicable  to  those  officers  now  in  the 
service,  who  have  been  progressively  in  the  receipt  of  it  since  1801,  (nearly  the 
third  of  a  century,)  or  if  needs  must,  whether  it  should  not  have  only  prospective 
operation,  as  the  scale  on  which  officers  will  enter  the  service  henceforward. 

AA. 


Naval  Surveys. 

SIR, — Some  months  having  elapsed  since  the  return  of  his  Majesty's  ship 
Blossom  from  her  voyage  to  the  Great  Ocean,  and  not  having  cast  my  eyes  upon 
any  advertisement  announcing  the  publication  of  Capt.  Beechy's  narrative ;  I 
shall  feel  obliged  to  any  of  your  readers  to  inform  me,  if  we  are  soon  to  be  gra- 
tified by  the  appearance,  in  print,  of  the  enterprising  Captain's  account  of  his 
voyage  ? 

1  think  there  can  be  no  existing  cause  to  prevent  the  public  from  enjoying  the 
gratification  of  ideally  sailing  over  the  wide  expanse  of  ocean  traversed  by  our 
navigators,  and  of  participating  in  their  pleasures  and  toils  during  so  long  and 
so  varied  a  voyage. 

Some  disappointment,  I  recollect,  was  manifested  at  the  keeping  back  the  ac- 
count of  Capt.  Buchan's  Polar  trip,  the  reason,  probably,  of  which  was,  the 
short  time  of  absence,  and  the  paucity  of  materials  to  form  a  work  from ;  how- 
ever, when  the  public  money  is  employed  for  the  furtherance  of  science,  the 
public  consider  it  as  a  matter  of  right,  that  the  account  of  the  transactions  which 
occur  on  such  occasions  should  be  published,  at  least  as  a  courteous  return  for 
the  expenditure  of  its  money. 

Whilst  on  the  interesting  subject  of  discovery,  I  cannot  help  reflecting  on  the 
long  probation  to  which  meritorious  Commanders  on  surveys  are  subject,  before 
the  just  reward  of  their  arduous  services  is  awarded  them.  This  reflection,  Sir, 
came  to  my  mind  forcibly  the  other  day  on  meeting  with  a  godfather  of  Capt. 
Parker  King,  who  has  been  a  Commander  eight  years  1  and  has  been  most  in- 
dustriously employed,  as  is  well  known  by  his  surveys  at  New  Holland,  for  a 
series  of  years.  I  never  had  the  pleasure  of  seeing  Capt.  King,  nor  am  I  ac- 
quainted with  any  part  of  his  family  ;  but  I  have  heard  him  spoken  of,  by  an 
officer  of  the  Navy,  who  met  him  at  Rio  Janeiro,  in  the  highest  possible  terms 
as  an  officer  and  a  gentleman,  and  in  this  sentiment,  he  assured  me,  all  who 
knew  him  there,  concurred. 

In  mentioning  the  names  of  those  truly  useful  officers  who  have  so  well  merit- 
ed the  thanks  and  gratitude  of  this  maritime  kingdom  by  their  surveys,  vou 
omitted  to  name  one,  who  has  rendered  much  service  in  that  line  by  his  labours 
on  the  coast  of  Labrador,  I  mean,  Mr.  Holbrook,  Master  and  Surveyor  in  the 
Navy;  this  gentleman  was,  for  many  years,  Master  of  Sir  J.  T.  Duckworth's 
flag  ship,  and  deservedly  esteemed  by  that  gallant  Admiral,  as  indeed  he  is  so 
universally  :  Mr.  H.  is  a  Cambrian,  and  is  truly  an  admirable  specimen  of  an 
ancient  Briton. 

I  will  just  speak  of  another  officer  of  whom  I  have  heard:  Mr.  T.  Elson, 
Master  of  his  Majesty's  ship  Madagascar,  who,  I  am  told,  as  an  officer  and  sea- 
man, is,  one  of  the  cleverest  men  in  the  service. 

ANSELM. 


137 

THE    MAROON    WAR. 

THE  histories  of  detached  corps  and  isolated  vessels,  and  the  perso- 
nal narratives  of  individual  officers  and  men,  of  which  we  are  enabled 
to  give  so  many  interesting  specimens  in  the  United  Service  Journal, 
have  all  the  elements  of  the  old  heroic  tales,  with  the  addition  of  the 
humanity  and  regulated  feelings  of  civilized  life,  and  with  that  high 
spirit  of  military  gallantry  and  pride,  which  is  justly  the  glory  of  the 
present  age.  The  partisan  warfare  in  the  revolutionary  contest  of 
America  is  replete  with  interest,  but  the  attention  of  Europe  has  been 
more  recently  absorbed  by  the  Guerilla  exploits  of  the  Tyrol,  and 
the  Peninsula.  There  is,  however,  upon  record,  a  war  sustained 
by  savages  against  disciplined  troops,  in  a  manner  more  extraordi- 
nary than  any  with  which  we  are  acquainted.  We  allude  to  the 
Maroon  war  of  Jamaica.  The  Maroons  were  totally  ignorant  of  com- 
bined movements  and  discipline :  they  were  not  commanded  by  men 
of  education,  capable  of  imparting  the  latter  and  comprehending  the 
former ;  nor  were  they  stimulated  by  patriotism,  or  made  enthusiasts 
by  religion.  In  all  these  respects  they  were  totally  different  from  the 
Guerillas.  Their  war  was  produced  solely  by  a  love  of  plunder,  and  of 
a  life  alternating  between  the  most  torpid  indolence  and  the  most 
daring  enterprise,  to  obtain  the  necessaries  of  existence.  They  had  no 
cannon,  nor  cavalry  ;  their  arms  consisted  of  swords  and  muskets  without 
bayonets,  but  with  these  they  effected  what  is  almost  incredible. 

The  white  and  the  slave  population  of  Jamaica  formed  a  mere  belt, 
extending  round  the  coasts.  The  interior  of  the  island  is  a  mountain- 
ous scene  of  wild  and  savage  nature.  It  abounds  with  immense  rocks, 
with  rugged  acclivities,  and  often  with  sides  absolutely  perpendicular. 
In  these  Tocks  there  are  numerous  fissures  and  small  glens  of  luxuriant 
herbage,  presenting,  perhaps,  the  most  romantic  and  sublime  scenery 
in  the  world.  The  whole  interior  of  the  island  abounded  in  immense 
forest  trees,  or  was  covered  with  brushwood,  and  with  a  gigantic  herb- 
age, capable  of  concealing  any  number  of  men.  The  thorny  brambles 
often  rendered  whole  tracts  of  country  impassable,  except  to  the  Ma- 
roons, who  cut  narrow  passages  through  them,  or  who,  upon  their  hands 
and  knees,  could  travel  underneath  them  for  miles.  These  sub-laby- 
rinths, intricate,  tortuous,  and  dangerous  in  the  extreme,  had  been 
made  by  the  wild  hogs,  and  through  them  the  Maroons  travelled  upon 
all-fours,  until  coming  to  an  opening,  their  unerring  muskets  picked 
off  our  videttes  and  sentries,  and  totally  destroyed  our  outposts,  with- 
out our  men  seeing  the  enemy  by  whom  they  were  sacrificed. 

It  is  obvious  that  no  country  could  be  more  favourable  to  savage 
warfare.  In  the  centre  of  the  island,  from  east  to  west,  ran  three 
parallel  lines  of  glens,  called  cockpits.  In  each  parallel,  these  natural 
basins  were  bounded  by  stupendous  rocks,  and  communicated  with 
each  other  by  fissures,  irregular,  narrow,  steep,  and  rugged.  The 
rocks  fencing  the  cockpits  to  the  south  were  almost  inaccessible  in 
every  place,  whilst  those  to  the  north  were  absolutely  perpendicular. 
Most  of  these  cockpits  abounded  with  majestic  trees,  and  the  soil,  wa- 
tered by  innumerable  rills,  was  luxuriant  in  the  extreme. 

The  Maroons  were  the  descendants  of  the  aboriginal  inhabitants, 
and  of  negroes  who  had  fled  from  their  Spanish  masters  into  the  inte- 

U.  S.  JOURN.  No.  14.  FEB.  1830.  L 


1.38  THE.  MAROON    WAR. 

rior,  when  we  captured  the  island  in  1655.  Their  numbers  had  been 
increased  by  runaway  slaves  of  every  description,  but  particularly  by 
the  restless,  brave,  and  ferocious  African  tribe  of  the  Coromantees. 
Among  the  Maroons  was  a  class  with  jet  black  complexions  and  regu- 
lar handsome  features.  The  whole  tribe  of  Maroons,  however,  were 
tall,  well  made,  and  athletic ;  and  when  the  Duke  of  Kent,  after  their 
surrender  and  shipment  to  Halifax,  inspected  them,  he  pronounced 
them  the  most  extraordinarily  fine  body  of  men  he  had  almost  ever  seen. 
Their  feats  of  strength  and  agility  surprised  our  officers.  They  could 
climb  trees  like  monkeys,  and  could  ascend  rocks,  and  bound  from  crag 
to  crag,  where  our  most  active  soldiers  could  not  approach.  Their 
keenness  of  eye  was  most  extraordinary  ;  and  so  acute  was  their  sense 
of  hearing^  that  with  their  ears  to  the  ground,  they  would  detect  our 
movements  at  a  distance,  at  which  theirs  to  us  were  totally  inaudible. 
Patient  of  hunger  and  fatigue,  they  could  select  nutritious  roots  and 
herbs  from  the  many  which  in  that  climate  were  deemed  poisonous ; 
whilst  our  ignorance  prevented  our  discriminating  the  one  from  the 
other,  and  consequently  deprived  us  of  the  use  of  all.  Almost  every 
man  possessed  a  rifle,  fowling-piece,  or  musket,  and  their  accuracy  at 
fire  was  proved  by  the  sequel  to  be  superior  to  any  thing  on  record. 

Their  first  Chief,  Cudjoe,  had  carried  on  a  regular  war  against  us, 
until  his  name  became  the  vexation  of  our  officers  and  the  terror  of 
every  white  inhabitant.  At  length  we  obtained  from  the  Mosquitoe 
shore,  a  body  of  semi-savages,  Mulattoes,  Indians,  and  Africans,  called 
Black  Shots.  These  men,  under  an  English  adventurer,  named  James, 
fought  the  Maroons  in  their  own  style,  but  with  very  inferior  success. 
The  ferocity  of  the  war,  and  the  cruelties  practised  upon  the  white  in- 
habitants, are  incredible.  At  length,  by  the  aid  of  these  Black  Shots, 
and  at  an  enormous  expense  of  lives,  we  penetrated  to  the  vicinity  of 
Cudjoe's  fastnesses.  Upon  a  high  table  land  of  several  acres,  called 
Flat  Cave  River,  we  built  a  set  of  barracks,  with  four  bastions  and 
high  walls.  In  these  we  kept  our  stores  of  provisions  and  ammunition, 
with  a  considerable  body  of  militia  and  regulars.  The  fatigue  of  bring- 
ing up  supplies  from  the  coast,  by  which,  in  that  climate,  our  troops 
had  suffered  great  mortality,  was  now  spared,  and  the  predatory  excur- 
sions of  Cudjoe  were  considerably  checked. 

The  Government  now  thought  the  Maroons  were  in  their  power, 
especially  as  they  had  been  quiescent  for  several  weeks,  when  they 
suddenly  learned  that  Cudjoe  and  his  whole  tribe  had  decamped  from 
their  scene  of  operations  in  the  south-east  of  the  island,  and  had  moved 
to  Trelawney,  near  the  entrance  of  the  great  line  of  cockpits  to  the 
extreme  north-west  of  the  island.  The  first  and  largest  of  these 
cockpits  was  called  Petty  River  Bottom.  It  contained  about  seven 
acres  of  verdant  soil,  and  the  inaccessible  sides  were  covered  with  the 
largest  forest-trees.  The  entrance  was  a  mere  fissure,  passable  only 
by  the  most  vigorous  and  agile  of  mountaineers,  and  from  the  sides 
of  which  a  few  riflemen  might  have  defended  the  defile  against  any 
numbers  or  any  species  of  attack. 

Under  these  circumstances  did  a  few  hundred  savages  keep  the 
whole  island  of  Jamaica  in  terror,  baffle  our  military  force,  and  oblige 
us  at  last  to  offer  terms  of  peace.  Col.  Guthrie  was  sent  to  make  the 
overtures,  and  the  scene  between  him  and  Cudjoe  was  characteristic  in 


THK    MAROON    WAR.  130 

the  extreme.  The  daring  savage  suddenly  became  a  timid  slave.  The 
negotiation  took  place  in  one  of  the  wild  fastnesses  of  the  mountains, 
to  which  Col.  Guthrie  had  advanced  to  offer  terms.  Cudjoe  was  rather 
a  short  man,  uncommonly  stout,  with  very  strong  African  features,  and 
a  peculiar  wildness  in  his  manners.  He  had  a  very  large  lump  of  flesh 
upon  his  back,  which  was  partly  covered  by  the  tattered  remains  of  an 
old  blue  coat,  of  which  the  skirt  and  the  sleeves  below  the  elbows 
were  wanting.  Round  his  head  was  a  scanty  piece  of  dirty  white 
cloth ;  he  had  a  pair  of  loose  drawers  that  did  not  reach  his  knees,  and 
a  small  round  hat  without  any  rim.  On  his  right  side  hung  a  cow's 
horn,  with  some  powder,  and  a  bag  of  large  cut  slugs.  On  his  left  was 
a  knife,  three  inches  broad,  in  a  leathern  sheath,  suspended  under  tfre 
arm  by  a  narrow  strap  that  went  round  his  shoulder.  He  had  no  shirt, 
and  his  clothes  and  skin  were  covered  with  the  red  dirt  of  the  cockpits. 
Such  was  the  Chief;  and  his  men  were  as  ragged  and  dirty  as  himself: 
all  had  guns  and  cutlasses.  This  treaty,  signed  in  1738,  was  as  if  be- 
tween regular  belligerents,  but  it  stipulated  that  in  future  the  Ma- 
roons should  be  registered,  and  have  two  white  agents  residing  amongst 
them.  From  this  period  to  the  last  and  most  serious  war  of  1795,  the 
relation  of  the  Maroons  to  the  whites  became  totally  different  Their 
conn  ^tion  was  friendly,  and  the  planters  had  created  in  them  both  a 
contempt  and  a  hatred  of  the  negroes,  whom,  when  fugitives,  they  al- 
ways caught  and  restored  to  their  masters.  In  this  war  it  was  proved 
that  all  the  movements  of  the  different  chiefs  or  leaders  of  gangs  had 
been  isolated  and  independent :  there  had  been  no  communication 
between  them,  and  the  effect  is  therefore  the  more  astonishing. 

By  this  treaty  the  Maroons  at  Trelawney  Town,  their  principal 
seat,  had  1500  acres  of  land  allotted  to  them.  A  white  superintendant, 
with  four  assistants,  resided  there.  They  became  attached  to  the 
planters,  and  rendered  them  all  homage  and  very  essential  services. 
On  one  occasion,  when  a  large  body  of  Coromantee  negroes  had  risen 
upon  their  masters,  and  were  successfully  contending  with  our  troops, 
murdering  all  that  fell  into  their  hands,  the  Maroons  attacked  them 
in  the  woods,  killed  two-thirds  of  their  number,  and  brought  the  rest 
back  to  subjection.  A  Major  James  was  the  principal  superintendant 
of  the  Maroons.  He  was  the  son  of  the  celebrated  leader  of  the  Black 
Shot-men ;  and  the  superstitious  terror  which  the  Maroons  had  enter- 
tained towards  the  father,  they  transferred  to  the  son,  accompanied, 
however,  with  veneration  and  affection.  Major  James  was  certainly  an 
extraordinary  person.  With  the  education  of  a  gentleman  and  the 
science  of  a  soldier,  he  possessed  all  the  instincts  and  every  corporeal 
quality  in  equal  perfection  with  the  Maroons.  He  could  beat  the 
fleetest  of  them  in  their  foot  races,  could  foil  them  in  their  wrestling- 
matches  and  sword-fights,  and  could  wear  them  out  with  fatigue  in  the 
dangerous  chase  of  the  wild  hogs  in  the  mountains.  He  was  unerring 
with  the  rifle ;  and  such  was  his  influence  among  the  tribes,  that  he 
could  stop  their  ferocious  conflicts,  subdue  their  feuds,  and  punish  the 
turbulent  in  the  most  summary  manner.  Upon  this  man  the  Govern- 
ment depended.  Major  James  was  possessed  of  a  private  fortune,  and 
would  occasionally  absent  himself  from  his  duty  to  attend  to  his  estates. 
A  law  of  compulsory  residence  was  passed,  which  he  refused  to  obey, 
except  upon  an  increase  of  salary,  and  he  was  dismissed  from  his  em- 

L  2 


140  THE    MAROON    WAR. 

ployment.  The  Maroons  were  chagrined  in  the  extreme  at  this  cir- 
cumstance, and  did  all  they  could  to  get  Major  James  again  amongst 
them.  The  authorities  were  inexorable.  Other  circumstances  occur- 
re.l  to  irritate  the  Maroons ;  the  Negro  insurrection  in  St.  Domingo 
unsettled  their  minds,  and  finally  a  very  questionable  act  of  severity, 
not  to  say  of  cruelty,  was  practised  upon  them  at  this  unfortunate 
juncture.  Two  Maroons  had  been  taken  up  for  some  offence  in  the 
town  of  Montego  Bay,  and  the  magistrate  had  them  flogged  by  a  run- 
away negro  before  the  slaves  of  the  town.  The  antipathy  and  con- 
tempt of  the  Maroons  for  the  negroes,  we  have  already  noticed.  This 
indignity  was  not  to  be  borne,  and  it  led  to  a  most  fatal  war.  Gen. 
Palmer  and  the  local  authorities,  with  some  of  the  principal  proprie- 
tors of  the  north  side,  wrote  to  the  capital,  advising  that  Major  James 
might  be  restored  to  his  office,  and  that  concessions  might  be  made  to 
these  people.  These  requests  were  unattended  to,  and  immediately 
after  the  war  broke  out.  Lord  Balcarras,  the  Governor,  deemed  these 
men  so  formidable,  that  he  directly  proclaimed  martial  law  throughout 
the  island,  and  detained  the  expedition  about  to  sail  for  St.  Domingo. 
The  Success  Frigate  was  in  the  offing,  having  on  board  the  83d  Foot, 
Col.  Fitch ;  a  regiment  in  the  finest  order,  and,  what  is  extraordinary 
for  the  West  Indies,  mustering  a  thousand  rank  and  file  on  the  parade. 
The  Success  was  recalled  by  signal,  and  made  to  disembark  the  troops. 
Lord  Balcarras  proceeded  immediately  to  Montego  Bay,  where  he 
published  a  violent  philippic  against  the  Maroons,  telling  them  that 
their  town  was  surrounded  by  troops,  resistance  was  in  vain,  and  that 
he  had  set  a  price  upon  the  heads  of  all  who  did  not  surrender  in  four 
days. 

This  impolitic  proclamation  struck  terror  into  the  hearts  of  all  the 
inhabitants,  and  roused  the  Maroons  from  equivocal  submission  to  the 
most  determined  resistance.  A  similar  circumstance  of  an  unfortunate 
nature  had  just  occurred.  Col.  Gallimore,  who  had  been  sent  to  nego- 
tiate with  the  Maroons,  had,  during  a  conference,  contemptuously 
taken  from  his  waistcoat-pocket  a  handful  of  musket-balls,  and  shak- 
ing them  in  the  faces  of  the  chiefs,  declared  that  those  were  the  only 
arguments  they  should  have  from  him.  The  Maroons  shortly  after 
attacked  his  house,  and  wreaked  a  signal  vengeance  upon  his  family. 
Gen.  Palmer  had  given  passports  to  six  Maroon  captains  to  proceed  to 
the  Governor  in  the  capital.  Midway  these  men  were  seized  by  the 
commanding-officer  of  the  militia,  and,  notwithstanding  their  passports, 
were  ordered  into  irons  by  Lord  Balcarras.  The  General  expressed 
himself  highly  incensed  at  this  breach  of  faith. 

On  the  8th  of  Aug.  Lord  Balcarras  sent  his  dispatch,  commanding  the 
surrender  of  the  Maroons,  on  pain  of  setting  a  price  up^n  their  heads. 
On  that  day  Col.  Sandford,  with  one  hundred  and  thirty  the  18th  and 
20th  Light  Dragoons,  took  post  about  four  miles  north  of  the  Maroon 
town.  Lord  Balcarras,  at  the  head  of  the  83d  regiment,  established 
himself  at  Vaughan's  Field,  a  mile  and  a  half  from  the  Maroon  town, 
whilst  several  thousand  militia  were  at  Kensington  estate,  in  his  rear,  to 
protect  the  convoys  of  provisions.  The  regular  troops  amounted  to  about 
1500.  The  Maroon  town  lies  twenty  miles  south-east  of  Montego 
Bay,  and  eighteen  miles  from  Falmouth.  The  road  from  Montego 
Bay  for  the  first  nine  miles  is  good,  after  which  it  is  steep,  rugged, 
and  affording  facilities  of  defence  against  any  hostile  advance.  The 


THE    MAROON    WAR.  141 

same  may  be  said  of  the  last  four  or  five  miles  of  the  road  from  Fal- 
mouth.  The  Maroons,,  terrified  by  this  military  array,  on  the  llth  of 
Aug.  sent  their  chief  and  seventeen  leading  men  to  offer  submission 
and  fealty  to  Lord  Balcarras,  who  however  put  these  men  in  irons,  and 
sent  them  on  ship-board.  Of  all  things,  the  Maroons  had  a  horror  of 
being  shipped  from  the  island.  One  of  the  chiefs  committed  suicide  by 
ripping  open  his  bowels,  and  this  experiment  of  surrender  taught  the 
Maroons  what  little  clemency  they  had  to  expect  from  Government. 
Two  of  the  chiefs  who  had  come  to  the  out-posts  to  parley  about  paci- 
fication, on  their  return  found  that  the  Westmorland  militia  had  de- 
stroyed their  town,  burnt  their  provision  grounds,  and  ill  used  their 
families.  The  sword  was  now  drawn,  and  the  scabbard  was  thrown 
away.  Lord  Balcarras  had  with  him  one  hundred  and  fifty  of  the  13th 
Light  Dragoons,  dismounted;  detachments  of  the  17th  Light  Dragoons, 
under  Capt.  Bacon ;  and  one  hundred  of  the  62d  Foot. 

So  far  from  surrendering  on  the  12th,  the  Maroons  were  so  in- 
censed, that  they  attacked  two  of  our  detachments  on  that  day  -and 
severely  handled  them.  Lord  Balcarras  ordered  Col.  Sandford  to  make 
a  forward  movement,  which,  in  conjunction  with  the  movements  of  the 
83d  and  of  the  militia,  was  intended  to  surround  the  Maroon  town. 
The  Maroons  allowed  Col.  Sandford  to  advance  into  a  defile,  wLen 
they  opened  a  tremendous  fire  upon  him  from  ambushes  on  his  right 
and  left,  and  killed  him  and  almost  all  his  men.  Not  a  single  Maroon 
was  hurt.  The  whole  plan  had  been  badly  contrived. 

It  was  now  resolved  to  surround  both  towns,  and  to  destroy  all  the 
provision  grounds.  A  track  was  cut  through  the  thick  brambles  and 
brushwood,  the  line  being  guided  by  the  bugles  of  the  17th  Dragoons. 
After  infinite  toil  in  the  rainy  season,  a  light  field-piece  was  brought 
up  through  this  track,  and  both  towns  were  taken  possession  of.  But, 
to  the  astonishment  of  Lord  Balcarras,  they  were  found  abandon- 
ed ;  the  Maroons,  as  might  have  been  expected,  had  retreated  to  the 
cockpit  with  all  their  valuables.  Into  this  cockpit  our  troops  were 
made  to  fire  repeated  volleys,  the  echoes  of  which  were  succeeded  by 
loud  bursts  of  laughter  from  the  Maroons,  who  rejoiced  at  our  waste 
of  ammunition.  Lord  Balcarras  now  retired  to  Montego  Bay,  and 
left  the  command  of  the  troops  to  Col.  Fitch,  of  the  83d. 

More  wisdom  now  guided  our  measures,  but,  from  unavoidable  cir- 
cumstances, almost  all  our  outposts  were  surprised,  our  working-par- 
ties were  destroyed  by  ambuscades,  and  our  convoys  and  detachments 
generally  cut  to  pieces.  In  but  one  instance  could  we  ascertain  that  a 
single  man  of  the  enemy  had  been  killed.  Many  parleys  took  place, 
but  the  horror  of  the  Maroons  at  being  sent  on  ship-board,  prevented 
any  favourable  conclusion. 

Col.  Fitch  employed  a  strong  working-party  of  slaves,  supported  by 
several  flanking  companies  of  regulars  and  militia,  to  cut  a  line  through 
the  brush- wood  and  thorny  brambles,  that  he  might  communicate  with 
some  corps  on  his  right.  They  had  scarcely  worked  half  a  mile  fiom 
head-quarters,  when  the  party  fell  into  an  ambush,  the  troops  suffered 
severely,  arid  the  Maroons  massacred  a  great  number  of  the  Negroes. 
About  a  mile  and  a  quarter  from  head-quarters,  in  another  direction, 
there  was  an  outpost  of  between  thirty  and  forty  men,  commanded 
by  Capt.  Lee,  of  the  83d,  who  had  secured  himself  with  palisadoes  and 
a  breast-work,  but  had  reported  that  his  post  might  be  commanded  by 


THE    MAROON    WAR. 

the  Maroons  from  the  heights.  On  the  12th  of  Sept.  Col.  Fitch,  at 
nine  in  the  morning,  went  to  visit  the  post,  in  company  with  the 
Adjutant  of  the  83d  and  many  other  officers.  We  may  judge  of  the 
nature  of  the  country  from  the  fact,  that  Col.  Fitch  was  obliged  to 
make  use  of  a  compass,  and  to  set  his  watch  by  that  of  Lieut.  Dixon, 
of  the  Artillery,  at  head-quarters,  who  was  desired  to  fire  a  field-piece 
precisely  at  twelve  o'clock.  Three  hours  were  thus  occupied  in  tra- 
versing one  mile  and  a  half.  Col.  Fitch  found  the  post  untenable,  and 
he  proceeded  with  a  small  party  a  few  hundred  yards  in  advance  to 
determine  upon  a  better  position.  Coming  to  two  diverging  paths,  he 
hesitated  a  minute  which  to  take,  when  a  sudden  volley  from  the 
Maroons  in  the  brushwood  killed  or  wounded  almost  every  mun  of  the 
party.  Col.  Jackson  was  unhurt,  but  seeing  Col.  Fitch  sitting  despe- 
rately wounded  on  the  stump  of  a  tree,  and  hearing  some  Maroons 
cock  their  muskets,  he  endeavoured  to  make  him  lie  down,  but  even 
in  this  hurried  effort  another  ball  killed  him  on  the  spot.  Of  a  return 
before  us  of  ninety-three  killed  and  wounded,  we  find  seventy  killed 
and  only  twenty-three  wounded,  so'accurate  was  their  fire. 

Col.  Walpole,  of  the  13th  Dragoons,  was  now  appointed  Commander- 
in-Chief,  with  the  rank  of  Major-General.  He  declared  that  the 
Island  would  be  lost  if  the  troops  suffered  another  defeat.  While  ma- 
turing his  plans,  an  attack  was  made  upon  a  strong  outpost,  commanded 
by  Major  Godley  and  Capt.  White  of  the  83d.  One  of  the  sentries 
had  declared  that  he  saw  a  Maroon  passing  in  the  dark.  The  men 
were  turned  out,  and  formed  into  two  parties,  and  advanced  at  day- 
break. No  vestige  of  an  enemy  appearing,  they  returned,  and  Major 
Godley  entering  his  hut,  ordered  his  negro  boy  to  bring  him  his  coffee. 
At  the  instant,  the  boy  was  shot  through  the  head,  and  a  volley  from 
the  Maroons  did  great  execution  amongst  our  men.  The  post  was 
bravely  defended,  but  at  last  abandoned  with  considerable  loss. 

Gen.  Walpole  resolved  to  act  on  the  defensive  during  the  rainy  sea- 
son. He  trained  his  men  to  light  infantry  manoeuvres  and  bush-fight- 
ing; he  selected  the  best  rifle-shots,  harassed  the  enemy  by  false 
alarms,  and  made  feint  attacks  to  draw  off  their  attention,  whilst  he 
cleared  the  country  around  him  of  the  brushwood  and  high  grass.  At 
length,  making  a  feint  attack  at  a  distance,  he  pushed  a  strong  body  of 
troops,  with  a  howitzer  and  field-piece,  up  a  hill,  and  at  daybreak  began 
to  pour  shells  and  grape-shot  into  the  cockpit.  The  Maroons,  terrified 
at  this  novel  mode  of  attack,  precipitately  tied  to  the  next  cockpit, 
from  which  they  were  driven  by  similar  means.  They  were  thus  driven 
from  post  to  post,  and  cut  off  from  their  supplies  of  water.  The 
measles  broke  out  amongst  them,  and  they  became  greatly  distressed. 
Still,  however,  they  were  able  to  send  out  numerous  skirmishing  par- 
ties ;  and  notwithstanding  we  were  often  able  to  attack  them  with 
greatly  superior  numbers,  in  no  one  instance  could  we  obtain  complete 
success. 

Thus  were  parties  situated,  when  Lord  Balcarras,  contrary  to  the 
advice  of  the  gallant  Walpole,  resolved  to  send  to  Cuba  for  a  pack  of 
the  hounds  used  in  that  island  to  chace  outlaws  and  runaway  negroes. 
These  dogs,  on  coming  up  with  a  fugitive,  merely  growl  at  him,  till  he 
stops,  when  they  continue  barking  till  the  chasseurs  advance  and  se- 
cure their  prize.  Each  chasseur  can  only  hunt  with  two  dogs  :  they 


THE    MAROON    WAR.  143 

are  never  unmuzzled  but  for  attack,  and  are  always  accompanied  by 
one  or  two  small  dogs  of  excellent  scent,  called  finders.  The  larger 
animal  is  the  size  of  a  very  large  hound,  but  with  the  nose  more  point- 
ed. His  skin  is  much  harder  than  that  of  most  dogs,  and  so  must  be 
the  whole  structure,  as  the  severe  beatings  they  undergo  in  training 
would  kill  any  other  dog. 

The  chasseur's  only  weapon  is  longer  than  a  dragoon's  sword,  and 
twice  as  thick,  something  like  a  flat  iron  bar,  of  which  about  eighteen 
inches  at  the  lower  end  are  as  sharp  as  a  razor.  The  activity  of  these 
chasseurs  no  negro  can  elude  ;  and  such  is  their  temperance,  that  with 
a  few  ounces  of  salt,  they  can  support  themselves  for  months  on  the 
vegetable  and  farinaceous  food  of  the  woods.  They  drink  nothing  but 
the  water  supplied  by  the  wild  pine,  by  the  black  and  grape  withes, 
and  the  roots  of  the  cotton-tree.  Their  greatest  privation  is  that  of  the 
cigar,  which  they  must  not  use  in  the  woods,  where  the  scent  would 
betray  them.  The  dress  of  a  chasseur  is  a  check  shirt,  open  at  the  neck, 
and  displaying  a  crucifix  ;  a  wide  pair  of  check  trowsers  ;  a  straw  hat, 
eight  inches  in  the  rim  :  his  sword-belt,  and  his  cotton  ropes  for  his 
dogs.  In  the  woods,  he  kills  the  wild  hogs,  and  having  skinned  the 
thighs  and  hocks,  he  thrusts  his  foot  into  the  raw  hide,  and  with  his 
knife  trims  it  and  makes  it  a  tight  boot,  to  protect  his  legs  from  the 
intricacies  of  thorns  and  brushwood  which  he  has  to  penetrate. 

Forty  of  these  chasseurs  were  reviewed  by  Gen.  Walpole  at  Seven 
Rivers,  and  each  of  them  had  two  hounds  besides  the  finder.  The  Ge- 
neral imposed  upon  them  the  necessity  of  carrying  muskets,  which, 
however,  they  resolved  to  throw  away  as  soon  as  a  fight  commenced; 
and,  secondly,  he  would  not  allow  them  to  go  out  in  chace,  but  obliged 
them  to  keep  in  the  rear,  till  occasion  might  require  their  aid.  How 
far  these  restraints  and  alterations  of  their  accustomed  mode  of  fighting 
might  have  destroyed  their  efficiency,  was  never  proved.  To  us  it  ap- 
pears that  nothing  could  be  more  contemptible  than  such  an  ally,  and 
that  in  the  very  first  rencontre  every  chasseur  and  hound  would  have 
been  shot. 

But  opinion  in  war,  as  in  all  other  things,  is  omnipotent.  The  Ma- 
roons, who  had  braved  our  bayonets,  our  cavalry,  and  cannon,  and  had 
overcome  the  terror  they  had  entertained  of  our  name,  now  succumbed 
beneath  the  fear  of  this  worse  than  ludicrous  species  of  force.  Gen. 
Walpole  took  advantage  of  their  terror  to  negotiate,  and  a  treaty  was 
signed,  to  one  article  of  which  Gen.  Walpole  swore — "  that  the  Ma- 
roons should  not  be  sent  off  the  island." 

No  sooner  had  this  handful  of  brave  men,  less  than  five  hundred, 
surrendered,  than  they  were  shipped  to  Nova  Scotia,  and  thence  to 
Sierra  Leone.  It  must  be  observed,  that  this  memorable  conflict  took 
place  with  only  one  (the  Trelawney)  tribe  of  Maroons.  The  other  tribes 
were  neutral,  or  often  either  secretly  or  openly  acted  in  our  favour. 

The  House  of  Assembly  voted  seven  hundred  guineas  for  a  sword 
to  Lord  Balcarras,  which  his  Lordship  declared  he  would  transmit  to 
his  posterity,  as  a  testimony  most  glorious  to  his  name  and  family. 
The  House  of  Assembly  passed  a  similar  vote  of  five  hundred  guineas 
to  Gen.  Walpole,  but  that  noble-minded  ofticer  contemptuously  refused 
their  present,  and  desired  permission  to  give  evidence  at  the  bar  of  the 
House,  of  the  spirit  in  which  the  treaty  had  been  negotiated,  and  of  the 


144  A    VISIT   TO   THE 

sense  in  which  it  had  been  drawn  up  by  himself  and  the  Maroon  Chiefs, 
—  a  sense  diametrically  opposite  to  that  which  the  House  was  deter- 
mined to  put  upon  it.  This  being  rejected,  he  insisted  that  the  Maroons 
should  have  their  arms  restored  to  them,  and  be  placed  in  statu  quo 
antefoedus.  He  even  declared  his  conviction,  that  in  another  campaign 
he  could  reduce  them  to  entire  submission  by  force  of  arms.  Gen. 
Walpole,  in  addition  to  the  high  feelings  of  a  soldier,  and  to  the  esta- 
blished principles  of  good  faith,  felt  ashamed  at  his  having  used  so 
contemptible,  and  in  every  respect  so  odious  a  means  of  terror,  as  the 
Cuba  blood-hounds.  The  talent  and  courage  he  had  displayed  had 
saved  the  island,  and,  indignant  at  the  pusillanimity  of  the  local  autho- 
rities, he  refused  the  vote  of  the  sword  in  such  terms  of  contempt  of 
the  Assembly,  and  of  indignation  at  their  perfidy,  that  the  House  ex- 
punged his  letter  from  their  journals.  From  his  being  their  palla- 
dium, the  god  of  their  idolatry,  he  sank  at  once  into  an  object  of  their 
vituperation,  and  was,  in  their  eyes,  even  worse  than  a  Maroon. 


A    VISIT    TO   THE   ISLAND    OF   JOHANNA. 

JOHANNA,  one  of  the  Comora  Islands,  is  situated  in  the  Mozam- 
bique Channel,  in  lat.  12°  7  S.  and  long.  44°  30'  E.  It  lies  between 
the  north  end  of  the  Island  of  Madagascar  and  the  continent  of  Africa. 

Cid  Hamza,  one  of  the  Princes  of  Johanna,  with  a  party  of  true 
Mussulmen,  undertook  to  perform  a  pilgrimage  to  Mecca,  for  which 
purpose  he  sailed  from  Johanna  with  his  followers,  but  the  vessel  in 
which  they  embarked  was  wrecked  at  Hafoon,  on  the  coast  of  Africa, 
near  the  mouth  of  the  Red  Sea.  From  thence  they  got  to  Muscat, 
where  they  found  a  vessel  bound  to  Penang.  From  Penang  they 
went  to  Bombay  and  Calcutta,  and  arrived  at  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope, 
without  being  able  to  accomplish  their  pilgrimage.  After  remain- 
ing at  the  Cape  some  considerable  time,  under  the  care  and  instruc- 
tion of  the  Rev.  Dr.  Phillip,  his  Majesty's  Sloop  Shearwater  was 
appointed  to  convey  them  to  their  dominions.  On  the  17th  of 
May,  1821,  they  were  received  on  board,  having  previously  embark- 
ed sundry  chests  of  arms,  &c.  as  presents  from  the  British  Govern- 
ment to  their  King.  The  party  consisted  of  eight  men  and  three 
women,  viz.  Cid  Hamza,  the  Prince ;  Duke  Abdallah,  and  Brahae  his 
wife ;  Lord  Nelson,  and  Minotti  his  wife  ;  Cid  Abubekker,  and  Sumela 
his  wife;  Old  Abdallah,  a  priest;  Bonacumbo,  a  servant;  and  two 
slaves.  The  origin  of  the  English  titles  of  these  people  will  be  ex- 
plained hereafter.  This  opportunity  was  thought  very  favourable  for 
introducing  a  Missionary  at  Johanna,  for  which  purpose  a  Mr.  Elliott 
accompanied  them  under  the  character  of  a  schoolmaster. 
^  Being  ready  for  sea  by  the  evening  of  the  17th,  we  sailed  from 
Simon's  Bay  with  a  strong  S.E.  wind.  Independent  of  all  the  luggage, 
&c.  belonging  to  the  Prince  and  his  suite,  we  had  on  board  sundry 
stores  and  provisions  for  his  Majesty's  ship  Menai,  at  the  Isle  of 
France.  Never  did  a  man-of-war  put  to  sea  more  lumbered  up  than 
we  were ;  there  was  scarcely  room  to  work  the  ship,  owing  to  casks, 
chests,  hampers,  £c.  being  stowed  upon  deck,  which  in  a  small  vessel 


ISLAND    OF    JOHANNA.  145 

is  not  only  inconvenient,  but  extremely  dangerous ;  however,  in  this 
state  we  sailed,  and  were  employed  the  whole  night  beating  out  of  the 
bay»  against  a  heavy  head  sea  that  wetted  us  fore  and  aft. 

The  religion  of  our  passengers  being  Mohammedan,  precluded  their 
eating  any  thing  but  of  their  own  killing  and  cooking ;  it  was  therefore, 
necessary  that  they  should  mess  by  themselves :  for  this  purpose  the 
gun-room  of  the  ship  was  appropriated  exclusively  to  their  use,  the 
Officers  and  Mr.  Elliott  living  with  the  Captain.  For  the  first  few 
days  after  our  sailing,  the  passengers  were  extremely  sea-sick,  and 
never  moved  from  below.  On  the  22d,  it  came  on  to  blow  a  heavy 
gale  of  wind  from  the  S.W. ;  we  found  that  the  ship  had  sprung  a  leak 
in  her  starboard  counter,  and  that  an  old  leak  forward  had  increased 
very  much,  so  that  we  were  obliged,  during  the  gale,  to  work  at  the 
pumps  every  two  hours,  in  order  to  keep  her  free.  On  the  23d,  we 
shipped  two  very  heavy  seas,  which  stove  in  two  of  our  quarter-deck 
ports,  and  dashed  the  starboard-quarter  boat  all  to  pieces. 

On  entering  the  Mozambique  Channel  the  weather  became  fine,  ac- 
companied with  light  variable  winds,  and  generally  calm  at  night. 
The  fine  weather  gave  us  an  opportunity  of  observing  the  characters 
of  our  Royal  passengers  ;  and  whatever  favourable  opinion  the  Rev.  Dr. 
Phillip  might  have  formed  of  them  while  under  his  care  at  the  Cape 
of  Good  Hope,  receiving  the  bounty  of  the  British  Government,  as 
well  as  the  most  marked  and  flattering  attentions  from  Sir  Rufane 
Donkin  and  the  principal  inhabitants  of  the  colony,  the  impression  they 
made  upon  the  officers  on  board  the  Shearwater  was  anything  but  sa- 
tisfactory, and  we  had  every  reason  to  believe  that  Dr.  Phillip  was 
much  deceived  in  them.  As  we  neared  the  island,  our  passengers  be- 
came reserved,  holding  frequent  conversations  amongst  themselves, 
evidently  wishing  that  the  officers  of  the  ship  should  not  observe  them : 
we  were  at  a  loss  to  know  what  this  conduct  could  mean,  till  at  last 
the  mystery  was  cleared  by  the  Prince  informing  Capt.  Roberts,  that 
"  Mr.  Elliott  could  not  be  provided  with  a  house  or  servant  at  Johanna 
unless  he  paid  for  them!" — although  Dr.  Phillip  had  been  expressly 
given  to  understand  that  he  (Mr.  Elliott)  would  be  provided  with 
both ;  in  fact,  they  received  their  passage  with  this  understanding : 
but  such  was  the  case,  and  it  was  decided  that  this  point  should  be 
referred  to  the  King  on  our  arrival  at  the  island. 

At  daylight  on  the  llth  of  June  we  made  the  high  land  of  Mohilla, 
one  of  the  Comora  Islands,  and  at  8  A.M.  saw  the  Island  of  Johanna, 
bearing  N.E.  On  nearing  the  land  the  wind  failed  us,  so  that  we 
could  not  get  in  that  night.  The  following  morning  a  light  breeze 
sprang  up,  and  we  stood  in  again  for  the  Island  ;  on  hauling  round  the 
point  it  fell  calm,  so  we  hoisted  out  our  boats,  and  towed  the  ship  into 
the  anchorage,  casting  anchor  about  a  quarter  of  a  mile  from  the  shore, 
and  saluted  the  King  of  the  Island  with  five  guns. 

The  appearance  of  Johanna  from  the  anchorage  is  magnificently 
beautiful,  the  country  being  rich  and  picturesque  beyond  description. 
As  far  as  the  eye  can  range,  not  a  spot  is  to  be  seen  that  is  not  lite- 
rally covered  with  fruit-trees  of  almost  every  description  known  in  the 
tropical  climates ;  some  were  green,  some  in  blossom,  and  others  bear- 
ing ;  showing  at  one  view,  from  the  happy  temperature  of  the  climate, 
all  the  various  tints  of  spring,  summer,  and  autumn.  The  hills  gra- 


146  A    VISIT   TO    THE 

dually  rise  one  above  the  other,  covered  with  the  richest  verdure,  which 
reaches  down  to  the  very  edge  of  the  sea ;  one  large  mountain  fills  up 
the  back-ground,  clothed  with  delicious  fruit-trees  from  its  base  to 
the  very  summit,  which  runs  up  into  the  clouds  to  a  height  of  at  least 
two  thousand  feet  from  the  level  of  the  sea,  thus  giving  the  Island  the 
appearance  of  all  that  is  delightful  and  luxuriant. 

This  magnificent  scenery  was  soon  enlivened  by  our  being  surround- 
ed by  a  great  number  of  canoes,  the  most  singularly-constructed  ma- 
chines I  had  ever  seen :  they  were  made  of  one  solid  piece  of  wood, 
hollowed  out,  having  two  outriggers  on  each  side;  to  the  ends  of  these 
outriggers  were  lashed  fore-and-aft  pieces,  in  order  to  prevent  their 
capsizing,  which  they  inevitably  would  do,  were  it  not  for  these  pieces 
of  wood  being  fitted  to  them.  They  answer  the  purpose  surprisingly 
well,  but  have  a  most  strange  and  clumsy  appearance ;  they  were  pad- 
dled by  black  slaves,  with  shaved  heads,  and  entirely  naked,  save  a 
girdle  round  the  waist :  they  sat  one  before  the  other,  the  canoes  not 
being  sufficiently  wide  for  two  persons  to  sit  abreast.  Considering 
their  clumsy  and  awkward  construction,  they  went  very  fast  through 
the  water,  but  nothing  to  equal  the  canoes  of  the  Indians  of  North 
America  that  are  made  from  the  bark  of  trees. 

As  soon  as  the  confusion  of  anchoring  the  ship  and  furling  sails 
was  over,  we  were  beset  with  dukes,  lords,  admirals,  counts,  £c. 
&c.  who  came  off  to  solicit  our  washing,  and  also  to  offer  their  services 
as  guides  or  servants  during  our  stay  at  the  Island.  They  produced 
letters  of  recommendation  from  various  officers  that  had  touched 
at  the  Island  of  Johanna,  certifying  their  honesty,  and  that  they  washed 
well ;  but  as  none  of  these  people  understood  their  contents,  it  was 
laughable  to  find  that  many  of  these  letters  concluded  with  a  remark, 
that  "  the  bearer  required  being  sharply-looked  after,  and  that  the 
Johannese  were  an  over-reaching  set."  I  hired  Admiral  Lord  Rodney 
to  wash  and  provide  for  me  during  our  stay,  and  found  him  as  petty  an 
impostor  as  any  of  them.  Their  assurance  in  asking  for  any  thing  they 
fancied  was  beyond  conception  ;  one  of  then:  actually  begged  Capt. 
Roberts  to  give  him  the  epaulettes  from  off  his  shoulders.  It  was  truly 
laughable  to  see  the  farcical  manner  in  which  these  people  were  dress- 
ed. I  shall  describe  two  of  them,  which  will  convey  some  idea  of  the 
whole.  They  all  wore  turbans,  according  to  the  costume  of  the  country. 
Admiral  Lord  Rodney  had  a  very  fine  one,  ornamented  with  gold  lace, 
and  a  star  in  front ;  a  short-sleeved  red  cloth  frock-coat,  trimmed  with 
gold  lace,  reached  down  to  his  knees ;  on  his  shoulders  were  a  pair  of 
gold  epaulettes, — certainly  they  were  a  little  tarnished,  but  this  splendid 
upper  finery,  contrasted  with  his  dusky  visage,  black  teeth,  and  red 
nails,  which  are  held  in  high  estimation  at  Johanna,  bare  legs,  (for  the 
trowsers  were  large  and  tied  at  the  knee,)  no  shoes  or  stockings,  gave 
him  upon  the  whole  a  most  grotesque  appearance.  Commodore  Blan- 
ket's head-dress  was  the  same  as  Lord  Rodney's,  but  the  Commodore's 
coat  was  green,  and  ornamented  with  silver  lace,  and  large  yellow  me- 
tal buttons.  A  badge  was  suspended  to  his  left  bosom,  some- 
what resembling  a  city  porter's,  on  which  his  name  was  engraved 
at  full  length,  with  the  year  and  date  on  which  his  celebrated  name- 
sake touched  at  the  Island,  and  who  thus  honoured  him  and  the  rest 
of  the  natives  with  their  names  and  badges  of  distinction.  A  pair  of 


ISLAND    OF   JOHANNA.  147 

silver  aiguillettes  surmounted  this  jumble  of  finery ;  and  to  complete  the 
whole,  he  was,  like  the  rest,  bare-footed,  bare-legged,  copper-coloured, 
with  red  nails,  and  black  teeth.  They  were  all  dressed  in  the  same  ludi- 
crous manner,  and  had  much  the  appearance  of  a  company  of  strolling 
players,  dressed  out  for  performance  at  a  country  fair.  The  fashion  of 
wearing  badges  of  distinction  is  growing  into  disuse,  for  very  few  had 
them  ;  formerly  they  were  much  more  generally  worn.  When  the  late 
Capt.  Beaver  touched  at  Johanna  in  1812,  he  thus  adverted  to  them. 
"  Most  of  our  illustrious  admirals  and  statesmen,  or  rather  their  name- 
sakes, ostentatiously  paraded  before  me ;  and  that  no  mistake  might 
occur  as  to  who  was  Howe,  Rodney,  or  Pitt,  they  wore  copper  tallies  of 
their  dignity  on  their  breasts."  When  evening  approached,  our  friends 
left  us,  and  next  morning  we  were  visited  by  an  increased  number  of 
canoes.  It  was  a  very  novel  sight  to  see  so  many  of  these  strangely- 
constructed  machines  paddled  about  by  native  black  slaves,  sitting 
one  before  the  other.  In  the  stern  sat  one  or  two  Arabs ;  their  gaudy 
trappings  glittering  in  the  sun,  formed  a  singular  contrast  to  the  na- 
ked wretches  who  sat  before  them,  exposed  to  the  heat  of  its  power- 
ful rays,  without  the  slightest  covering  to  protect  them ;  yet  as  they 
paddled  round  the  ship,  they  were  singing  (and  apparently  happy)  the 
songs  of  their  country.  This  morning  the  wives  of  our  passengers  went 
on  shore.  It  must  be  stated,  that  these  women  were  of  the  lower  order 
of  Malays  at  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope,  whom  the  Johannese  had  married 
there,  and  easily  prevailed  upon  to  quit  their  country,  which,  as  will 
presently  appear,  they  afterwards  very  much  regretted.  They  were  now 
carefully  muffled  up,  so  that  their  faces  could  not  possibly  be  seen,  and 
pulled  on  shore  with  some  degree  of  pomp,  where  they  were  to  be  im- 
mured from  all  male  eyes,  save  their  husband's,  for  the  remainder  of 
their  lives.  This  cruel  imprisonment  the  poor  women  had  never  anti- 
cipated on  leaving  their  homes,  for  it  was  kept  secret  from  them ;  and 
when  it  was  made  known  to  them  that  they  were  to  be  shut  up  accord- 
ing to  the  custom  and  religion  of  the  country,  they  were  very  much  dis- 
tressed. The  Arabs  put  not  the  least  restraint  upon  these  women  while 
at  the  Cape,  nor  on  board  the  ship,  fearing  that  they  might  justly  com- 
plain, and  probably  change  their  minds ;  but  no  sooner  had  we  arrived 
at  the  Island,  than  all  the  restrictions  of  their  religion  were  put  in  force, 
and  their  husbands  informed  us,  that  after  we  sailed,  they  should  never 
clap  eyes  on  man  again.  During  our  stay,  the  officers  of  the  ship 
had  access  to  them  ;  and  I  was  charged  with  a  message  from  Sumela, 
the  wife  of  Abubekker,  to  her  mother  at  the  Cape :  "  Tell  my  dear 
mother,"  said  she,  "  that  I  am  no  wife,  but  a  slave ;  tell  her  1  shall 
die  very  soon  ;  and  tell  my  dear  brother,  if  he  comes  here,  I  shall  not 
be  able  to  see  him,  for  I  am  locked  up  until  death."  This  message  I 
afterwards  delivered  to  the  mother  and  brother  at  Simon's  Town ;  they 
appeared  to  be  much  affected  at  poor  Sumela's  situation.  "  I  will  go 
to  Johanna/'  said  her  brother,  "  and  carry  away  my  sister,  and  if  I 
cannot  get  her,  I  will  kill  her  husband  and  every  Arab  I  meet  with." 
There  is  no  doubt  that,  if  her  brother  could  get  to  Johanna,  he  would 
put  his  threat  into  execution,  for  a  Malay's  revenge  is  known  to  be 
terrible  indeed. 

In  the  course  of  the  day  I  went  on  shore,  in  company  with   Mr. 
O'Reilly:  immediately  on  lauding  we  received  an  invitation  from  Prince 


148  A    VISIT    TO    THE 

Ali,  the  King's  son,  who  is  heir  to  the  throne  (if  such  it  may  be  called) 
of  Johanna.  We  found  that  this  Prince  spoke  a  little  English:  he 
received  us  very  kindly,  and  with  a  courtesy  of  manner  far  beyond 
what  we  could  possibly  have  anticipated.  His  house,  or  rather  the 
room  we  were  in,  was  most  curiously  decorated,  being  hung  round  with 
upwards  of  a  hundred  little  sixpenny  looking-glasses  in  gilt  frames. 
Round  pieces  of  tin,  many  of  them  gilt,  were  nailed  against  the  walls 
and  ceiling,  also  several  china  basins  were  stuck  in,  bottom  upwards  ; 
added  to  this  display  of  Johannese  embellishment,  there  were  nume- 
rous paltry  prints,  daubed  over  with  the  brightest  and  most  gaudy 
colours,  which  served  to  fill  up  every  vacancy  throughout  the  walls  and 
ceiling,  so  that  it  was  impossible  to  distinguish  what  the  latter  con- 
sisted of,  but  upon  the  whole  it  gave  the  room  an  air  of  comfort,  and 
in  the  Prince's  opinion,  no  doubt,  a  great  degree  of  elegance.  The 
furniture  consisted  of  four  very  fine  couches,  covered  with  rich 
crimson  silk,  which  the  Prince  informed  us  were  his  beds;  one 
old  oaken  table,  and  two  very  high-backed,  leather-bottomed  chairs — 
these  latter  articles  he  informed  us  were  presented  to  him  by  the 
captain  of  an  English  vessel.  Prince  Ali  is  a  very  fine  young  man, 
with  large  expressive  dark  eyes,  a  pleasing  countenance,  and  about 
twenty-one  or  two  years  of  age.  His  manners  and  address  were 
very  easy,  accompanied  with  an  air  of  great  superiority.  During  our 
stay,  we  were  constantly  fanned  by  little  black  slave  boys,  with  fans 
composed  of  feathers.  After  partaking  some  fruit,  and  bread  made  of  rice 
and  cocoa  nut,  which  was  very  excellent,  the  Prince  kindly  took  us  to 
see  the  fortification,  which  is  situated  on  a  hill  close  at  the  back  of  the 
town.  Our  ascent  to  it  was  by  a  steep  flight  of  steps,  which  are  fast 
falling  to  decay :  the  fort  was  in  a  wretched  condition,  having  been 
allowed  to  fall  completely  to  ruin  ;  the  guns  were  all  dismounted,  and 
from  being  so  long  exposed  to  the  weather,  completely  honeycombed, 
and  the  carriages  broken  to  pieces,  so  that  more  danger  would  be  likely 
to  attend  the  persons  who  fired  the  guns,  than  those  who  might  be 
fired  at.  It  is  truly  pitiable  to  see  such  a  fort  allowed  to  fall  to  ruin, 
for  it  has  a  noble  command  of  the  town,  and  might,  if  kept  in  condi- 
tion, repel  any  attack  upon  it.  About  twenty-five  years  ago,  during 
the  Madagascar  wars,  the  Madagasses  occupied  the  very  hill  which 
this  fort  stands  upon,  and  picked  off  the  inhabitants  as  they  appeared 
in  the  streets  during  the  day-time.  When  want  of  provisions  com- 
pelled them  to  quit  this  commanding  situation,  the  Johannese  built  the 
battery ;  but  now  the  war  is  terminated,  they  care  nothing  about  it,  and 
allow  i±  to  fall  to  ruin.  We  afterwards  visited  the  Prince's  garden, 
but  it  %id  not  appear  that  much  care  or  taste  had  been  bestowed  upon 
it.  It  merely  consisted  of  two  long  groves  of  fruit-trees,  such  as  are 
peculiar  to  tropical  climates,  and  all  these  are  to  be  found  wild  in 
abundance  at  Johanna.  The  Prince  sent  one  of  his  slaves  up  a  cocoa- 
nut-tree,  in  order  to  procure  us  some  toddy,  a  liquid  which  is  extracted 
from  the  tree  itself.  The  man  climbed  up  the  tree  with  the  greatest 
ease,  carrying  with  him  a  gourd,  a  hatchet,  and  gimblet ;  when  nearly 
at  the  top,  he  cut  through  the  bark,  then  bored  a  hole,  and  imme- 
diately the  toddy  ran  out  as  clear  as  crystal.  It  is  a  most  excellent 
beverage,  very  much  resembling  cider  strongly  flavoured  with  cocoa- 
nut  milk.  In  the  evening,  we  returned  on  board,  highly  gratified  with 


ISLAND    OF    JOHANNA.  149 

our  day's  excursion,  and  received  an  invitation  to  dine  with  the  Prince 
on  the  following  day. 

On  my  arrival  on  board,  I  sent  the  Prince  a  present  of  a  small  pocket- 
telescope,  by  his  attendant  who  came  off  with  us  in  the  canoe,  as  a 
small  return  for  his  civilities.  The  next  time  I  saw  him,  I  found  that 
he  did  not  understand  how  to  use  it,  until  the  nature  of  the  focus  was 
explained  to  him,  at  which  he  appeared  highly  delighted,  and,  giving 
me  a  most  loving  embrace,  observed,  that  I  was  a  very  good  man. 

June  14th.  Sultry  weather.     Employed  wooding  and  watering  the 
ship ;  one  of  our  men  fell  from  the  top  of  a  cocoa-nut  tree,  a  height  of 
about  thirty  feet,  and,  strange  to  say,  did  not  hurt  himself  in  the  least. 
In  the  afternoon,  we  went  on  shore  again  for  the  purpose  of  dining 
with  Prince  Ali.     As  we  landed,  the  lower  limb  of  the  sun  was  just 
kissing  the  horizon ;  hundreds  of  the  natives  were  assembled  on  the 
sea  shore,  watching  its  declining  rays,  and  when  that  glorious  orb  had 
sunk  beneath  the  wave,  they  laid  themselves  prostrate  on  the  ground, 
with  their  faces  turned  towards  the  spot  where  it  had  so  majestically 
disappeared.     The  sight  was  truly  imposing,  and  for  some  time  we 
remained  riveted  to  the  spot  where  we  had  Landed,  fearing  to  disturb 
them.     Presently  they  uttered  a  loud  prayer  and  rose  upon  their  knees ; 
then  standing  upright,  crossed  themselves,  and  bowing,  as  it  were,  to  the 
sunken  luminary,  they  began  to  halloo  and  dance  about  like  mad  peo- 
ple.    After  this  ceremony  was  over,  they  had  recourse  to  their  chunam, 
beetle-nut,  tobacco,  &c.  and  fully  made  up,  from  the  quantities  which 
they  crammed  into  their  mouths,  for  having  fasted  all  the  day.     They 
then  separated  for  their  homes,  in  order  to  break  their  fast.     I  ought 
previously  to  have  mentioned,  that  this  was  the  period  of  their  Ra- 
mahdan,  during  which  time,  as  is  well  known,  for  forty  days  Moham- 
medans are  prohibited  from  breaking  their  fast  from  sunrise  till  sun- 
set, and  this  was  the   reason  why  our  dinner  hour  with  Prince  Ali 
was  named  after  sunset.     On  arriving  at  the  Prince's,  we  found  Mr. 
Elliott,  the  Missionary,  added  to  our  party.    We  were  received  by  the 
Prince  with  his  usual  urbanity  of  manners,  and  sat  down  to  a  dinner 
in  the  English  style,  the  table  being  laid  out  with  knives,  forks,  plates, 
&c.     We  formed  a  very  sober  party,  having  nothing  stronger  than 
cocoa-nut  water  to  drink,  the  religion  of  the  country  prohibiting  the 
use  of  wine  or  spirits.     The  dinner  was  tolerable  ;  it  consisted  of  very 
good  soup,  curried  fowls,  and  roast  beef,  abominably  tough.     We  could 
easily  perceive  that  the  Prince  was  not  accustomed  to  use  a  knife  or 
fork  ;  it  was  merely  out  of  compliment  to  us  that  he  attempted  it,  for 
several  times  he  was  obliged  to  lay  it  down  and  have  recourse  to  his 
fingers,  according  to  the  fashion  of  his  country,  where  they  all  eat  out 
of  a  large  wooden  bowl,  without  plates  or  dishes,  merely  using  a"  spoon 
and  their  fingers.     His  two  attendants  did  not  sit  at  the  table  with  us, 
but  dined  in  their  own  style,  in  one  corner  of  the  room,  where  they  sat 
cross-legged  on  the  floor.     During  dinner,  we  were  constantly  fanned 
by  slaves,  which  was  highly  requisite  to  keep  oif  the  tormenting  mos- 
quitos  and  allay  the  suffocating  heat. 

We  tried  hard  to  prevail  upon  the  Prince  to  allow  us  to  see  his 
wives,  of  whom  he  had  four,  but  without  effect :  he  assigned  as  a  rea- 
son, and  with  great  gravity,  "  That  they  had  never  seen  any  man  but 
himself,"  and,  "  that  we  were  so  white  we  should  frighten  them." 


150  A    VISIT    TO    THE 

These  ladies  sent  their  compliments  to  us,  accompanied  with  a  wreath 
of  flowers  for  each,  very  tastefully  done  up,  and  each  wreath  was 
covered  over  with  a  beautiful  silk  handkerchief.  Every  Arab  at  Jo- 
hanna is  allowed  four  wives,  independent  of  which  they  keep  many 
slave  women  as  concubines,  but  never  marry  any  of  the  aboriginal  na- 
tives. A  woman  at  Johanna  never  sees  her  husband  till  she  is  married 
to  him.  After  marriage,  the  wives  are  not  allowed  to  see  any  of  the 
male  branches  of  their  family  but  their  fathers,  and  they  are  kept 
so  closely  confined,  that  they  are  never  allowed  to  walk  out  till  night, 
and  then  only  in  their  walled  gardens,  or  on  the  roofs  of  their  houses, 
which  are  flat,  having  a  promenade  purposely  for  them  to  take  exer- 
cise. At  these  times  they  are  accompanied  by  their  husbands  and 
female  slaves ;  even  then  they  are  so  closely  muffled  up,  that  if  they 
were  to  look  over  the  walls,  there  would  be  no  possibility  of  seeing  their 
faces. 

When  dinner  was  over,  I  was  presented  with  an  Arabian  spear,  a 
bow  that  had  been  taken  from  a  Madagascar  chieftain,  and  a  few 
arrows ;  they  were  brought  in  with  much  ceremony  by  the  Prince's 
attendant,  who  gave  me  to  understand  that  they  were  presented  to  me 
as  a  return  for  the  telescope  which  I  gave  to  his  master.  The  Prince 
observing  that  I  was  pleased  with  this  mark  of  attention,  took  a  great 
fancy  to  my  sword,  and,  without  farther  ceremony,  his  attendant  asked 
me  to  present  it  to  him ;  which  placed  me  in  a  very  awkward  situation, 
and  no  other  way  could  I  get  out  of  it,  but  by  telling  him  that  it  was 
given  to  me  by  my  father  in  England.  Even  this  did  not  satisfy  him ; 
he  then  asked  me  if  I  would  sell  it,  and  offered  me  ten  dollars  for  it : 
I  at  last  told  him  that  it  was  not  customary  in  our  country  to  sell  a 
present,  however  trifling  its  value,  and  that  the  spear  which  he  had 
given  to  me  I  should  preserve,  and  show  it  to  my  friends  in  England  as 
a  mark  of  friendship  received  from  Prince  AH.  He  then  desisted,  but 
it  was  evident  that  he  wished  much  to  get  it,  and  it  could  not  be  that 
he  wanted  a  sword,  for  he  had  several  very  handsome  ones  of  his  own. 

As  the  Prince's  time  of  prayers  approached,  we  went  to  see  the 
slaves  dance;  they  were  assembled  in  a  square,  surrounded  by  their 
miserable  hovels,  little  better  than  pigsties,  which  are  built  of  the 
branches  and  leaves  of  the  cocoa-nut  tree.  One  man  was  beating  with 

o 

all  his  might  on  the  tom-tom,  an  instrument  somewhat  resembling  a 
drum,  so  named  from  producing  a  sound  similar  to  the  word  tom-tom  : 
its  construction  is  very  simple,  being  nothing  more  than  a  skin  tied 
over  a  piece  of  hollow  wood,  but  it  produces  such  a  dreadful  noise  as 
to  be  distinctly  heard  for  a  distance  of  two  or  three  miles.  Another 
man  was  blowing  a  shell  that  had  a  hole  in  it,  the  Murex  Tritonis, 
commonly  called  the  trumpet  shell ;  this  he  blew  as  if  life  and  death 
depended  upon  his  exertion.  Whoever  has  heard  this  shell  blown, 
must  know,  that  when  a  person  is  close  to  it,  it  rings  through  his  ears 
enough  to  split  them.  A  third  was  rattling  peas  or  seeds  in  a  machine 
made  of  plaited  bamboo,  which  produced  a  noise  something  like  the 
rattling  of  beach  stones  in  a  sieve.  These  instruments,  accompanied  with 
a  monotonous  roaring  kind  of  song,  composed  their  harmonious  concert, 
which  was  sufficient  to  stun  the  hardest  head  in  Christendom.  The 
dance  consisted  of  men  and  women  half  naked,  following  each  other  in 
a  circle.  Perceiving  that  it  was  nothing  more  than  disgusting  mo- 


ISLAND   OF   JOHANNA.  151 

tions  of  the  body,  accompanied  now  and  then  by  a  few  discordant  yells, 
we  were  very  soon  glad  to  get  away  from  them.  As  we  remained  on 
shore  this  night,  the  Prince  very  politely  offered  us  his  couches,  which 
Messrs.  Laing  and  O'Reilly  accepted,  but,  as  Mr.  Elliott  was  entirely 
alone  in  his  new  habitation,  I  preferred  keeping  that  gentleman  com- 
pany. We  got  little  or  no  sleep  owing  to  the  mosquitos,  and  the  slaves 
beating  their  tom-toms  and  singing,  and  dancing  the  whole  night :  such 
being  their  amusement  during  the  Ramahdan,  in  order  that  they  may 
remain  awake  to  eat,  so  that  they  amply  make  up  for  fasting  during 
the  day. 

June  15th.  We  all  assembled  at  the  Prince's  to  breakfast,  after 
which,  taking  our  leave  of  Mr.  Elliott,  and  wishing  him  every  happi- 
ness and  success  in  his  new  undertaking,  we  returned  on  board,  accom- 
panied by  Princes  Ali  and  our  passenger  Hamza :  the  latter  presented 
me  with  a  very  fine  bow  and  some  arrows  of  Johanna  manufacture,  as 
a  memento  of  friendship,  and  for  having,  as  he  said,  taken  pains  to  im- 
prove him  in  writing  while  on  board  the  Shearwater.  After  writing  a 
letter  for  Prince  Ali,  according  to  his  particular  request,  to  recommend 
him  to  the  notice  of  any  future  officers  who  might  touch  at  the  island, 
and  giving  him  a  decanter  and  couple  of  tumblers,  for  which  he  begged 
most  earnestly,  and  likewise  making  Prince  Hamza  a  few  small  pre- 
sents, they  both  took  their  leave.  In  the  evening  we  weighed  anchor, 
and  sailed  from  Johanna.  During  our  stay  at  Johanna,  the  King  was 
very  ill,  so  that  I  had  not  an  opportunity  of  seeing  him. 

There  are  two  distinct  races  of  inhabitants  at  Johanna,  the  Arabs 
and  original  natives.  For  the  manner  in  which  the  Arabs  became  ac- 
quainted with  this  island,  they  have  a  tradition  as  follows.  An  Ara- 
bian trader,  about  a  century  and  a  half  ago,  killed  a  Portuguese  gen- 
tleman at  Mozambique,  and  making  his  escape  in  a  boat,  arrived  at  Jo- 
hanna, where  he  made  such  good  use  of  his  superior  abilities,  and  the 
assistance  of  a  few  of  his  countrymen,  that  he  acquired  an  absolute 
authority,  which  is  still  retained  by  his  descendants.  After  this  circum- 
stance, more  Arabs  came  over  and  formed  a  colony,  driving  the  original 
natives  to  the  hills,  which  they  still  occupy ;  but  they  are  frequently 
at  war  with  the  Arabs,  who  would  soon  quiet  them,  were  it  not  for  the 
continual  attacks  of  the  Madagasses.  These  latter  people  first  became 
acquainted  with  the  island  about  forty  years  ago,  through  Benyowsky, 
one  of  the  governors  of  Madagascar,  from  which  period  the  disasters  of 
Johanna  may  be  dated.  Lately  it  has  been  the  custom  for  the  kings  of 
Madagascar  to  make  annual  attacks  upon  Johanna  for  the  purpose  of 
keeping  up  a  supply  of  slaves  for  the  vessels  that  touch  at  their  island  ; 
and  such  have  been  the  ravages  committed  by  those  people,  that  out  of 
seventy-three  towns  and  villages  which  flourished  at  Johanna  thirty 
years  ago,  only  three  small  towns,  and  scarcely  any  villages,  remain. 
The  Madagasses  used  to  land  secretly  in  the  night  and  carry  off  men, 
women  and  children,  into  slavery.  The  population  must  have  been 
much  greater  at  one  time  than  at  present,  for  now  it  is  reduced  to 
about  two  thousand  Arabs,  and  five  thousand  natives,  or  blacks. 

To  such  a  state  of  wretchedness  was  this  beautiful  Island  reduced, 
that  in  1812,  when  His  Majesty's  ship  Nisus  touched  there,  the  King 
expressed  a  hope  to  Capt.  Beaver,  that  the  British  Government  would 
interfere  to  put  a  stop  to  the  ravages  of  the  natives  of  Madagascar,  "  For 


152  A    VISIT    TO    THE 

if,"  said  he,  "  they  continue  their  hostile  incursions,  I  must  quit  the 
island  ;  I  cannot  live  here  with  my  lands  desolated,  and  see  my  women 
and  children  perish  with  hunger  ;  and  if  I  leave  it,  all  my  miserable  peo- 
ple will  follow  me."  Happily  at  length  for  this  poor  island,  the  British 
Government  has  interfered ;  aud  through  the  influence  of  Sir  Robert 
Farquhar,  Governor  of  the  Mauritius,  a  treaty  has  been  entered  into 
with  Radama,  King  of  Madagascar,  bearing  date  the  llth  of  October, 
1820,  by  which  Radama  has  engaged  to  suppress  his  annual  attacks  on 
the  island,  and  also  the  slave-trade  throughout  the  whole  of  his  vast 
dominions  at  Madagascar. 

The  town  of  Johanna  is  situated  close  to  the  sea,  on  the  east  side  of 
the  island ;  and  within  the  wall,  (which  is  now  in  ruins,)  contains  about 
two  hundred  houses,  inclosed  either  with  high  stone  walls  or  palings 
made  of  reed :  the  streets  are  extremely  narrow  and  intricate  ;  the  better 
kind  of  houses,  such  as  the  Prince's,  &c.  are  built  of  stone  ;  they  have 
one  large  room  to  receive  their  guests,  the  rest  being  appropriated  to 
the  women.  Great  ceremony  is  observed  on  entering  their  houses  :  a 
messenger  is  dispatched  before,  to  announce  the  arrival  of  any  visitor  ; 
and  when  at  the  door,  it  is  some  time  before  permission  is  granted  to 
enter :  this  precaution,  the  Prince  informed  me,  was  taken  in  order  to 
give  time  for  the  women  to  be  removed  from  sight.  The  interior  of 
the  houses  was  ornamented  much  in  the  same  style  as  the  Prince's, 
and  had  many  extremely  disgusting  Chinese  pictures  stuck  about,  which 
they  took  care  to  point  out  as  being  very  fine. 

They  have  excellent  bullocks  at  Johanna,  with  a  hump  upon  the 
back  between  the  shoulders ;  this  hump,  when  salted,  forms  a  great 
luxury  for  breakfast.  They  do  not  appropriate  their  cattle  to  labour, 
the  slaves  performing  all  sorts  of  hard  work ;  nor  could  I  find  that  they 
had  a  carriage  or  conveyance  of  any  sort  on  the  island,  not  even  a  truck 
with  wheels  to  move  any  ponderous  article  ;  should  they  have  occasion 
to  move  any  thing  that  is  very  heavy,  it  is  secured  to  long  poles,  and, 
according  to  its  weight,  so  many  slaves  are  employed  to  carry  it.  They 
have  neither  horses,  dogs,  nor  pigs ;  the  two  latter  animals  are  prohi- 
bited by  their  religion.  Goats  and  fowls  are  plentiful  and  cheap ;  I 
purchased  a  pair  of  fowls  for  two  empty  bottles,  and  was  offered  a  fine 
milch  goat  for  a  cotton  pocket-handkerchief. 

I  know  of  no  European  ever  having  attempted  to  settle  amongst 
them  till  the  arrival  of  Mr.  Elliott,  who  remained  but  a  twelvemonth, 
owing  to  the  opposition  and  ill-treatment  he  experienced ;  consequently 
we  know  little  of  the  interior  of  Johanna.  The  original  natives,  I  have 
already  stated,  are  black  j  they  are  exceedingly  ugly,  having  the  thick 
pouting  lips  and  flat  noses  of  the  African.  The  women  have  their 
heads  shaved  similar  to  the  men,  and  it  is  scarcely  possible  to  distin- 
guish them,  but  by  the  ornaments  in  their  ears,  which  are  very  curious. 
Several  of  them  wore  plated  and  silver  shackles  round  their  ankles  : 
these  women,  I  was  informed,  were  favourites  of  their  masters,  the 
Arabs,  and  wore  the  shackles  as  marks  of  distinction ;  they  certainly 
appeared  to  be  very  proud  of  such  an  honour ; — many  had  also  nose 
rings. 

Johanna  is  not  the  largest  of  the  Comora  Islands,  but  the  King 
chooses  it  as  his  residence  ;  the  others  are  all  subject  to  him,  and  pay 
tribute :  one  twentieth  is  his  right,  but  he  does  not  exact  it  from  his 
subjects  where  he  resides. 


153 


ACCOUNT    OF    THE    ANNUAL    FRENCH    CAVALRY    CAMP    OF 
EXERCISE    AT    LUNEV1LLE,    1829. 

SEVERAL  British  officers  who  have  lately  visited  this  French  canton- 
ment, unite  in  one  common  feeling  of  the  advantage  they  have  derived 
from  witnessing  the  manoeuvres,  and  in  gratification  at  their  kind  recep- 
tion by  the  officers  of  all  ranks. 

The  French  have  ever  considered  this  arm,  even  from  the  time  of 
Charlemagne,  at  least  as  a  most  powerful  auxiliary,  if  not  the  most 
essential  part,  of  their  armies.  In  consequence,  they  have  deemed  it 
necessary,  during  the  present  peace,  to  assemble  a  division  of  heavy 
and  one  of  light  cavalry,  during  the  summer  months,  for  manoeuvres 
on  a  large  scale.  These  camps  (as  they  are  rather  improperly  called, 
the  troops  being  in  barracks)  were  first  established  six  years  since.* 

The  fine  country  of  ancient  Lorraine,  rich  in  forage,  was  chosen  for 
this  purpose,  and  the  head-quarters  \vere  fixed  at  Luneville,  where  a 
dilapidated  chateau  of  Stanislaus  King  of  Poland,  the  last  Duke  of 
Lorraine,  and  the  barracks,  offered  means  for  cantoning  near  3000 
horses. 

These  exercises  have  attracted  the  personal  observation  of  the  King 
of  France,  and  more  often  that  of  the  Dauphin.  The  staff  consists  of 
a  lieutenant-general  in  command,  two  lieutenant-generals  in  command 
of  divisions,  four  marechaux-de-camp,  a  general  staff  composed  of  a 
colonel  and  two  chefs  de  bataillons  of  the  etat  major,  and  of  a  chef  de 
bataillon  of  the  etat  major  to  each  division,  besides  a  military  intendant. 
To  these  must  be  added  the  usual  proportions  of  aides-de-camp,  who 
are  not,  as  in  our  service,  taken  from  "  partiality,  favour,  or  affection," 
but  are  selected  from  the  corps  of  the  etat  major,  though  on  service 
the  general  officers  are  allowed  to  appoint  a  second  from  the  regiments 
of  the  line.* 


The  distribution  for  the  present  year  is  as  follows  :- 

1st  Hussars,  2  squadrons 
1st  Brigade. 


1st  Division. 
Lieutenant- 

General 
Baron 

Vincent. 


Marechal  de  Camp  - 
Comte  de  Clary. 


2d      ditto 
5th     ditto 


ditto 
ditto 


Colonel  Baron 

Simoneau. 
Ditto  Vicomte  de 

Rigny. 
Ditto  Comte  Des- 

montiers. 


2d  Brigade.         J     1st  Chasseurs,  3  squadrons 
Marechal  de  Camp  < 
Comte  Dandlau.    J  15th      ditto  ditto 


2d  Division. 
Lieutenant- 

General 
Viscomte  de 
Cavaignac. 


1st  Brigade. 

Marechal  de  Camp- 

Comte  d'Astorg. 


3d  Dragoons,  3  squadrons 
9th      ditto  ditto 


")  Colonel  Comte  de 
/     Busseuil. 
\  Ditto     Comte     de 
j      Queslen. 

Colonel  de  Berge- 

ret. 
Ditto    de    Tessicr 

de  Marouze. 


rfe 

de 


*  An  advantage  arises  to  the  soldiers  from  their  being  in  camp,  on  receiving,  in  con- 
sequence of  being  considered  on  service,  a  ration  of  wine,  which  they  would  not  other- 
wise receive,  during  peace,  in  quarters. 

U.  S.  JOURN.  No.  14.  FEB.  1830.  M 


154  FRENCH    CAMP    AT    LUNEVILLE. 

The  Vicomte  de  Cavaignac  is  senior  officer  to  Baron  Vincent,  and 
therefore  commands  the  heavy  division.  The  light  division  is  the  first, 
and  takes  the  right  as  before  the  enemy.  The  whole  are  under  the 
control  of  Lieut.-Gen.  Le  Viscomte  Mermet,  who  has  ever  since  the 
formation  of  the  camp  been  continued  in  the  command.  It  only  re- 
quires an  hour's  presence  in  the  field  near  his  person,  to  observe  how 
just  has  been  the  selection  for  such  an  appointment.  The  precision 
of  his  directions,  the  clearness  of  his  instructions,  and  the  judgment 
of  his  ground,  point  him  out  as  an  able  successor  to  Dessaix,  Murat, 
Latour  Maubourg,  and  others  of  the  formidable  school  of  cavalry  tactics 
and  of  prompt  execution,  peculiar  to  the  armies  of  Republican  and 
Imperial  France. 

The  best  officers  are  no  doubt  chosen  to  command  the  divisions  and 
brigades,  but  those  collected  this  year  would  do  credit  to  the  elite  of  any 
army.  The  whole  staff  (except  the  chief)  and  the  different  regiments 
are  changed  every  two  years,  and  consist  of  the  corps  in  the  neighbour- 
ing garrisons.  Half  of  each  regiment  (either  two  or  three  squadrons) 
are  completed  to  48  file,  exclusive  of  guides,  (equivalent  to  our  non-com- 
missioned officers  under  the  old  system,)  making  in  all  50  file,  and,  leav- 
ing their  depots  in  quarters,  assemble  at  Luneville  about  the  middle  of 
June. 

On  the  15th  of  Oct.  the  camp  usually  breaks  up,  and  all  the  regi- 
ments, with  the  exception  of  the  three  stationed  at  Luneville,  march 
back  to  their  quarters,  while  the  general  officers,  as  do  the  staff,  return 
to  their  homes,  or  Paris,  after  completing  the  inspections  of  their  regi- 
ments, when  joined  to  their  depots  on  arriving  at  their  permanent  can- 
tonments. 

Our  correspondent,  who  has  served  near  twenty  years  in  the  cavalry, 
admits  that  his  attention  was  much  drawn  to  the  justly  celebrated 
French  heavy  cavalry,  and  he  expresses  himself  in  terms  of  admiration 
of  the  Cuirassiers.  Yet  even  these  must  cede  the  palm  in  appearance  to 
the  two  regiments  of  Carabineers.  Though  not  in  the  camp  this  year, 
they  were  stationed  near  Luneville,  and  may  be  considered  as  the  beau 
ideal  of  grosse  cavalerie.  They  consist  when  complete,  as  do  all  the 
regiments  of  heavy  cavalry  ancl  of  chasseurs,  of  six  squadrons  of  120 
men  each, — the  Hussars  alone  having  but  four  squadrons. 

The  carabineer  uniform  is  not  absolutely  light  blue,  but  of  that 
peculiar  light  slate-coloured  cloth,  in  which  the  army  of  Wurtemberg  is 
dressed.  They  differ  from  the  Cuirassier  in  having  their  helmets  and 
cuirasses  of  copper,  with  ornaments  of  white  metal  in  excellent  taste. 
The  men  of  these  two  regiments  are,  from  being  picked,  absolutely 
giants,  and  require  but  the  English  chest  to  equal  our  Life  Guards ; 
while  their  horses  are  the  largest  and  best  in  France,  little  if  at  all  in- 
ferior to  the  black  charger  of  our  household  cavalry.  They  are  sup- 
posed to  carry  140  kilograms,  or  about  280  Ibs.  or  20  stone ;  but  this 
calculation  is  exclusive  of  forage  or  provisions. 

Of  the  two  regiments  of  Cuirassiers  at  Luneville,  one,  the  10th,  has 
been  lately  converted  from  the  9th  dragoons,  as  they  have  also  and  in  a 
like  manner  added  another  regiment  to  this  arm ;  thus  making  at  present 
ten  of  these  formidable  corps  in  their  service.  Their  appearance  is 
very  fine,  and  the  shining  steel  helmet  and  cuirass  are  far  more  imposing 
than  the  copper  armour  of  the  Carabineers.  The  plastron  and  back- 


FRENCH    CAMP    AT    LUNEVILLE.  155 

piece  weigh  together,  according  to  the  size  of  the  man  and  accidental 
circumstances  in  their  construction,  from  17  to  20  Ibs.  and  are  stated  to 
be,  after  a  little  use,  not  only  far  from  unwieldy,  but  as  giving  firmness 
on  the  saddle.  They  never  march  or  exercise  without  them,  nor,  it 
may  be  remarked,  does  their  infantry  ever  mount  the  more  common 
duties  without  their  knapsacks.  Our  correspondent  wishes  that  similar 
instructions  were  given  in  our  service;  as  at  present,  on  the  opening  of 
a  campaign,  our  household  cavalry  and  the  whole  of  our  infantry  would 
have  to  learn  to  carry  their  equipments  or  indispensables. 

The  Cuirassiers  have  no  carabines,  and,  like  the  rest  of  the  cavalry, 
but  one  pistol;  the  other  holster  being  employed  to  carry  a  little 
hatchet,  with  the  handle  protruding  through  the  end  of  the  pipe.  The 
horse-shoes,  of  which  they  only  carry  two  spare,  and  the  nails,  are  fas- 
tened to  the  side  (rather  backward)  of  the  saddle,  in  little  pockets. 
Their  swords,  which  are  of  an  enormous  length,  are  by  a  new  ordi- 
nance to  be  rather  curved,  so  as  to  allow  their  cutting  as  well  as  stab- 
bing. Their  uniform  is  dark  blue,  and  bears  a  grenade  on  the  collar 
and  skirts,  implying  (it  may  be  supposed)  their  having  the  qualification 
on  horseback  of  the  grenadier  on  foot.  These  regiments  and  the  cara- 
bineers are  quite  capable  of  coping  for  a  time  with  any  of  our  heavy  ca- 
valry regiments  ;  as,  though  the  superior  strength  and  size  of  our  horses 
would  wear  them  out  in  a  long  day,  they  would  again  destroy,  long 
before  the  end  of  a  campaign,  our  more  pampered  animal.  Their  dra- 
goons, still  in  Greece,  have  had  the  becoming  helmet  they  wore  in 
Spain  restored  to  them,  with  the  horse's  mane  hanging  down  the  back, 
and  are  far  better  mounted  than  heretofore.  They  have  unwisely 
shortened  their  carabines  considerably,  the  same  length  of  weapon 
being  at  present  in  use  throughout  their  light  cavalry  as  well  as  dra- 
goons. The  heavy  cavalry  still  ride  on  the  old  French  saddle.  The 
light  cavalry  are  represented  as  being  far  better  mounted  than  during 
the  late  war,  and  greatly  superior  to  the  Prussian  or  Austrian  Hussars 
or  Lancers.  Two  of  the  six  squadrons  of  each  regiment  of  Chasseurs 
have  the  lance,  there  being  at  present  no  complete  regiments  of  that 
arm  in  the  French  service.  All  these  light  cavalry  kave  the  Hunga- 
rian saddle,  to  which  has  been  added,  with  some  other  improvements, 
as  in  our  service,  a  cushion  for  the  rider. 

The  uniform  of  the  light  cavalry  and  of  the  chasseurs,  has  been 
changed  greatly  for  the  worse,  being  similar  to  that  of  the  Prussian 
hussars  of  Frederick  the  Great's  time.  The  hussars  are  equally  alter- 
ed in  colour  and  facings.  The  equipment  of  both  heavy  and  light 
cavalry  is  good,  though  inferior  to  ours ;  but  with  a  view  to  economize, 
which  is  now  as  much  on  the  ascendant  in  France  as  elsewhere,  they 
prolong  the  period  of  duration  for  the  uniform  coats  and  jackets,  gaining 
by  management  six  or  seven  months  in  every  delivery.  The  white 
cloak  (and  with  sleeves)  is  now  universal  throughout  their  cavalry.* 

*  Our  correspondent  was  astonished  at  the  improvement  of  their  horses:  though  by  no 
means  so  powerful,  their  activity  is  represented  as  being  quite  equal  to  those  of  Eng- 
land ;  and  though  their  exercising  ground  is  much  broken  up  and  traversed  by  ditches, 
scarce  a  horse  ever  falls.  Perhaps  they  may  be  indebted  for  this  to  their  being  con- 
stantly accustomed  to  move  in  all  kinds  of  ground  and  at  all  paces.  Though  they  have 
purchased  horses  from  Germany,  they  hope  soon  to  have  sufficient  from  France,  and 
speak  with  confidence  of  the  public  haras  speedily  furnishing  an  improved  breed,  and  in 

M  2 


156  FRENCH  CAMP  AT  LUNEVILLE. 

If  an  officer  has  a  fine  charger  killed,  he  is  reimbursed  to  the  full 
amount ;  while  in  our  service  the  allowance  is  occasionally  not  equal 
to  one-third  of  the  original  price  of  the  animal,  acting  as  a  discourage- 
ment to  being  efficiently  mounted.  Nothing  is  represented  as  more 
remarkable  than  the  interior  economy  of  their  regiments.  The  strict 
and  exact  attention  in  the  most  minute  details  far  exceeds  that  in  our 
service.  The  whole  system  is  formed  on  a  scale  of  responsibility,  not 
only  in  the  discipline  and  organization,  but  even  in  instruction.  Every 
sous-officier  is  as  answerable  that  the  men  in  his  squad  know  all  details 
of  their  duty  and  exercises,  as  for  their  good  order ;  and  is  expected  at 
the  same  time  to  be  capable  of  putting  them  through  all  their  drills, 
and  the  riding-school  lessons.  But  their  functions  are  almost  sine- 
cures, except  when  the  subaltern  officers  are  absent,  as  these  last  are 
expected  to  fulfil  the  duties  which  in  our  service  are  only  exacted 
from  non-commissioned  officers.  Each  of  the  four  pelotons  of  the 
squadron  is  commanded  by  an  officer,  who  is  responsible  for  the  thirty 
men  and  horses  of  which  it  consists.  They  have  charge  of  their  in- 
struction on  foot  as  well  as  on  horseback ;  of  their  equipment,  by  seeing 
them  furnished  with  proper  necessaries ;  their  maintenance,  payment, 
and  control. 

Besides  acting  towards  these  thirty  men  the  part  of  drill  and  riding- 
master,  they  become  his  quarter-master,  standing  between  him,  as  his 
agent  and  friend,  and  the  administration  of  the  regiment  in  the  ex- 
pense of  his  personal  equipment,  having  the  right  to  decline  any  ne- 
cessaries of  which  he  may  not  approve.  They  are  also  his  paymaster, 
and  have  a  regular  debtor  and  creditor  ledger  of  the  state  of  the 
finances  of  their  pelotons,  and  are  able  to  give  from  recollection  the 
state  of  every  man's  account.  Each  soldier  has  a  little  book  contain- 
ing his  own  accounts,  copied  from  the  above;  and  besides  these,  there 
are  the  regimental  records,  so  that  the  whole  of  the  accounts  are  in 
triplicate. 

All  duties  expected  from  the  officer  and  soldier  are  not  only  well 
understood,  but  capable  of  being  defined  by  all  in  the  most  concise 
manner ;  and  in  all  the  barrack  rooms  are  suspended  the  different  di- 
rections for  each  non-commissioned  officer  and  private.  These  are 
learned  by  heart,  and  all  are  expected  to  answer  instantly  what  are 
their  prescribed  duties,  under  every  possible  circumstance.  Each  non- 
commissioned officer  and  soldier,  taken  indiscriminately,  will  in  conse- 
quence stand  a  strict  examination  as  to  what  may  be  expected  from 
him,  and  answer  readily  as  to  the  specific  uses  of  all  that  belongs  to 
the  equipment  of  his  horse  or  the  minutiae  of  his  arms.  All  is  open  to 
the  soldier's  hourly  inspection  and  observation,  and  a  list  of  punish- 
ments, opposite  the  offences,  is  suspended  on  a  printed  cartoon  in 
every  room.  This  simple  promulgation  of  their  military  code  may 
be  considered  preferable  to  reading  the  Mutiny  Act,  with  its  legal 
language  and  technicalities  of  "  Whereas,"  &c.  which  distract  the 
mind  by  reference  to  sections,  while  it  is  often  read  with  haste  and 

sufficient  numbers  to  mount  their  cavalry.  A  certain  sum  is  allowed  yearly  for  the  pur- 
chase of  horses,  which  at  times  exceeds  the  expenditure.  One  hundred  tolerable  aver- 
age horses  had  been  purchased  this  spring  by  le  Comte  de  Merinville,  the  Colonel  of 
the  5th  Hussars,  for  350  francs  a  piece,  (about  141.)  in  the  provinces  of  Lorraine  and 
Alsace  ;  they  are  all  marked  in  the  flank. 


FRENCH    CAMP    AT    LUNEVILLE.  157 

carelessness  by  the  adjutants  in  a  sort  of  jingle  from  frequent  repeti- 
tion, and  is  scarcely  listened  to  by  the  men. 

The  extent  of  correction  in  the  power  of  the  commanding-officer  ap- 
pears too  small,  as  it  does  not  exceed  four  days'  confinement,  and  to 
award  a  greater  punishment  requires  the  delinquent  being  placed  be- 
fore a  conseil  de  discipline,  consisting  of  seven  officers,  of  which  a  chef 
d'escadron  is  president.  A  roster  of  duties  is  hung  up  in  every  barrack- 
roorn,  as  is  a  list  of  the  expenses  of  the  mess,  so  that  no  mistake  or  in- 
justice can  take  place  in  the  case  of  any  individual.  It  must  strike  the 
most  casual  observer,  that  all  mixtures  are  thus  avoided ;  and  that  no- 
thing is  left  undefined  or  dubious,  and  that  if  the  soldier  errs,  it  is  in  the 
face  of  awarded  punishment,  which  he  is  no  less  capable  of  pointing  out 
than  his  non-commissioned  officer ;  while,  if  he  feels  himself  unjustly 
treated,  he  remonstrates  without  hesitation,  and  brings  the  public  do- 
cuments to  witness  the  truth  of  his  complaint.  Such  a  representation 
is  not  considered,  as  in  armies  formed  on  the  German  system,  as  next 
to  mutiny,  but  is  listened  to  with  patience ;  and  both  officers  and  men 
answer,  on  all  occasions,  in  a  manner  quite  unusual  with  us.  We 
understand  that  the  blameable  mode  of  delivering  any  remark,  often 
accompanied  by  abuse,  so  common  in  our  service,  (till,  it  is  to  be 
hoped,  lately  checked  by  an  order  from  the  Horse  Guards,)  is  seldom 
heard,  while  the  Frenchman,  however  naturally  loquacious,  seldom 
exceeds  a  respectful  sentence,  beginning,  "  Mon  General"  or  "  Mon 
Colonel." 

Our  correspondent,  anxious  to  benefit  our  service  by  what  he  gleans 
and  observes  in  other  armies,  cannot  help  drawing  attention  to  the  very 
different  mode  of  conducting  the  duties  and  discipline  of  the  French 
and  English  regiments.  He  is  warmly  attached  to  his  own  service, 
which  he  considers  superior  to  every  other;  but  he  thinks  that  the 
same  object  might  be  obtained  (the  lash  of  correction  ever  in  terrorem) 
by  a  kinder  manner  towards  the  individual  soldier.  Perhaps  it  would 
be  equally  impossible  as  imprudent  to  introduce  into  the  British  ser- 
vice, from  the  different  temperament  of  the  men  and  character  of  the 
people,  a  like  equality  and  familiarity  as  in  the  French  troops ;  but  he 
thinks  a  difference  might  and  should  be  made  between  the  more  intelli- 
gent, better  educated  and  conducted  men,  and  those  of  an  inferior  stamp. 
This  would,  by  enticing  a  better  class  of  men  to  enlist,  give  what  every 
officer  on  service  has  so  seriously  found  the  want  of, — useful,  quick,  and 
steady  individuals,  who  can  be  trusted  without  non-commissioned 
officers,  and  who,  from  having  confidence  ever  extended  to  them,  would 
not  feel  anxious  to  seize  opportunities  of  rushing  into  riot  and  excess. 

Each  soldier  receives  forty  francs  on  joining  the  regiment,  which  is 
expended  in  his  out-Jit,  rendering  him  answerable,  for  the  future,  for 
keeping  up  the  stock  of  necessaries,  which  is  less  than  in  our  service. 
Each  man  has  three  shirts,  one  pair  of  socks,  a  pair  of  boots  every 
fifteen  months,  (the  old  pair  lasting  double  the  time  for  fatigue-duties,) 
but  no  shoes,  purchasing  a  pair  of  wooden  sabots  for  stable  service. 
They  have  a  coarse  stable-dress,  two  pair  of  overalls,  an  older  pair 
covered  with  leather  for  common  duties,  and  a  screw,  &c.  for  the  arms. 
The  men  are  shaved  by  their  comrades.  They  have  little  leather 
cases  to  cover  the  rowels  of  the  spurs  of  their  second  pair  of  boots,  pre- 
serving from  injury  what  is  packed  near  them.  Their  pay,  which  in- 


158  FRENCH    CAMP    AT    LUNEVILLE. 

creases  after  eight  years  service,  consists  of  forty-eight  sous  a  day,  of 
which  thirty  are  daily  expended  for  their  food,  ten  retained  for  keep- 
ing up  their  necessaries,  &c.  and  eight  are  given  for  les  menus  plaisirs. 
They  find  their  own  meat  j  and  soup  and  bread  is  served  to  them  at 
nine  in  the  morning,  and  at  four  in  the  afternoon  meat  and  bread ;  of 
the  latter  they  receive  two  pounds  a  day. 

The  barrack-rooms  of  the  regiments  at  Luneville  were  clean  and  in 
good  order ;  and  it  is  a  regulation  to  have,  if  possible,  a  brigadier  in 
every  room.  Each  soldier  has  a  small  iron  bedstead,  with  a  straw  and 
hair  mattress  and  a  dark  coverlet.  The  appointments  are  disposed  on 
shelves  over  their  heads,  and  the  arms  in  racks.  Their  stables  are  in 
excellent  order  and  well  littered,  and  every  five  horses  are  separated 
from  the  rest  by  a  swinging  bar.  They  have  an  idea  that  the  stables 
spoil  and  corrode  the  leather,  and  on  this  account  never  place  the  horse- 
appointments  in  the  stables,  having  saddle-rooms  express  for  the  pur- 
pose. The  horses  are  only  fed  twice  a  day.  The  ration  of  the  light 
cavalry  is  but  seven  pounds  of  corn  and  ten  of  hay  and  straw,  but  the 
corn  is  increased  for  the  heavy  cavalry.  The  corn  is  in  large  bins,  and 
the  key  is  kept  by  the  orderly  officer  of  each  squadron,  who  sees  the 
horses  fed  himself.  Though  fed  only  twice,  the  horses  are  dressed 
three  times  each  day,  and  they  use  the  curry-comb  and  brush. 
Though  their  horses  do  not  bespeak  such  good  grooming  as  in  our 
cavalry,  (as  indeed  it  is  well  known  none  clean  their  horses  so  well  as 
the  English,)  yet  the  horses  of  the  5th  Hussars  had  coats  nearly  as 
brilliant  as  our  finest  carriage-horses.  Their  condition,  however,  was 
worthy  of  a  hunting-stable,  far  preferable  to  our  bloated  parade  cavalry 
horses.  The  instruction  in  riding  deserves  much  attention,  and  they 
have  a  similar  school  of  equitation  to  our  establishment  at  St.  John's 
Wood.  This  is  at  Saumur,  and  furnishes  riding-masters  to  every  regi- 
ment :  these  have  the  rank  of  captain,  but  are  not  efficient  officers  on  the 
strength  of  the  corps  :  there  are  several  other  rough-riders,  inferior  to 
him,  having  the  rank  of  non-commissioned  officer.  The  captain  and  sub- 
alterns, however,  give  the  words  of  command  to  their  men  in  the  riding- 
school,  being  as  capable  of  putting  them  through  the  lessons  as  the 
riding-master.  They  ride  well,  but  are  far  too  stiff  on  horseback ;  and 
the  rapid  progress  of  the  recruits  bespeaks  the  system  as  efficient. 
The  lance  is  taught  by  the  same  Polish  exercise  as  in  our  service,  and 
the  sword  exercise  is  as  long  as  in  ours.  But  unless  they  allow  more 
play  of  the  body  on  horseback,  they  are  right  in  continuing  their  sys- 
tem of  giving  point,  as  they  cannot  give  an  efficient  blow  when  thus 
seated  like  statues  on  their  horses.  The  riding-school  at  Luneville  is 
fine,  and  nearly  as  large  as  that  attached  to  the  Pavilion  at  Brighton. 

The  corps  is  out,  during  their  sojourn  at  Luneville,  four  times  a  week 
on  horseback,  twice  on  foot,  and  the  seventh  day  is  appropriated  to  the 
riding-school.  The  exercising-ground  is  bad :  when  first  established 
it  was  more  convenient,  from  their  being  allowed  to  move  over  the 
whole  open  country ;  but  the  farmers  soon  objected  to  this,  and  now 
they  have  but  a  few  acres,  near  the  Nancy  road,  which,  besides  being 
faulty,  is  far  too  narrow ;  indeed,  from  the  deep  furrows  which  intersect 
the  plain,  it  is  wonderful  how  the  horses  keep  their  legs,  proving 
them  well  in  hand,  as  on  the  worst  ground  not  a  horse  fell. 

The  nine  regiments  in  the  field  are  represented  as  offering  a  splendid 


FRENCH    CAMP    AT    LUNEVILLE.  159 

spectacle,  well  worthy,  says  our  correspondent,  of  a  trip  across  France 
to  witness.  They  have  but  one  standard,  and  a  lieutenant  is  appoint- 
ed porte-etendard,  and  so  named  in  the  Army  List. 

The  bands  are  good,  and  by  a  late  ordinance  the  expense  is  paid  by 
the  King,  obviating  the  necessity,  as  before,  of  a  subscription  by  the 
officers.  Many  of  the  sounds  and  marches  are  English. 

In  order  to  prove  that  one  system  exists  throughout  the  service,  and  ' 
to  accustom  them  to  exercise  together,  they  mix  the  squadrons  of  the 
regiments  of  a  brigade :  the  advantage  of  this  must  be  evident  to  all 
who  have  seen  detached  squadrons  on  service  placed  to  act  in  line  with 
those  of  other  regiments. 

Their  mode  of  evolution  is  now  become  that  of  the  English  service, 
and  it  appears  to  answer  most  fully  for  all  the  purposes  of  the  field. 
Our  correspondent  nevertheless  thinks,  however  advantageous  the 
moving  by  division,  which  is  certainly  the  most  handy  position  of  a  re- 
giment, that  the  wheeling  by  threes  should  not  be  given  up,  particu- 
larly for  retiring  in  line,  &c. 

It  is  impossible  to  conceive  any  thing  more  difficult  than  moving 
four  lines  of  cavalry  of  six  squadrons  each,  in  a  ground  hardly  wide 
enough  for  eight ;  and  yet,  when  moving  in  contiguous  columns,  or  in 
line,  they  never  lost  their  respective  distances,  and  could  have  deploy- 
ed from  the  front,  or  changed  front  in  right  angles  from  the  last,  at 
any  time  throughout  the  operations. 

The  line  of  Hussars  in  front,  the  Chasseurs  in  the  second  line,  and 
the  Dragoons,  supported  by  the  shining  steel-encased  Cuirassiers,  car- 
ried back  the  mind  to  those  periods  of  the  continental  wars,  when 
the  brilliant  charges  of  this  same  cavalry  decided  the  fate,  not  only 
of  battles,  but,  for  some  years,  of  Europe. 

It  is  very  extraordinary  that  they  should  not  have  some  batteries 
of  horse  artillery,  with  twenty-four  squadrons  of  cavalry.  Besides  the 
regular  staff,  an  orderly  officer  attended  Gen.  Mermet  from  each  bri- 
gade, to  expedite  his  orders ;  and  it  was  pleasing  to  see  the  mode  of 
carrying  on  the  manoeuvres.  There  was  a  sharpness,  modified  by 
good-humour,  that  caused  all  to  pass  off  with  satisfaction ;  and  if  an 
officer  was,  blamed,  he  had  no  occasion  to  feel  that  his  amour-propre 
was  wounded.  The  gens-d'armes  kept  the  ground,  and  turned  back  all 
who  had  not  the  General's  permission  to  be  on  the  spot. 

One  very  striking  custom  in  use  during  these  camps  carries  back 
the  recollections  to  the  ancient  armed  annual  assemblies  of  the  Champ 
de  Mars,  or,  after,  de  Mai,  (the  Dussateer  of  the  Mahrattas,)  of  the 
early  Franks,  though  collected  for  a  very  different  purpose.  On  Sun- 
days, the  whole  corps  is  assembled  on  horseback  for  prayer,  and  an 
Aumonier,  or  chaplain,  (one  of  whom  is  attached  to  every  regiment,) 
being  posted  on  the  high  terrace  of  the  gardens  of  the  old  chateau,  per- 
forms mass  to  this  centaur  congregation.  In  bad  weather,  the  whole 
of  the  officers  and  detachments  of  the  different  regiments  hear  divine 
service  in  the  chapel  of  the  old  palace.  Both,  we  are  assured,  are 
striking  military  spectacles,  and  much  increased  by  sacred  music  play- 
ed by  the  various  bands. 

Our  correspondent  requests  us  to  call  upon  our  cavalry  officers  to  at- 
tend these  camps,  as  they  will  learri  from  them,  particularly  now  that 
our  movements  are  on  the  same  principle,  more  in  two  days  than  they 


PRIORITY    OF   SERVICES    IN    EUROPEAN    ARMIES. 

can  hope,  situated  and  cantoned  as  our  army  is  at  present,  in  their 
whole  lives.  Another  cause  also  presents  itself  as  highly  advantageous 
to  both  services.  These  visits  will  bring  together  the  officers  of  the 
two  armies,  who  have  so  long  opposed  each  other,  and  tend  to  efface  old 
prejudices  and  heart-burnings,  which  may  have  grown  up  during  the 
late  wars. 

The  friendly,  frank,  and  gentlemanlike  conduct  of  the  officers  can- 
not but  leave  an  agreeable  impression,  and  it  is  most  pleasing  to  see  it 
evinced  by  the  officers  belonging  alike  to  the  ancient  and  new  army. 
It  will  not  fail  to  be  observed,  that  the  merit  and  gallantry  which  have 
raised  officers  of  the  former  from  the  rank  of  privates,  is  accompanied 
by  a  conduct  and  manner  which  we  too  often  consider  as  only  com- 
patible with  birth  and  refined  civil  education.  Many  of  our  received 
opinions,  from  the  glaring  and  rapacious  conduct  of  a  limited  number, 
will  be  found  without  foundation ;  while  the  present  small  means  of 
most  officers  of  the  Imperial  armies,  few  being  in  moderate  circum- 
stances, will  prove  the  charges  of  indiscriminate  individual  extortion 
amongst  that  class  wholly  groundless.  We  must  not  mistake  the  acts 
of  Buonaparte,  (who  laid  all  Europe  under  heavy  contribution  and  im- 
positions for  the  support  of  his  army,)  for  those  of  the  individuals  who 
were  forced  to  carry  them  into  execution. 


PRIORITY    OF    SERVICES    IN    THE    EUROPEAN    ARMIES. 

PREVIOUS  to  the  French  Revolution,  that  nation  had  regiments  in 
its  service  which  were  formed  and  had  existed  from  the  early  part  of 
the  sixteenth  century,  such  as  that  of  Piedmont,  having  been  originally 
the  celebrated  " Black  Bands"  raised  by  one  of  the  family  of  Medici, 
and  which,  as  a  corps  under  a  Condottiere,  had  passed  into  the  French 
service.  Spain  could  also  boast  the  Walloon  Guards,  to  be  dated  from 
the  middle  of  the  same  century.  At  present,  the  Austrians,  (though  it 
is  not  generally  known,)  have  two  corps  of  unquestionably  the  longest 
standing  of  any  army  in  Europe,  now  that  the  Janissaries,  who  were 
established  early  in  the  fourteenth  century,  have  been  plucked  out 
"  root  and  branch." 

The  24th  regiment  of  the  line,  now  recruited  in  Galicia,  and  the 
36th  recruited  in  Bohemia,  were  both  raised  in  ]  632.  Next  to  these 
old  corps,  our  own  Royals  may  be  ranked,  bearing  date  in  the  following 
year ;  if,  however,  one  or  more  of  the  other  five  of  the  old  six  regi- 
ments in  our  army,  (several  of  which  were  in  the  service  of  Holland 
from  Elizabeth's  time,  till  brought  back  by  William  the  Third,)  may 
not,  on  inquiry,  be  found  of  an  earlier  date  than  either. 

The  Austrian  regiment  of  Souches,  disbanded  in  1809,  was  raised 
1642,  and  the  8th  regiment,  now  recruited  in  Moldavia,  in  1647.  Our 
Coldstream  was  created  in  1650,  by  Cromwell,  for  Monk  on  his  going  to 
Scotland  ;  but  being  formed  from  the  regiments  of  Fenwick  and  Hasel- 
rigge,  which  date  from  the  "  new  model"  in  1645,  it  may  be  said  to  take 
precedence  of  the  latter  German  corps,  and  is  the  fourth  in  seniority 
existing  in  Europe.  The  Austrian  army  is  far  behind  the  other  Euro- 
pean services.  Nothing  has  been  altered  since  the  time  of  the  Emperor 
Joseph.  This  arises  from  the  dread  of  the  present  Emperor  of  any  in- 
novation, from  the  harm  produced  by  the  changes  that  commenced  in 


JOURNAL    OF    A    LATE   NAVAL    OFFICER.  161 

Europe  in  1788.  It  is  inconsequence  without  any  of  the  improvements 
of  modern  armies,  and  will  soon  not  only  require,  but  demand  the  in- 
troduction of  an  entirely  new  system.  The  internal  economy  is  de- 
testable ;  and  the  appointments  of  the  officers,  and  the  equipment  of  the 
men,  less  encouraging  than  those  of  neighbouring  States. 

The  French  have  but  three  founderies  at  present,  at  Toulouse,  Stras- 
bourg, and  Douai.  It  is  contemplated  to  remove  one  of  the  latter  to 
Metz,  in  order  that  the  school  of  artillery,  which  is  in  that  city,  should 
have  the  advantage  of  witnessing  the  construction  of  bouches  a  feu. 

The  Austrians  exceed  our  system  of  having  a  few  national  and  pro- 
vincial regiments,  not  having  the  inhabitants  of  any  of  the  countries 
which  form  their  empires  mixed  in  the  same  regiments,  the  officers 
excepted.  The  regiments  are  called  Hungarian,  Polish,  Moravian, 
Galician,  Moldavian,  Lombardian,  (of  which  state  they  have  one  of 
cavalry,  and  ten  of  infantry,)  Illyrian,  &c.  They  have  but  one  corps 
of  Tyrolese,  who  are  riflemen,  but  of  several  battalions,  and  may  be 
compared  to  our  rifle  brigade. 


NOTES    FROM    THE    UNPUBLISHED    JOURNAL 
OF    A  LATE   NAVAL    OFFICER. 

Port  Pireus,  Sept.  24th,  18—. 

FIVE  days  ago  I  landed  at  the  south  side  of  the  harbour,  and  walked 
round  the  ancient  boundaries  of  the  Pireus.  Outside  the  entrance  of 
the  fort,  the  remains  of  the  walls  of  this  naval  arsenal  of  Athens  are 
distinctly  seen.  Built  of  immense  squared  stones,  of  similar  quality  to 
that  of  the  neighbouring  rocks,  they  may  be  traced,  running  in  straight 
lines  along  the  beach,  and  forming  angles  corresponding  to  the  form  of 
the  promontory  which  they  surround.  At  each  of  these  angles  are  the 
foundations  of  what  perhaps  were,  from  their  strong  quadrangular  shape, 
towers  either  of  defence  or  observation.  Following  the  beach  from  the 
Pireus  to  the  southward  about  a  mile,  what  is  called  the  Tomb  of  The- 
mistocles  is  seen.  It  is  situate  outside  one  of  the  angles  of  the  remain- 
ing walls,  and  close  down  to  the  watermark :  it  consists  of  a  double 
stone  coffin  or  sarcophagus,  both  apparently  cut  out  of  the  rock  around, 
the  materials  being  similar  ;  and  the  inner  coffin  having  so  long  with- 
stood the  action  of  the  winds  and  waves  leading  to  such  a  supposition. 
One  end  and  one  of  the  sides  of  the  inner  coffin  are  wanting,  but  the 
rest  of  its  margin  round  is  on  a  level  with  the  rock  out  of  which  the 
outer  is  excavated  ;  and  its  cavity,  which  is  about  eighteen  inches  deep, 
is  filled  with  water,  and  allows  free  ingress  and  exit  to  every  wave 
which  rolls  over  it  from  the  disturbed  ^Egean. 

Near  to  this  venerated  spot  are  the  overturned  remains  of  what  an- 
ciently formed  a  very  large  column,  of  the  same  kind  of  stone  of  which 
the  neighbouring  walls  are  built.  Of  this  column  the  base  only  is  in 
situ;  the  other  pieces  are  lying  in  a  rude  line  looking  inwards,  and 
consist  of  ten  pieces,  each  about  five  and  a  half  feet  in  diameter. 
Whether  this  piece  of  architecture  is  more  or  less  ancient,  I  cannot 
venture  to  decide ;  my  opinion,  however,  is,  that  it  is  ancient,  and  pro- 
bably it  might  have  been  intended  as  a  landmark  to  vessels  making  the 
harbour,  or  to  point  out  where  the  ashes  of  the  heroic  Themistocles 
were  deposited. 


162  NOTES    FROM    THE    UNPUBLISHED   JOURNAL 

At  Athens,  I  spent  about  two  hours  in  the  Acropolis,  and  was  parti- 
cularly pleased  with  the  interior  of  the  Temple  of  Neptune  Erectheus. 
The  under  part  of  this  fane  is  occupied  at  present  by  the  Greeks,  as  a 
store-house,  or  magazine.  It  was  with  some  difficulty  that  I  got  into 
the  building,  and  then  only  from  part  of  the  ruined  wall  of  the  Temple 
of  Minerva  Polias,  by  means  of  a  plank  laid  across  from  the  ruined  wall, 
into  a  breach  of  the  Temple  of  Erectheus.  This  aperture  led  into  the 
top  of  the  edifice  and  over  the  magazine,  which  was  separated  from  us 
by  a  rough  floor,  on  which  we  landed.  Being  here  quite  close  to  the  an- 
cient ceiling,  which  is  flat,  and  in  contact  with  the  capitals  of  the  dif- 
ferent columns,  I  had  an  opportunity  of  inspecting  the  sculpture  very 
minutely.  From  not  being  exposed  to  the  winds  or  the  weather,  it 
was  in  many  places  as  perfect  and  acute  as  the  day  on  which  the  artist 
had  completed  it.  The  roof  was  beautifully  ornamented  with  highly- 
finished  sculpture,  on  pannelling  formed  by  the  intersection  of  im- 
mense shafts  of  the  richest  marble.  The  pillars  of  the  Erectheum,  a 
good  many  of  which  are  still  standing,  but  included  amongst  the  rude 
materials  of  the  magazine,  are  of  the  Ionic  order,  with  pedestals ;  and 
their  voluted  capitals  are  of  the  most  exquisite  work  that  can  possibly 
be  imagined. 

Such  has  been  the  excellence  of  the  marble  and  the  craft  of  the  art- 
ist, that  on  the  cornice  and  capitals,  the  stone  is  not  only  wrought  into 
the  finest  edge  in  some  of  the  ornamental  figures,  but  even  into  the 
perfect  imitation  of  delicately  plaited  wreaths  of  hair.  To  add  to  the 
splendour,  the  different  meshes  and  interstices  of  the  same  have  been 
filled  up  with  differently-coloured  pieces  of  glass,  all  of  which  must 
have  had  an  extremely  rich  effect,  while  this  temple  was,  as  it  must 

have  been,  illuminated  by  artificial  lights. The  Mosque,  which  is 

built  in  the  centre  of  the  Parthenon,  was  open  yesterday,  and  we  found 
people  busy  in  measuring  and  turning  over  the  wheat,  with  which  it 
was  partly  filled.  The  Turkish  prisoners  are  employed  about  the 
Acropolis,  and  since  April,  have  cleared  away  a  great  portion  of  the 
rubbish  I  before  noticed,  and  they  are  still  continuing  to  improve  the 
interior  of  the  fortress.  In  the  common  gaol,  now  occupying  the  place 
of  the  Temple  of  Fame,  was  one  prisoner  in  irons — a  Greek  for  debt. 
The  Turks,  though  going  about,  were  all  ironed,  and  they  threw  many 
piteous  looks  at  us  infidels,  while  imploring  a  few  paras  for  charity. 

But  to  return  to  the  Temple  Poliades : — the  remaining  figures,  sup- 
porting the  portico  on  the  south  side,  or  what  are  called  the  Cariatides, 
are  of  the  most  beautiful  expression;  and,  considering  the  length  of 
time  in  which  they  have  been  exposed  to  the  air  and  accidents,  are 
astonishingly  perfect.  The  cast  which  was  sent  out  from  England,  in 
lieu  of  the  one  which  was  removed,  never  reached  its  destination ;  a 
square  pillar  of  rude  masonry  now  occupies  its  space,  for  the  impostor 
never  got  so  high  as  the  Acropolis.  The  cast  lies  in  fragments  in  the 
court-yard  of  what  was  the  British  Consul's  house.  It  certainly  re- 
sembled the  originals  in  colour,  but  notwithstanding  the  age  of  the 
prototype,  the  difference  was  easily  perceived,  and  it  would  have  made 
but  a  sorry  figure,  as  a  representative  of  the  absentee,  for  which,  the 
Greeks  say,  the  remaining  Cariatides  actually  wept.  The  hair  in  these 
beautiful  figures  is  plaited,  and  flowing  down  their  backs  in  two  braids, 
much  resembling  the  single  one  which  the  present  Greek  women  wear 


OF    A    LATE    NAVAL    OFFICER.  163 


iy  places.  I  looked  for  the  two  lines  mentioned,  I  think,  in  Byron's 
to  his  Childe,  viz.  "  Quid  non  Gothi,  fecerunt  Scoti"  but  I  could 


in  man] 
notes  to 
not  find  them.  They  might,  perhaps,  have  been  purposely  rubbed  out. 

There  are,  however,  an  indescribable  number  of  names  scratched 
on  the  interior  of  the  portico,  of  all  dates  and  from  all  countries, 
which  to  those  versed  in  the  literature  of  their  several  ages  and  resi- 
dencies, would  be  extremely  interesting  and  amusing.  On  the  co- 
lumns of  the  Parthenon,  such  inscriptions  of  names  form  a  complete 
historic  and  chronological  record ;  and  amongst  the  more  lofty  are  seen 
the  names  of  the  most  celebrated  antiquaries. 

It  is  astonishing,  on  looking  over  the  temple,  to  see  what  trouble  and 
expense  Lord  Elgin  has  been  at,  in  removing  the  figures  from  the 
fronton,  and  particularly  from  the  metopes ;  for  the  different  vacancies 
are  all  filled  up  by  long  squared  pieces  of  unpolished  marble,  but  so 
filling  up  the  spaces,  that  in  the  distance  the  defect  of  the  sculpture  is 
scarcely  observable. 

The  Temple  of  Theseus  presented  a  strange  scene,  and  one  that 
strongly  proclaimed  the  troubles  and  desolation  of  suffering  Greece.  All 
the  different  pavements  under  its  beautiful  porticoes  were  covered  with 
melancholy  groups  of  poor  people,  with  their  little  ragged  children, 
who,  belonging  to  the  Negropont  and  the  neighbouring  country,  had 
been  compelled  to  quit  their  homes  on  the  advance  of  the  Turkish 
troops,  and,  without  any  other  roof  to  cover  them,  had  here  taken  shel- 
ter beneath  this  splendid  fabric  of  their  forefathers,  to  mourn  over  their 
miseries,  and  to  cherish  life  while  they  could.  They  presented,  in  their 
haggard  looks,  their  rags,  and  in  every  respect,  a  complete  picture  of 
abandoned  misery  and  distress.  Some  were  asleep  on  the  ground ; 
others  cooking  their  scanty  morsel  of  corn,  or  attending  to  the  cries 
of  their  hungry  little  ones,  whose  many  piercing  laments  often  re- 
minded their  parents  more  deeply  of  their  destitution ;  while  others, 
blind  from  age  or  disease,  sat  with  their  hands  clasped  over  their  knees, 
or  crept  after  the  shade  of  the  pillar,  as  the  sun-beams  encircled  it. 

After  remaining  some  time  witnesses  of  this  pity-moving  scene,  admit- 
tance to  the  interior  was  obtained  through  means  of  a  Greek  soldier. 
The  interior  was  put  in  some  little  repair,  compared  with  what  it  had 
been  in  April  last.  All  the  rubbish  had  been  cleared  away,  and  the  cha- 
pel end  was  again  graced  with  the  white  altar  and  lamps,  showing  that 
church  service  had  again  been  celebrated.  The  faces  of  all  the  stucco 
paintings  were  still  not  repaired,  and  continue  to  bear  the  marks  of  the 
late  ravages.  One  niche  behind  the  altar  was  still  a  depository  for 
powder  and  shot  for  the  gun,  which  is  mounted  on  a  contiguous  tower 
of  the  wall.  The  opposite  end  of  the  temple,  where  the  tombstones  of 
our  countrymen  formerly  noticed  are  placed,  is  made  use  of  as  a  store- 
room of  provisions  for  the  unfortunate  exiles  who  had  taken  shelter 
outside.  On  entering  the  temple,  we  were  immediately  followed  by  a 
number  of  women,  who  severally  set  about  opening  their  respective  sacks 
of  meal,  and  taking  a  proportion  of  it  away.  As  I  observed  in  the 
Parthenon,  the  walls  of  this  handsome  temple  are  covered  with  names, 
which,  from  their  great  number,  and  the  obtrusive  manner  in  which 
they  are  so  carefully  scratched,  without  any  regard  to  the  surface  of 
the  marble  or  stucco,  are  not  apt,  I  think,  to  gain  the  asked  approval 
or  complacent  gaze  of  the  sober-minded  traveller. 


164  NOTES    FROM    THE    UNPUBLISHED    JOURNAL 


GRECIAN    NAVAL    WARFARE. 

Off  Missolonghi,  Jan.  1826. 

During  the  last  two  days,  the  monotonous  nature  of  the  warfare  be- 
tween the  belligerents  has  been  broken  through,  and  their  tactics  have 
been  rather  interesting  to  the  neutral  spectator.  On  the  morning 
of  the  27th,  Miaulis'  squadron  of  twenty-five  sail  were  at  anchor 
behind  the  Scrophies,  and  with  the  view  of  obtaining  some  advantage 
over  two  or  three  of  the  enemy's  ships  at  anchor  on  the  north  side  of 
the  Gulf,  they  got  under  weigh  in  the  course  of  the  afternoon,  but 
whether  seen  by  the  Turks  or  not,  I  cannot  say.  The  latter  also 
got  and  kept  under  sail  all  day,  and  when  night  came  on,  they  were 
cruizing  between  the  Scrophies  and  Cape  Papas,  where  they  must  have 
continued  during  the  night  without  coming  to  an  anchor.  Towards 
four  o'clock  on  the  following  morning,  it  appears  the  Greek  fleet  had 
beaten  up  to  the  same  place,  and  had  come  in  collision  with  their  ene- 
mies, from  the  flashes  and  reports  of  great  guns  seen  and  heard  from 
the  anchorage  at  Missolonghi.  About  an  hour  afterwards  the  close 
engagement  of  the  parties  was  conspicuously  confirmed  by  the  blaze  of 
a  fire-ship,  which  burst  forth  to  the  westward,  about  six  miles  distance 
from  Missolonghi.  It  was  a  beautifully  clear  starry  morning,  the  moon 
was  waning,  the  wind  very  scanty,  and  not  a  cloud  to  be  seen  in  the 
clear  face  of  the  heavens :  every  thing,  in  fact,  was  strikingly  con- 
trasted with  the  terrific  object  that  then  riveted  upon  it  the  eyes  of 
every  beholder.  .So  bright  was  the  conflagration  in  a  very  few  mi- 
nutes, that,  to  the  naked  eye,  the  whole  seemed  to  be  an  immense  orb  of 
fire  resting  on  the  watery  horizon,  while  neither  the  fire-ship  nor  her 
object  of  certain  destruction  could  be  at  all  distinguished.  By  the  aid 
of  a  night-glass,  the  masts  of  both  could  be  seen  like  pillars  of  fire; 
and  over  all,  at  one  time,  the  royals  and  other  lofty  sails  could  be  ob- 
served, like  meteors  flaring  in  the  lurid  canopy  of  night,  while  they 
reflected  from  their  illumined  folds  the  light  of  the  flames,  which  soon 
afterwards  consumed  them.  For  some  time,  the  bulk  of  the  conflagra- 
tion gradually  increased,  then  it  became  stationary  ;  while  through  the 
ambient  volumes  of  smoke,  which  nothing  but  the  darkness  of  the 
morning  prevented  us  from  seeing,  the  white  sails  of  some  other  ves- 
sels could  be  seen  illumined,  as  they  passed  by  or  manoeuvred  round 
the  nucleus  of  light ;  and  at  times  the  stillness  of  the  hour  was  inter- 
rupted by  the  occasional  reports  of  some  guns  in  the  same  direction, 
serving  as  minute  notices  to  the  work  of  destruction  and  death.  In 
about  an  hour  after  the  fire  was  first  seen,  the  close  and  repeated  dis- 
charges of  great  guns  announced  the  progress  of  the  combustion  ;  and 
in  a  few  minutes  afterwards,  the  explosion  of  the  magazine  took  place, 
with  a  sudden  burst  and  elevation  into  the  atmosphere  of  a  tremendous 
body  of  ignited  materials,  which  at  first  were  hidden  by  the  dense  volumes 
of  smoke  carried  up  with  them,  but  afterwards  on  descending  appear- 
ed like  a  thousand  rockets  slowly  dropping  from  their  acme  of  projec- 
tion. With  the  descent  of  this  shower  of  fire,  the  sound  of  the  explo- 
sion just  reached  us,  and  burst  on  the  ear  with  a  concussion  hardly  to 
be  conceived,  save  from  the  jaws  of  a  volcano  ;  while  the  df  rk  mass  of 
smoke,  now  separated  from  its  source,  soon  gained  its  equilibrium  in 
the  atmosphere,  became  a  little  silvered  on  the  top  by  the  faint  rays  of 


OF    A    LATE   NAVAL    OFFICER.  165 

the  moon,  and  serenely  sailed  along  with  the  breeze  as  the  only  cloud  of 
the  morning,  leaving  soon  the  spot  whence  it  so  furiously  arose,  a 
scene  of  silent  darkness,  death,  and  bloodshed. 

This  was  a  scene,  which  for  grandeur  might  have  kindled  up  with 
admiration  the  burning  ardour  of  the  youthful  warrior ;  it  was  one, 
however,  of  melancholy  consideration  to  humanity,  and  revolting  to  the 
feelings ;  for,  as  we  afterwards  learned,  many  of  our  fellow-creatures 
fell  by  the  sword  as  well  as  by  the  fire.  Surrounded  by  the  Greeks, 
in  attempting  to  escape  from  the  flames,  many  of  the  Turks  sank  under 
the  ruthless  sword  of  their  enemies,  and  with  their  blood  dyed  the 
waves,  to  which  they  had  committed  themselves  for  safety. 

The  burning  of  this  vessel,  which  proved  to  be  a  large  corvette  found 
by  the  Greeks  at  anchor  on  the  north  side  of  the  Gulf,  was  followed  by 
the  retreat  of  the  Turkish  squadron  to  Patrass,  and  the  pursuit  after 
them  by  Miaulis'  fleet,  which  soon  after  daylight  was  seen  off  Misso- 
longhi.  Communicating  with  the  place  by  signal,  the  Greek  fleet  only 
awaited  a  breeze  favourable  for  their  farther  advancement,  and  for  the 
entrance  of  a  flotilla  of  large  boats  under  sail,  which  followed  them 
thus  far  into  the  canals,  through  which  they  made  for  the  town,  and 
discharged  their  cargoes  of  provisions,  powder,  and  ammunition,  so 
that  the  blockade  of  the  place  was  again  raised,  for  the  third  time  this 
campaign.  In  the  former  part  of  the  day,  the  Greek  fleet  made  up  to 
that  of  their  enemy's,  which  was  formed  at  some  distance  in  the  bottom 
of  the  Gulf.  About  11  A.M.  the  Turks  having  got  the  wind  off-shore 
in  their  rear,  slowly  but  cautiously  advanced  towards  the  Greeks  ;  but 
the  wind  being  little  to  be  depended  on  and  variable,  they  hove  to 
within  gun-shot  range,  when  a  mutual  firing  commenced.,  but  princi- 
pally on  the  Turkish  side.  After  much  cautious  manoeuvring  and  bad 
tactics  on  one  part,  and  native  seamanship  on  the  other,  as  far  as  wind 
permitted,  one  of  the  Turkish  fire-ships  having,  previously  to  the  wind's 
becoming  scanty,  rather  boldly  advanced  on  the  van  of  the  Greek  fleet, 
was  boarded  and  taken  possession  of  without  much  resistance,  in  the 
face  of  the  whole  Turkish  fleet.  One  Greek  boat  boarded  on  the  quar- 
ter, and  another  on  the  bow.  The  crew  of  the  fire-ship,  after  discharg- 
ing a  few  musket-shots,  jumped  over  the  opposite  side  of  the  vessel, 
escaped  in  a  launch,  and  got  under  the  protection  of  some  of  the  near- 
est of  their  own  ships.  In  a  moment  after  the  Greeks  got  on  board, 
the  bloody  flag  was  hauled  down,  the  white  cross  was  hoisted,  and  the 
sails  trimmed  for  bringing  the  prize  into  their  own  line-of-battle.  It 
was  a  beautifully  clear  day  when  this  happened,  and  scarcely  a  ripple 
on  the  water,  save  when  it  was  disturbed  by  the  reverberation  of  the 
guns.  The  capture  of  this  vessel  must  have  been  galling  to  the  Capi- 
tan  Pacha,  who  was  at  no  great  distance  with  the  heavy  fleet,  and  ex- 
pected to  have  seen  the  destruction  of  some  of  his  adversaries  by  means 
of  his  new  fire-ship.  This  is  the  first  season  wherein  the  Turks  have 
thought  of  using  fire-vessels  as  well  as  the  Greeks,  who  have  again  still 
farther  outreached  their  enemies,  in  the  adoption  of  armed  boats  and 
gun-boats,  for  taking  advantage  of  such  opportunities  of  boarding  as 
this  instance  afforded. 

Previous  to  the  Greeks  closing  with  their  opponents  this  morning, 
an  example  of  the  barbarous  character  of  this  war  took  place  before 
our  eyes,  which  was  revolting  to  the  feelings  of  every  civilized 


166  DEATH    OF   A    CORSICAN    CHIEF. 

being.  Prom  the  bowsprit  of  the  Greek  Admiral's  brig,  a  Turk  was  seen 
to  jnmp  into  the  water,  whether  forced  or  not  I  could  not  say,  but,  in 
passing  a  boat  towing  astern,  one  of  the  crew  in  the  boat  drew  his 
yataghan,  and  cut  the  fugitive  deeply  across  the  face ;  while,  as  the 
vessel  left  him  struggling  in  the  waves,  others  levelled  their  muskets 
and  fired  at  him  from  the  brig,  until  he  sank  to  rise  no  more.  Some 
of  the  Greeks  said  he  was  saved  from  the  corvette  that  was  burnt  in 
the  morning,  and  that  his  jumping  overboard  was  in  consequence  of 
having  attempted  the  life  of  some  of  the  people  on  board,  by  seizing  on 
one  of  their  knives.  However  it  may  be,  it  shows  the  horrid  character 
of  the  warfare  now  so  relentlessly  carrying  on,  and  how  much  its  ter- 
mination is  to  be  desired.  Amid  all  the  strife  and  hubbub,  the  Greeks 
seem  not  to  consider  themselves  absolved  from  religious  observances, 
from  being  in  blue  water  ;  and  this  day  being  St.  Antonio's,  a  salute  of 
three  guns  for  the  Saint  was  fired  from  each  vessel  in  the  morning. 
What  also  seemed  to  add  to  the  incongruity  of  the  holy  observance, 
was  one  of  their  brigs  standing  across  from  Missolonghi  to  Cape  Pa- 
trass,  and  setting  fire  to  a  Turkish  corvette  and  fire-ship  that  had  been 
on  shore  for  some  days. 


DEATH   OF    A    CORSICAN    CHIEF. 

THE  page  of  naval  history  is,  unhappily,  too  often  shadowed  by  vivid 
and  affecting  descriptions  of  famine ;  but  amongst  the  instances  of  fel- 
low-creatures tyrannically  condemned  to  starvation,  except  by  the  de- 
lineation of  poets  or  painters,  a  veil  is  drawn  over  their  calamities  ; — 
even  in  Dante's  terrific  recital  of  the  lingering  torments  of  an  impri- 
soned family — the  silence  of  despair — the  successive  deaths — and  the 
agony  of  hunger  overpowering  grief, — Ugolino,  forbendola  a'  capelli 
del  capo  cli  egli  avea  diretro  guasto  is  made  to  exclaim, — 

"  How — trusting  the  vile  prelate's  artful  snare, 
I  suffer'd  bondage,  thou  may'st  be  aware, 
But  yet,  the  cruel  woes  by  which  I  fell, 
Which  thou  shalt  hear — the  dead  alone  can  tell." 

In  the  following  document,  however,  the  personal  thoughts  and  feel- 
ings of  a  devoted  individual  present  a  real  picture  of  the  gradations  by 
which  the  human  frame  is  subdued.  Yet  it  does  not  follow  that  every 
unfortunate  victim  would  be  capable  of  a  similar  tone  of  mind  and 
body  under  such  sufferings ;  for  this  autograph  detail  was  written  by 
a  man  who,  by  his  prison  "  versi  sciolti,"  appears  to  have  possessed 
considerable  literary  talents,  and  who  was,  moreover,  guiltless  of  spill- 
ing the  blood  which  gave  rise  to  the  feud  whence  originated  all  his 
woes.  He  seems  to  have  been  of  a  less  turbulent  disposition  than  is 
usual  amongst  his  countrymen,  who,  notwithstanding  the  fervid  enco- 
miums of  the  delighted  Boswell,  are  a  vindictive  and  arrogant  race, 
and,  although  they  hold  some  moral  qualities  in  esteem,  are  remorse- 
less murderers.  Indeed,  from  personal  acquaintance  with  the  subject, 
we  feel  obliged  to  confess,  that  most  of  their  virtues  are  those  of  a 
semi-barbarous  people  ;  and  that  the  cunning  usually  attendant  on  ig- 
norance, is  one  of  the  most  prominent  features  in  the  Corsican  charac- 


DEATH   OF   A    CORSICAN    CHIEF.  167 

ter.  They  are  prone  to  idleness  and  mischief,  yet  are  capable  of  being 
roused,  by  hopes  of  profit,  to  occasional  efforts  of  industry  ;  for  their 
intervals  of  leisure,  they  have  few  useful  or  agreeable  occupations  to 
rescue  them  from  the  oppressive  languor  incident  to  a  state  of  indolent 
vacuity ;  and  the  popular  profession  of  "  il  dolce  far  niente"  has  too 
many  votaries  to  permit  much  general  prosperity.  Females  hold  but  a 
degraded  station ;  and  the  rites  of  hospitality,  as  usual  where  there  is 
little  social  intercourse,  are  observed  as  mere  duties, — nor  is  the  obli- 
gation sufficiently  binding  to  deter  him  who  refuses  the  pecuniary 
recompense  offered  for  accommodation,  from  waylaying  and  robbing  his 
late  guest.  With  such  vices,  solecism  as  it  may  appear,  we  admit  that 
they  have  also  fixed  principles  of  action,  and  determinate  notions  of 
honour,  however  erroneous. 

Luc'  Antonio  Viterbi,  the  hero  of  our  tragic  tale,  was  born  at  Penta, 
in  Corsica,  in  1769,  and  had  attained  the  enthusiastic  age  of  twenty- 
three,  when  he  became  inflamed  with  the  delusions  of  the  French  re- 
volution. Having  accompanied  his  father  Simon  Paulo  to  a  convention 
of  insular  notables,  it  was  proposed,  in  the  spirit  of  the  new  doctrines, 
to  exclude  the  Frediani  family  therefrom,  on  account  of  its  nobility  ; 
to  this  the  elder  Viterbi  objected,  till,  finding  his  arguments  overruled, 
he  yielded  to  the  majority.  When  the  assembly  had  dissolved,  a  par- 
tisan of  the  obnoxious  family  reproached  him  for  wavering ;  and  in  the 
altercation  which  ensued,  he  was  suddenly  stabbed.  On  the  alarm 
being  given,  the  son  found  considerable  difficulty  in  forcing  himself 
into  the  room  to  attend  his  bleeding  parent ;  and  one  of  the  Frediani 
being  killed  at  the  instant  in  the  door- way,  Luc'  Antonio  was  suspect- 
ed of  being  the  assassin. 

A  deadly  feud  now  flamed  between  the  families,  which  manifested 
itself  by  repeated  attacks,  in  which  the  Viterbi  appear  to  have  been 
more  on  the  defensive  than  their  opponents.  The  arrival  of  Gen. 
Paoli  suspended  these  murderous  outrages ;  but  in  consequence  of  tak- 
ing opposite  views  of  political  exigencies,  our  hero's  family  differed 
with  that  chief,  and  withdrew  to  Toulon,  where  they  remained  until 
the  evacuation  of  the  island  by  the  English.  In  the  interim,  the  Fre- 
diani had  glutted  their  vengeance  by  seizing  their  enemy's  property, 
and  laying  waste  his  lands, — deeds  for  which  they  were  now  impe- 
riously called  to  account.  By  a  not  unusual  compromise,  an  intermar- 
riage was  proposed  and  accepted,  as  the  effectual  means  of  assuaging 
animosities,  and  old  Simon  Paulo  set  off  to  suppress  the  legal  proceed- 
ings ;  but  unfortunately,  his  intention  being  misconceived  by  the  Fre- 
diani, they  procured  his  assassination  on  the  road.  General  indignation 
followed  the  perpetration  of  this  atrocity,  and  the  laws  assigned  all  the 
compensation  in  their  power. 

Luc'  Antonio  became  Accusateur  Publique,  and  executed  the  office 
with  such  integrity,  as  to  promise  a  career  of  honour.  But  chance,  or 
a  concurrence  of  uncontrollable  events,  exercises  a  vast  influence  over 
the  thoughts  and  actions  of  men ; — so  Luca,  unadvisedly  refusing  his 
vote  for  Napoleon's  elevation  to  the  throne,  became  inimical  to  the 
ruling  powers,  and  was  consequently  obliged  to  retire  to  Penta,  follow- 
ed by  the  harassing  insults  of  his  former  foes.  In  1814,  one  of  the 
Frediani  was  shot  from  an  ambush,  under  circumstances  which  in- 
volved our  hero  and  his  son  in  considerable  suspicion ;  yet  Buonaparte's 


168  DEATH    OF    A    CORSICAN    CHIEF. 

escape  from  Elba  happening  then  to  engross  the  public  attention,  no 
positive  measures  were  adopted,  and  he,  with  other  chiefs,  repaired  to 
the  public  rendezvous,  at  the  head  of  his  vassals. 

Here  a  new  misfortune  assailed  him,  in  his  people  being  instigated 
to  a  skirmish  by  the  followers  of  the  Ceccaldi,  also  his  personal  ene- 
mies, in  which  two  of  the  latter  were  killed ;  whereupon  Luc'  Anto- 
nio and  his  son  absconded.  The  Buonapartists  obtained  a  decree  for 
the  confiscation  of  his  property,  the  burning  of  his  house,  and  the  erec- 
tion of  a  pillar  of  infamy  on  the  spot ;  this,  however,  was  rescinded  on 
the  settlement  of  public  affairs,  and  both  father  and  son  were  pardoned, 
after  a  short  imprisonment.  They  once  more  returned  tranquilly  to 
Penta,  where  they  were  received  with  the  strongest  marks  of  attach- 
ment by  the  peasantry,  and  hoped  to  have  ended  their  days  in  peace. 
But,  alas  !  the  assassination  of  Donate  Frediani  in  1814,  was  revived; 
the  son  escaped  to  the  continent,  but  Luc'  Antonio,  despite  of  various 
fruitless  appeals,  was  imprisoned,  and  after  a  trial  of  fifteen  days,  con- 
demned to  be  guillotined.  The  sufferer  defended  himself  with  great 
presence  of  mind,  and  then  sought  delay,  only  that  he  might  avoid  the 
disgrace  of  a  public  execution,  by  taking  laudanum.  This  failing  in 
its  effect,  he  hoped  to  increase  a  diarrhoea,  under  which  he  was  labour- 
ing, by  sudden  repletion  ;  but  the  effort,  on  the  contrary,  occasioned  it 
to  cease,  so  that  his  only  resource  was  starvation.  The  following  is  a 
literal  translation  of  his  extraordinary  journal ;  and  it  should  be  noted, 
that,  finding  himself  weak,  he  signed  it  on  the  18th  of  December,  but 
he  did  not  die  till  the  20th,  when  he  stretched  himself  out,  and  calmly 
ejaculating,  "  I  am  prepared  to  leave  this  world,"  expired. 

1821.  25th  Nov. — At  ten  o'clock  in  the  morning  I  ate  abundantly, 
and  with  appetite.  At  three  in  the  afternoon,  I  took  eleven  doses  of  a 
narcotic  mixture.  Until  eleven  at  night,  I  remained  awake  and  very 
tranquil ;  a  pleasing  warmth  ran  through  my  veins,  the  diarrhoea  had 
ceased,  and  my  general  health  improved.  I  then  fell  asleep,  and  en- 
joyed profound  repose  till  one,  when  one  of  the  guards  asked  me  if  I 
was  asleep,  and  I  could  scarcely  show  that  I  was  awake. 

26th. — I  fell  asleep  again  almost  immediately,  and  passed  five  hours 
in  a  deep  lethargy.  From  that  time  till  eleven  I  continued  alternately 
sleeping  and  waking,  amused  with  delightful  though  short  dreams. 
My  sleeping  then  decreased,  but  did  not  entirely  cease,  and  the  day 
passed  without  my  feeling  an  inconvenience  of  any  kind.  I  found  the 
effect  of  the  elixir  had  entirely  ceased  to  act.  I  finished  the  26th  day 
very  tranquilly.  At  night,  I  conversed  with  the  gaolers  and  three  sol- 
diers of  the  guard,  till  midnight. 

27th. — About  one,  I  began  to  sleep,  and  woke  only  for  a  short  time 
at  half-past  four ;  then  slept  again  for  an  hour,  when  I  felt  well  and 
strong,  only  my  mouth  was  rather  bitter.  Thus  I  have  passed  two 

days  without  eating,  yet  feel  no  inconvenience Four  days  are 

here  omitted  in  the  manuscript 

2d  Dec. — At  three  o'clock  to-day  I  ate  with  appetite,  and  passed 
the  night  very  tranquilly. 

3d,  Monday. — Without  eating  or  drinking,  and  without  being  agi- 
tated by  the  privation. 

4th,  Tuesday. — Without  taking  any  food  or  drink  whatever,  I  con- 


DEATH    OF    A    CORSICAN    CHIEF.  169 

tinned  through  the  day  and  night  in  a  state  of  health  and  quiet,  calcu- 
lated to  please  any  one  not  in  my  situation. 

5th. — Last  night  I  did  not  sleep  at  all,  yet  it  arose  entirely  from  the 
agitation  of  my  mind.  In  the  morning,  and  also  through  the  day,  I 
was  more  calm.  It  is  already  two  P.M.  and  after  three  days  my  pulse 
does  not  show  much  inclination  to  fever,  the  motion  is  rather  more 
rapid,  and  the  pulsation  heavier ;  I  feel  no  inconvenience  of  any  kind. 
My  imagination  is  fervid,  my  sight  very  clear,  nor  do  I  feel  the  least 
hunger  or  drought.  My  mouth  is  free  from  bitterness,  my  hearing  is 
distinct,  I  feel  vigour  throughout  my  body.  At  half-past  four,  I  closed 
my  eyes  for  a  few  minutes,  but  a  sudden  tremour  awoke  me.  At  half- 
past  five,  I  began  to  feel  pain  in  my  left  breast,  but  not  fixed.  My 
pulse  begins  to  elongate  itself  towards  the  elbow,  like  a  fine  thread. 
After  eight  o'clock,  I  slept  tranquilly  for  an  hour,  and  then  found  my 
pulse  perfectly  calm.  Again  I  slept  till  eleven,  when  my  pulse  be- 
came very  perceptibly  weaker.  At  one,  my  throat  was  very  dry,  with 
a  stinging  thirst.  The  same  at  eight  o'clock,  with  a  slight  pain  in  the 
heart.  The  left  pulse  oscillates  in  opposition  to  the  right,  denoting 
the  disturbance  occasioned  by  a  want  of  food. 

6th. — On  the  failure  of  the  first  means  which  I  had  recourse  to,  I 
lost  my  courage  and  my  good  sense.  My  situation  was  truly  lament- 
able, for  I  was  precluded  from  all  other  means  deemed  certain  ;  every 
report,  every  word,  allured  a  mind  weakened  by  misfortune.  The  phy- 
sician advised  me  to  eat,  assuring  me  that  I, should  linger  fifteen  days 
by  starvation.  The  excessive  delicacy  of  the  Advocate  Marii  is  the 
cause  of  all  my  present  agony ;  I  determined  on  trying  repletion,  but 
it  had  a  contrary  effect  to  what  I  had  hoped,  by  arresting  the  diarrhare; 
in  short,  I  am  unfortunate  in  every  way.  It  is  now  four  days  since  I 
ate  or  drank,  yet  I  have  no  fever.  I  deserve  pity,  and  not  reproach. 
I  began  in  a  higher  tone,  even  than  Cato,  the  end  may  perhaps  corre- 
spond to  the  beginning.  I  suffer  a  burning  thirst,  and  devouring  hun- 
ger, with  unshaken  courage,  and  unalterable  firmness.  At  ten,  my 
pulse  grew  weak,  and  my  head  became  confused.  At  mid-day,  the 
right  pulse  indicated  interrnittency,  and  then  the  left.  At  three,  my 
pulse  was  very  weak  ;  the  intermittency  had  ceased :  my  sight  vacil- 
lated. At  four,  the  intermittency  recommenced,  but  my  head  was 
clear.  At  six,  the  intermittency  ceased,  and  the  pulse  became  stronger 
and  more  regular.  At  nine,  great  want  of  strength,  the  pulse  regular, 
the  mouth  dry.  Twelve,  strange  variations  followed  in  the  pulse,  but 
it  is  now  regular,  though  feeble ;  mouth  and  throat  very  dry ;  half  an 
hour's  tranquil  sleep. 

7th. — By  six  o'clock  I  had  had  four  hours'  comfortable  sleep.  On 
waking,  my  head  was  giddy,  accompanied  by  a  burning  thirst,  and 
great  commotion  in  my  pulse.  Until  half-past  three,  there  was  perfect 
calm  in  my  pulse,  but  then  a  convulsive  motion  began,  with  intermit- 
tency in  the  left,  and  slacker  in  the  right :  my  thirst  is  diminished. 
At  mid-day,  my  pulse  was  regular.  At  two,  a  burning  thirst,  weak 
pulse,  but  not  feverish.  At  four,  decided  intermittency  in  both  pulses. 
At  six,  pulse  perfectly  calm.  At  midnight,  great  thirst  with  bitter- 
ness, but  otherwise  tranquil. 

8th  Dec. — At  four,  an  intolerable  thirst,  but  otherwise  calm  ;  had 
some  hours'  quite  sleep.  At  eight  in  the  morning,  after  two  hours'  very 

U.  S.  JOURN.  No.  14.  FEB.  1830.  N 


170  DEATH   OF   A   CORSICAN    CHIEF. 

tranquil  repose,  mouth  extremely  dry,  tongue  so  parched  as  nearly  to 
prevent  speaking,  very  ardent  thirst.  Intermittent  at  eleven  ;  quite 
calm  at  twelve,  but  an  ardent  thirst.  Half  an  hour's  rest  in  the  after- 
noon ;  two  minutes  swimming  of  the  head  on  waking,  but  perfect  tran- 
quillity of  pulse ;  the  burning  thirst  continues,  and  my  strength  dimi- 
nishes, but  yet  my  body  is  calm.  At  eight,  my  pulse  is  vigorous,  but 
every  third  pulsation  is  intermittent.  Burning  thirst;  all  the  rest 
calm.  At  twelve,  found  I  had  had  an  hour's  repose,  but  swimmings  on 
waking,  and  pulse  disordered.  General  debility,  especially  of  sight. 

9th. — At  three,  found  that  I  had  slept  an  hour,  and  again  on  wak- 
ing found  myself  giddy,  with  the  usual  symptoms.  After  seven,  the 
intermittent  pulsations  ceased  giving  way  to  extreme  weakness ;  very 
burning  thirst.  At  three  p.  M.  half  an  hour's  sleep,  succeeded  by  the 
usual  symptoms.  My  head  then  became  tranquil,  as  well  as  all  the 
rest  of  my  body ;  but  my  extremities  were  cold  until  evening,  when 
my  pulse  became  vigorous  and  regular,  and  all  my  senses  were  re- 
stored to  their  pristine  acuteness.  A  burning  perpetual  thirst.  Ten 
o'clock, — the  fear  of  ignominy  only,  and  not  the  fear  of  death,  confirms 
me  in  the  resolution  of  entirely  abstaining  from  all  nourishment ; 
though  in  the  execution  of  this  strange  project  I  suffer  the  most 
frightful  agony  and  unheard  of  torments.  My  innocence  gives  me  the 
courage  to  conquer  the  sufferings  of  such  prolonged  privation.  I  for- 
give those  judges  who  have  condemned  me  from  sincere  conviction  ; 
but  I  swear  an  eternal,  implacable  hatred, — a  hatred  that  I  shall  trans- 
mit to  my  descendants,  against  the  infamous,  the  abominable,  the 
blood-thirsty  Boucher;  that  monster  of  iniquity,  following  the  im- 
pulses of  his  private  hatred,  has  sacrificed  an  entire,  honest,  and  inno- 
cent family,  through  revenge.  The  usual  symptoms  of  a  tranquil  pulse 
and  burning  thirst  still  continue. 

10th. — The  thirst  diminished  between  six  and  eight  A.  M.  Still 
giddy  on  waking,  pulse  very  weak,  but  regular.  If  it  be  true  that  in 
Elysium  we  preserve  the  memory  of  mundane  things,  I  shall  always 
have  before  my  eyes  the  image  of  the  protector  of  truth  and  innocence, 
the  respectable  Counsellor  Abbatucci !  May  Heaven  shower  down  its 
choicest  blessings  on  him  and  his  posterity.  This  wish  is  uttered  with 
a  heart  full  of  the  most  sincere  gratitude.  At  twelve,  a  steady  head, 
tranquil  stomach,  senses  acute,  and  I  continue  to  enjoy  snuff.  Thirst 
has  regained  its  violence,  but  my  hunger  has  ceased.  In  the  afternoon, 
hunger  returned  several  times ;  pulse  rather  accelerated,  otherwise 
tranquil. 

llth. — Before  midnight  great  avidity  to  eat,  with  inextinguishable 
thirst,  then  obtained  tranquil  sleep.  At  six,  pulse  much  weakened, 
and  announcing  approaching  dissolution.  Thirst  more  bearable.  I 
have  undertaken  and  achieved  one  of  the  most  extraordinary  projects, 
perhaps,  that  ever  was  imagined  by  man ;  yes,  I  have  achieved  it,  un- 
dergoing incredible  agonies,  to  free  my  family,  my  relations,  and  my 
friends  from  ignominy  ;  not  to  give  my  enemies  the  satisfaction  of  seeing 
my  head  fall  by  the  guillotine ;  and  to  teach  the  iniquitous,  monstrous, 
infamous  Boucher,  the  temper  of  the  Corsican  character.  When  he 
hears  of  the  means  by  which  I  have  ended  my  days,  he  will  shudder 
and  tremble,  lest  some  one,  emulating  my  virtue,  shall  avenge  the  in- 
nocent victim  of  his  iniquitous  intrigues. 


DEATH    OF    A    CORSICAN    CHIEF.  171 

At  two  P.  M. — The  excessive  weakness  ceasing  after  about  an  hour, 
my  pulse  has  regained  a  regular  vigour,  which  to  me  is  alarming. 
Every  part  of  my  body  is  tranquil,  although  my  strength  is  diminished. 
Six  o'clock. — My  intellectual  faculties  are  in  their  usual  state.     Hun- 
ger has  ceased  entirely,  and  thirst  is  more  tolerable.     My  physical 
strength  sensibly  diminishes.     Ten  o'clock. —  ~Deus,  in  nomine  tuo  sal- 
vum  mefac,  et  in  virtute  tua  liber  a  me.     In  these  words  are  comprised 
my  religious  principles.     Since  my  seventeenth  year,  I  have    always 
believed  in  one  God,  Creator  of  the  Universe,  rewarder  of  the  good, 
and  severe  punisher  of  the  bad.     Since  then,  I  never  believed  in  man. 
12th. — From  one  o'clock  I  had  a  lethargic  sleep  of  four  hours  and  a 
half,   I  then  lay  for  an  hour  in  a  scarcely  sensible  state,  with  every 
indication    of  approaching    death  :    yet  I  revived,  and  now  at  nine 
o'clock  my  pulse  is  weak  but  regular,  and  my  thirst  somewhat  dimin- 
ished.    At  six  p.  M.  my  thirst  returned,  but  no  hunger, — my  faculties 
clear,  constantly  awake,  strength  in  every  part.    Ten  p.  M.  Very  burning 
thirst,  pulsations  very  weak  and  irregular, — a  cessation  of  the  dilation 
and  contraction  of  the  heart ;  languid  all  over ;  great  dislike  to  the  light, 
— faintness. 

13th. — At  midnight,  the  pulsations  became  very  slight  and  intermit- 
tent, with  a  burning  thirst  and  general  weakness.  In  this  extreme, 
my  reason  quitted  me,  and  without  the  concurrence  of  my  judgment, 
urged  by  a  burning  thirst,  I  seized  a  jug  and  drank  a  considerable 
draught  of  water.  Soon  after,  all  my  extremities  became  icy  cold,  the 
pulsations  ceased  entirely  j  all  the  symptoms  were  those  of  death. 
(He  now  stretched  himself  on  his  pallet,  and  exclaimed  to  the  soldiers 
who  were  guarding  him,  "  Look  how  well  I  have  laid  myself  out.") 
The  physician,  who  had  arrived  an  hour  before,  asked  me  in  those  con- 
vulsive moments  whether  I  would  take  any  thing,  and  giving  me  four 
or  five  spoonsful  of  wine,  restored  me  to  life  and  strength.  I  then 
again  drank  some  water.  Ten  A.M.  I  now  feel  myself  much  the  same  as 
yesterday  morning,  only  my  thirst  is  more  tolerable.  Two  P.M.  No  par- 
ticular inconvenience,  no  hunger ;  the  pulsations  of  the  heart  have  en- 
tirely ceased.  Six  p.  M.  No  motion  in  the  heart,  pulse  very  low,  thirst 
bearable,  no  hunger,  head  clear,  faculties  all  in  a  good  state.  Ten  at 
night,  after  half  an  hour's  very  placid  sleep,  felt  a  slight  shiver  over 
my  body  ;  pulsations  scarcely  perceptible,  still  my  faculties  are  as  usual. 
Shiverings  encreasing,  my  feet  warm,  but  nose  and  ears  cold. 

14th. — After  the  convulsions  above  described,  I  had  three  hours 
tranquil  sleep,  accompanied  by  pleasant  dreams.  On  waking,  my 
thirst  was  very  great,  pulsations  very  weak,  those  of  the  heart  quite 
ceased.  My  faculties  in  a  good  state,  but  my  physical  strength  de- 
creased since  yesterday.  At  one  P.M.  my  thirst  increased  beyond  every 
thing, — my  pulse  was  alternately  weak  and  strong,  but  always  regular, 
though  the  motion  of  the  heart  has  quite  subsided.  Still  my  faculties 
are  good,  considering  the  reduced  state  of  my  body.  All  the  world  has 
abandoned  me,  but  I  still  preserve  and  shall  preserve  as  long  as  I  live, 
the  best  of  my  possessions,  my  constancy.  On  the  10th  instant,  my 
thirst  was  such,  that  having  filled  my  mouth  with  water,  I  could  not 
resist  swallowing  it, — during  the  convulsions  of  the  12th,  I  drank  in 
presence  of  the  doctor  above  a  tumbler  of  water, — and  again  during 


172  DEATH   OF   A   CORSICAN   CHIEF. 

that  of  the  13th,  rather  more  than  half  a  tumbler.  Total  absence  of 
appetite.  Ten  o'clock  at  night,  insufferable  thirst,  as  in  the  course  of 
the  day ;  febrile  pulsations,  warmth  over  all  my  body.  No  indication 
of  convulsions  like  those  of  the  preceding  night.  Since  the  2d  instant, 
I  have  been  deprived  of  every  kind  of  consolation ;  no  news  of  my 
family.  To  such  of  my  relations  as  are  in  the  town,  all  access  to  this 
prison  has  been  prohibited.  Seven  inexorable  soldiers  have  passed 
the  night  and  the  day  in  the  small  room  in  which  I  am  confined,  ob- 
serving with  an  inquisitorial  rigour  my  every  motion  or  word ;  so  bar- 
barous and  superfluous  a  degree  of  circumspection  would  be  more  suit- 
able to  the  prisons  of  a  seraglio,  or  a  Pasha  of  St.  Jean  d'Acre,  than  to 
those  of  the  French  Government.  They  wish  to  prevent  me  from 
dying,  but  I  flatter  myself  that  I  shall  disappoint  all  the  efforts  and 
measures  practised  by  the  ministry. 

15th. — Vigorous  pulsations  until  three  A.M.  ;  feverish  heat  in  all  my 
body,  very  hot  thirst,  succeeded  by  calm  repose  till  six.  Fainting  and 
insensibility  of  half  an  hour.  At  seven,  the  pulsations  recommenced, 
but  continued  very  weak  till  mid-day. 

16th.— -From  ten  till  four  burning  thirst,  otherwise  calm  ;  after  four 
o'clock,  vigorous  pulsations,  accompanied  by  febrile  heat ;  these  ceased 
for  an  hour,  then  recommenced  very  faintly.  It  is  now  seven  o'clock, 
and  the  pulsation  is  so  little  perceptible,  that  I  think  the  end  of  my 
days  and  of  my  agonies  must  be  near.  This  journal  will  be  delivered 
after  my  death  to  my  nephew,  G.  G.  Guerrini,  who  will  take  care  to 
send  a  copy  of  it  to  the  Presidents  Mezard,  Pasqualini,  and  Suzzoni ; 
and  the  fourth  to  Signor  Rigo,  whom  I  request  to  fulfil  my  wish,  as  I 
before  expressed  to  him  personally. 

17th.— Yesterday  passed  very  tranquilly.  I  now  find  myself  the 
same,  only  my  pulse  is  very  weak.  I  die  with  a  pure  and  innocent 
soul,  and  end  my  days  with  that  tranquillity  with  which  Seneca,  So- 
crates, and  Petronius  ended  theirs. 

18th. — Eleven  o'clock,  I  am  near  upon  ending  my  days  by  the  calm 
death  of  the  just.  Both  hunger  and  thirst  have  ceased  to  torment  me. 
My  mind  is  collected,  my  sight  is  clear,  and  a  universal  suavity  reigns 
throughout  my  heart,  my  conscience,  and  every  part  of  me.  The  few 
moments  that  remain  to  me,  flow  as  smoothly  as  does  a  gentle  rivulet 
through  a  flowery  meadow.  The  lamp  is  near  being  extinguished  for 
want  of  the  fluid  requisite  to  feed  the  flame. 

(Signed)        ANTONIO  VITEBBI. 


173 

SERVICE    AFLOAT    DURING    THE   LATE    WAR.* 

BEING    THE    PERSONAL    NARRATIVE    OF    A    NAVAL    OFFICER. 

THE  peace  having  materially  changed  my  prospects  in  the  East 
India  Service,  it  became  necessary  to  turn  my  views  in  another  direction, 
and  a  friend  having  just  returned  from  the  island  of  Jamaica,  where, 
among  the  commercial  class,  he  possessed  extensive  connexions  and 
influence,  his  advice  and  patronage  determined  me  on  taking  a  trip  to 
that  island.  Accordingly,  furnished  with  credentials  to  many  of  the 
most  opulent  and  respectable  of  the  mercantile  community  in  the  city 
of  Kingston,  I  embarked  as  passenger  in  the  West  India  ship  Royal 
Edward. 

Our  voyage  was  not  remarkable  for  any  event  of  interest.  We  made 
the  Canaries,  and  had  an  opportunity  for  two  or  three  days,  during 
which  our  progress  was  retarded  by  light  winds  and  calms,  of  contem- 
plating the  lofty  peak  of  Teneriffe,  lifting  itself  high  above  the  clouds ; 
and  after  a  pleasant  passage  of  between  five  and  six  weeks  of  uninter- 
rupted fine  weather,  we  arrived  in  the  harbour  of  Kingston. 

Anticipation  is  the  mother  of  disappointment.  My  reception,  how- 
ever, on  landing,  if  not  quite  so  cordial  as  my  fancy  had  led  me  to  ex- 
pect, was  on  the  whole  tolerable ;  but  the  fine  hopes  I  had  been  led  to 
form  from  my  commercial  speculations,  met  with  little  encouragement. 
Trade,  I  was  given  to  understand,  was  languishing.  I  was  recommend- 
ed to  turn  planter ;  and  as  I  had  but  the  choice  of  following  the  sug- 
gestions, or  foregoing  the  patronage  of  my  advisers,  after  a  little  grave 
prosing,  in  which  a  very  pretty  picture  of  the  advantages  and  felicity  of 
such  a  mode  of  life  was  delineated,  I  acquiesced.  This  settled,  it  was 
soon  intimated  to  me,  that  Kingston  being  peculiarly  unhealthy,  and 
above  all  inimical  to  the  constitutions  of  new  comers,  no  time  should 
be  lost  in  proceeding  to  the  interior,  where,  in  a  purer  and  more  tem- 
perate atmosphere,  I  might  become  seasoned  to  the  climate,  and  have 
at  once  the  opportunity  of  essaying  my  new  profession.  With  this 
view,  a  journey  into  the  country  was  forthwith  decided  on,  and  how- 
ever unwillingly,  it  being  little  in  unison  with  my  inclinations,  on  the 
second  or  third  day  of  my  sojourn  in  Kingston  I  set  off  with  two  or 
three  acquaintances,  proceeding  in  the  same  direction,  for  the  place  of 
my  probation,  a  coffee-plantation  in  the  heart  of  the  mountains,  some 
thirty  miles  from  the  city. 

Few  countries  can  boast  more  magnificent  scenery  than  Jamaica,  a 
fact  which,  in  spite  of  the  somewhat  unfavourable  state  of  the  atmos- 
phere on  quitting  the  low  lands,  at  times  hazy,  with  latterly  some 
drizzling  showers,  I  had  ample  opportunity  of  verifying.  The  first 
five  or  six  miles  from  the  town,  our  way  led  over  a  flat  covered  with 
fields  of  the  sugar-cane ;  the  remainder  of  the  journey  through  a 
mountainous  country  thickly  covered  with  wood.  As  we  wound  along 
the  zig-zag  paths  of  the  steep  acclivities,  now  on  the  brink  of  a  per- 
pendicular precipice  hundreds  of  feet  in  depth,  with  a  torrent  foaming 
through  the  dark  abyss  below,  or  now  emerging  from  some  narrow 
mountain-pass,  which  commanded  a  prospect  more  extended,  the  eye 

*  Continued  from  page  14. 


174«  SERVICE    AFLOAT 

was  ravished  with  every  variety  of  landscape.  Before  us  to  the  north- 
ward, as  the  clouds  broke,  we  had  an  occasional  glimpse  of  that  stupen- 
dous central  chain  called  the  Blue  Mountains,  towering  above  the  dense 
volumes  of  vapour  which  encircled  them.  Beneath,  in  contrast  to  the 
frowning  grandeur  of  these,  the  sight  reposed  on  the  rich  and  verdant 
valley  ;  or,  turning  to  the  south,  rested  on  the  level  and  extended  savan- 
nah, with  the  ocean  in  the  distance,  blending  its  blue  horizon  with  the 
ethereal  azure  of  the  sky.  Here  and  there  below,  in  some  sequestered 
dell,  the  snug  planter's  house  and  negro  village  peeped  forth  from  a 
grove  of  clustering  bananas,  in  the  midst  of  a  forest  of  the  luxuriant 
and  blossomed  coffee-shrub.  But  the  eye  alone  can  convey  an  adequate 
conception  of  tropical  scenery,  particularly  in  this  island.  Here  Nature, 
ever  bountiful,  is  prodigal  in  the  extreme  ;  and  whether  viewed  in  the 
awful  magnificence  in  which  she  sits  enthroned  in  her  giant  mountains, 
the  richness  and  profusion  in  which  she  revels  in  the  low  lands,  or  the 
gorgeousness  of  tint  and  colouring  in  which  she  is  everywhere  arrayed, 
she  alike  defies  the  pencil  or  the  pen  to  render  her  justice. 

The  spot  of  my  seclusion  was  a  coffee-plantation,  the  dwelling-house 
and  premises  of  which  were  situated  on  the  brow  of  a  small  conical 
hill,  at  the  bottom  and  at  the  eastern  extremity  of  a  deep  valley  or 
basin,  formed  by  the  surrounding  mountains.  Those  to  the  north  and 
east,  rising  one  above  another,  in  an  immense  amphitheatre,  until  lost 
in  the  clouds  ;  to  the  southward  they  were  less  bold.  A  torrent  foam- 
ed down  a  ravine  at  the  back  of  the  house,  a  branch  of  which  turning 
off  in  a  small  artificial  channel,  babbled  in  a  crystal  stream  through  the 
works  below,  where  it  served  the  purpose  of  turning  a  mill  for  the  pre- 
paration of  the  coffee,  and  added  at  the  same  time  to  the  beauty  of  the 
landscape. 

On  the  estate,  and  not  far  distant  from  our  abode,  was  a  cave,  one  of 
the  many  haunts  of  the  celebrated  Obi  Man,  so  long  the  terror  of  Ja- 
maica, and  whose  fame,  through  the  medium  of  dramatic  story,  at  the 
beginning  of  the  present  century,  reached  to  our  own  shores,  under  the 
well-remembered  sobriquet,  from  a  corresponding  mutilation  in  one  of 
his  hands,  of  Three-fingered  Jack. 

The  theatre  of  this  singular  being's  exploits  having  been  principally 
on  this  part  of  the  island,  and  the  facts  still  recent  on  my  arrival  in 
Jamaica,  I  had  the  opportunity  of  picking  up  some  interesting  particu- 
lars from  various  individuals  well  acquainted  with  our  hero's  history, 
and  among  others,  from  the  Maroon  Negro  Quashi,  alias  Jonathan 
Reader,  the  man  who  finally  put  a  period  to  the  unfortunate  Jack's 
enterprises,  and  at  the  same  time  his  existence.* 

*  This  man,  whose  audacious  depredations  and  bold  daring  were  at  once  the  dread 
and  admiration  of  the  islanders,  whose  efforts,  backed  by  the  most  strenuous  exertions 
of  the  civil  and  military  authorities,  he  continued  so  long  to  defy,  exercised  over  the 
negro  population,  prone  to  superstition,  the  most  unlimited  influence,  principally  through 
their  unshaken  faith  in  his  supernatural  attributes,  he  being  one  of  the  pretenders  to 
the  charm  of  Obi,  or  African  necromancy.  This  belief  was  strengthened  by  his  almost 
superhuman  physical  strength,  activity,  and  indomitable  courage.  In  muscular  power, 
he  was  said  to  be  a  match  for  any  three  men  in  the  Colony ;  and  his  locomotive  energies 
were  no  less  surprising;  his  activity  and  celerity  of  motion  being  such  as  to  countenance  the 
delusion  that  prevailed,  as  to  the  unearthly  agency  of  which  he  was  said  to  avail  himself. 
Oftentimes,  when  the  negroes  of  an  estate,  to  the  amount  of  two  or  three  hundred,  were 


DURING    THE   LATE    WAR.  175 

One  evening,  shortly  after  my  arrival,  having  retired  rather. earlier 
than  usual,  I  had  just  turned-in,  as  the  sailors  phrase  is,  but  had  not 
yet  disposed  myself  to  sleep,  when  I  suddenly  felt  the  bed,  the  furni- 
ture, and  the  whole  fabric  in  motion :  the  sensation  this  occasioned  was 
of  so  peculiar  a  kind,  that  I  find  some  difficulty  in  conveying  an  accu- 
rate idea  of  it.  It  seemed  as  if  some  mighty  arm,  applying  a  lever  on 
one  side  of  the  house,  had  given  the  building  a  sudden  lift  :  this  was 
succeeded  by  a  sort  of  tremour,  or  undulatory  movement,  as  slight  as  it 
was  transient,  and  all  again  was  quiet.  The  solemn  stillness  of  the 
hour,  and  the  death-like  calm,  the  usual  harbinger  of  these  visitations, 
made  the  circumstance  more  striking  and  perceptible.  Not  a  breath 
of  air  sufficient  to  rustle  the  surrounding  foliage  was  stirring,  every 

assembled  at  evening  muster  before  the  plantation  house,  when  the  fame  of  some  re- 
cent enterprise  was  going  round  in  mysterious  whispers  among  these  awe-striken,  simple 
people,  at  a  moment  when  the  scene  of  the  exploit  was  so  remote  that  they  could  not 
dream  of  his  proximity,  he  would  suddenly,  as  though  he  sprang  from  the  earth, 
appear  amongst  them ;  and  such  was  the  veneration  or  terror  which  he  never  failed  to  in- 
spire, that  although  a  large  sum  was  offered  for  his  capture,  dead  or  alive,  no  one  of  the 
multitude  attempted  to  molest  him.  Holding  up  the  awful  mutilated  hand,  the  whole 
would  sometimes  prostrate  themselves  before  him.  He  would  then,  unawed  by  the  pre- 
sence of  the  proprietor,  or  white  overseer  of  the  estate,  deliberately  levy  his  contributions, 
principally  of  food,  and  retreat  to  the  woods  ;  sometimes  he  would  carry  with  him  one 
or  more  of  the  female  slaves, — for  Jack,  though  capricious  and  fond  of  change,  was  of  a 
very  amorous  temperament ;  and  it  was  remarked,  that  their  transient  sojourn  pro- 
duced a  most  salutary  effect,  they  invariably  returning  sleek  and  healthy. 

Not  far  distant,  in  the  strongholds  of  the  Blue  Mountains,  dwelt  an  independent  race 
of  coloured  men,  descended  originally  from  runaway  negroes,  and  a  remnant  of  that 
army,  principally  composed  of  slaves,  which  the  first  European  colonists,  the  Spaniards, 
brought  into  the  field  to  oppose  their  English  assailants,  under  Pen  and  Venables,  in 
the  year  1656.  At  the  subsequent  conquest  of  the  island,  they  established  themselves 
in  these  impenetrable  wilds,  and  had  for  nearly  a  century  been  the  pest  of  the  island- 
ers, resisting  alike  every  amicable  offer,  even  a  guarantee  for  their  freedom,  and  twenty 
acres  of  land  a-head,  by  the  Governor,  Sir  Charles  Lyttleton,  and  every  hostile  attempt 

against  them.  Until  at  length,  in  1740,  under  the  government  of Trelawney, 

being  driven  from  their  fastnesses,  principally  by  a  body  of  Musquito  Indians,  taken 
into  pay  for  the  purpose,  they  accepted  the  pacific  overtures  made  to  them,  and  since 
the  Maroon  war  of  1795,  have  remained  peaceful  subjects,  rendering  themselves  emi- 
nently serviceable  to  the  Colonists,  agreeably  to  one  of  the  articles  of  the  original  treaty 
made  with  them,  in  arresting  deserters  from  the  estates.  One  of  these,  the  Maroon 
Quashi,  excited  by  the  promised  reward,  undertook  the  capture  of  our  hero  ;  he  adopted 
the  Christian  religion  as  a  counter  charm  to  the  magic  influence  of  his  antagonist,  and 
took  the  name  of  Jonathan  Reader.  Being  well  acquainted  with  the  haunts  of  the 
fugitive,  as  well  as  the  intricate  paths  and  passes  of  these  almost  impenetrable  forests, 
he  set  out  with  a  young  Maroon,  his  nephew,  strong  in  his  new  faith,  and  confident  of 
success.  At  this  crisis  it  might  be  said  that  the  whole  island  were  on  the  alert  for  the 
same  purpose,  bodies  of  troops  were  scouring  the  country  in  all  directions,  and  all  the 
power  of  the  Executive,  so  long  baffled,  was  exerted  to  the  same  end. 

For  a  considerable  time  the  local  sagacity  and  activity  of  Reader,  nearly  a  match  for 
his  antagonist,  was  completely  foiled.  Once  they  had  grappled,  but  the  superior 
strength  of  the  latter  enabled  him  to  escape.  At  length,  hunted  from  covert  to  covert, 
and  probably  exhausted  by  his  almost  superhuman  exertions,  he  fell  into  the  hands  of 
his  deadly  adversary,  as  he  was  sleeping  under  a  tree.  On  this  occasion,  after  a  despe- 
rate struggle,  in  which  he  succeeded  in  disarming  and  severely  wounding  his  opponent, 
he  once  more  slipped  through  his  hands.  But  his  hour  was  come,  and  in  his  flight 
having  to  cross  an  adjacent  valley,  he  was  brought  down  by  a  musket-shot,  as  he  was 
mounting  the  opposite  hill,  and  the  victor  severing  his  head  from  the  body,  received,  on 
presenting  it  to  the  authorities,  the  stipulated  sum. 


176  SERVICE   AFLOAT 

thing  animate  and  inanimate  was  hushed  in  the  most  profound  tran- 
quillity. Unprepared  for  such  a  phenomenon,  for  an  instant  my  mind 
was  impressed  with  that  vague  and  undefined  sensation,  a  mixture  of 
surprise  and  awe,  which  one  may  be  supposed  to  experience  when  the 
imagination  is  deluded  by  the  idea  of  a  supernatural  influence.  This, 
however,  instantly  gave  place  to  the  conviction,  that  this  could  be  no 
other  than  a  specimen,  the  first  I  had  ever  witnessed,  of  those  convul- 
sions of  nature,  of  such  frequent  occurrence  in  this  part  of  the  world; 
and  I  learned  next  morning  that  this  had  been  one  of  the  smartest 
shocks  of  an  earthquake  experienced  for  many  years.  In  its  proper 
place,  I  shall  have  to  treat  more  largely  on  this  subject,  having  been 
an  eye-witness  of  some  remarkable  phenomena  attending  the  erup- 
tion of  Mont  Souffrier,  the  Volcano  in  the  island  of  St.  Vincent's,  on 
the  27th  of  April,  1812,  and  others,  in  connection  with  the  great 
earthquake  at  Carracas,  which  may  throw  some  new  light  on  the  theory 
of  these  great  workings  of  nature,  and  at  least  be  interesting  to  men  of 
science. 

A  few  weeks'  trial  of  the  monotonous  and  solitary  lifex>f  a  planter, 
sufficed,  with  my  original  disrelish  for  the  ignoble  calling  itself,  than 
which  the  situation  of  the  meanest  sailor  or  soldier  appeared  to  me  far 
more  respectable,  to  make  me  heartily  sick  of  it :  not  that  my  situa- 
tion was  by  any  means  akin  to  that  of  the  general  run  of  the  tyros  of 
the  profession,  yclept  book-keepers,  for,  under  kindlier  auspices  than 
the  fraternity  can  generally  boast,  I  was  placed  on  the  estate  of  a  friend 
of  one  of  my  patrons,  and  on  the  score  of  comfort,  nay,  even  luxury, 
indulgence,  leisure,  and  comparative  independence,  there  was  nothing 
to  complain  of.  But  I  had  no  society;  Robinson  Crusoe  himself 
scarcely  experienced  a  more  total  isolation  from  the  world.  For,  al- 
though I  had  brought  with  me  introductions  to  some  respectable  neigh- 
bouring families,  the  distance  to  these  in  a  country  so  impracticable 
was  such  as  to  preclude  any  very  frequent  visits;  so  that  the  only 
civilized  being  with  whom  I  could  exchange  ideas,  was  the  Creole 
overseer,  or  manager  of  the  estate,  compared  with  whom  Man  Friday 
was  perhaps  a  more  intelligent,  and  certainly  a  far  more  amusing  com- 
panion. Never  having  been  out  of  the  island,  and  rarely  beyond  the 
precincts  of  the  property  which  he  superintended,  the  circumscribed 
orbit  of  his  ideas,  incapable  of  ranging  beyond  his  agricultural  pursuits, 
corresponded  accordingly.  But  if  there  was  a  paucity  of  ideas,  he  was 
a  man  of  still  fewer  words ;  and  what  was  another  stumbling-block  to 
our  intercourse,  he  was  moreover  extremely  deaf.  Day  after  day 
would  he  sit  at  the  door  of  the  mansion-house,  which  commanded  a 
view  of  the  works,  with  a  pipe  or  segar  in  his  mouth,  scarcely  ex- 
changing a  word. 

He  had  for  a  mistress,  a  circumstance  of  common  occurrence  in  the 
Colonies,  one  of  the  negresses  of  the  estate,  who  superintended  the 
menage,  and  whose  control  over  the  household  made  her  a  person  of  no 
small  consequence  in  our  little  family.  For  reasons  which  it  would  be 
difficult  to  divine — her  age  verging  on  forty,  and  the  tout  ensemble  of 
her  sable  charms  being  rather  an  antidote  than  excitement  to  any  of 
the  softer  feelings,  particularly  in  a  boy  of  sixteen — he  took  it  into  his 
head  to  imaging  something  equivocal  between  us,  and  occasionally 


DURING    THE    LATE   WAR.  177 

evinced  some  restive  feelings.  This  and  other  circumstances  contri- 
buted to  fill  up  the  measure  of  a  dislike,  verging  to  disgust,  at  the 
restraint  which  I  experienced ;  and  soon  one  sole  idea  took  possession 
of  my  mind,  that  of  emancipating  myself,  bon  gre,  mal  gre,  from  my 
thraldom. 

Having  little  to  expect  from  the  lukewarm  patronage  of  my  friends 
in  Kingston,  on  taking  such  a  step  without  their  knowledge  or  parti- 
cipation, my  thoughts  naturally  recurred  to  that  profession  I  had  so 
recently  quitted,  the  early  bias  for  which  had  never  been  extinguished. 
My  old  predilection  for  the  sea  again  returned  in  full  force,  and  be- 
came the  pivot  on  which  all  my  vague  and  half-digested  plans  now 
turned. 

The  inclination, — (the  original  source  of  which  it  is  by  no  means 
difficult  to  trace  to  the  early  impressions  derived  from  the  all-engross- 
ing theme  of  my  juvenile  days,  the  fame,  nearly  at  its  zenith,  of  the 
British  navy,  and  the  inspiring  aid  of  the  songs  of  Dibdin,  the  airs  of 
which  still  vibrate  on  my  recollection,  and  conjure  up  many  a  delight- 
ful association  of  thought,) —  which  had  so  long  slumbered,  was  in  no 
small  degree  resuscitated  and  nourished  by  the  view  of  the  majestic 
element,  which  occasionally,  in  my  solitary  rambles,  I  caught  a  glimpse 
of  from  some  high  mountain-ridge,  stretching  its  expansive  bosom  in- 
terminable, and  apparently  unruffled,  in  the  distance.  It  would  be 
difficult,  particularly  to  that  very  numerous  class  matter-of-fact  folks, 
(whose  train  of  thought,  and  action,  always  mechanical,  disclaiming 
any  affinity  to  the  intellectual  or  ideal,  comprehend  only  the  tangible, 
with  whom  it  is  naturally  the  fashion  to  sneer  at  the  expression  of  some 
of  the  finest  feelings  of  our  nature,  as  bordering  on  puling  sentiment 
or  Quixotic  romance,)  to  give  an  idea  of  the  emotions  and  illusions 
which  these  occasions  never  failed  to  conjure  up  to  my  youthful  fancy. 
What  visions  floated  before  my  imagination !  The  road  of  adventure, 
leading  perhaps  to  fame  and  fortune,  was  before  me;  and  like  the 
shepherd  in  the  fable,  on  viewing  its  placid  crest,  heedless  of  the  storm, 
dreaming  but  of  smooth  seas  and  zephyr  breezes,  I  longed  once  more 
to  be  ranging  its  boundless  fields. 

The  most  accessible  of  the  acquaintances  before  referred  to,  was  one 
who  dwelt  in  a  neighbouring  valley,  where  he  cultivated  a  small  coffee- 
estate,  of  which  he  was  the  proprietor.  This  gentleman,  whom  I  had 
once  or  twice  met  at  the  militia  musters  of  the  district, — all  the 
whites  of  a  certain  age  being  obliged  to  serve, — and  who  on  these  and 
some  other  occasions  had  shown  me  many  attentions,  and  had  evinced 
much  interest  respecting  me,  had  passed  the  meridian  of  a  life  of  great 
vicissitude  and  adventure,  chiefly  at  sea.  The  narration  of  many 
interesting  circumstances  referring  to  his  voyages  and  hair-breadth 
escapes,  as  may  be  supposed,  were  not  of  a  nature  to  allay  my  predo- 
minant inclination:  to  him  I  finally  confided  my  wishes  and  plans, 
with  which  I  had  the  satisfaction  to  find  his  opinions  so  entirely  to  co- 
incide, that  with  the  kindly  proffer  of  any  assistance  I  might  stand  in 
need  of  in  furthering  my  views,  of  which  the  means  of  transport  for  my- 
self and  baggage  was  the  most  essential,  I  made  up  my  mind,  and 
within  a  few  hours  after  I  was  en  route. 

My  intentions  being  announced  to  my  Creole  messmate,  one  fine 


178  SERVICE   AFLOAT 

morning,  early  mounted,  like  Gil  Bias,,  on  my  mule,  with  two  stout 
negroes  to  carry  my  baggage,  I  sallied  forth,  and  with  the  buoyant 
feelings  and  light-heartedness  of  unreflecting  youth,  like  the  bird 
let  loose  from  its  cage,  bidding  a  final  adieu  to  these  dreary  solitudes, 
reckless  of  the  uncertain  future,  and  without  a  single  intrusive  care  on 
the  score  of  the  reception  I  might  meet  with  from  my  patrons,  to  whom 
I  had  not  the  opportunity  of  previously  communicating  my  movements, 
I  made  the  best  of  my  way  to  Kingston. 

Like  the  hero's — my  equestrian  prototype — my  journey  had  also  its 
adventure ;  for  while  jogging  on,  complacently  absorbed  in  certain 
waking  dreams,  my  progress  was  arrested,  if  not  like  his  by  the 
muzzle  of  a  robber's  musket,  by  some  object  sufficiently  formidable  to 
terrify  my  mule,  a  fine  spirited  animal,  which,  suddenly  darting  to  the 
other  side  of  the  road,  completely  unshipped  me,  and,  leaving  me  sprawl- 
ing in  the  dust,  set  off  in  double-quick  time  in  the  direction  of  the 
city,  from  which  we  were  distant  only  about  three  miles. 

On  my  arrival  in  Kingston,  my  wishes  encountered  no  obstacle ;  a 
requisition  to  my  friends,  limited  solely  to  the  being  put  in  a  way  to 
return  to  England,  was  forthwith  complied  with,  and  in  a  few  days 
I  found  myself  on  board  a  fine  new  ship,  the  Tulloch  Castle,  of 
about  five  hundred  tons  burthen,  nominally  as  second  mate.  This  ar- 
rangement was  made  with  my  participation,  and  in  accordance  with 
the  views  of  returning  to  the  profession  ;  at  the  same  time  that  it 
saved  the  expense  of  passage-money,  it  afforded  me  an  excellent  oppor- 
tunity of  adding  to  my  stock  of  practical  nautical  knowledge. 

This  occurred  a  few  weeks  prior  to  the  commencement  of  hostilities 
in  1803,  and  our  ship  made  one  of  a  fleet  of  fifty  sail,  which  left  Port 
Rcyal  in  the  month  of  July  in  that  year,  under  the  protection  of  the 
Goliath  of  74  guns,  and  the  Calypso  sloop-of-war. 

The  weather  continued  fine,  and  all  was  as  favourable  as  could  be 
wished,  until  we  had  reached  the  parallel  of  the  Bermudas  a  little  to 
the  north-east,  where  we  encountered  a  furious  hurricane.  The  season 
of  these,  so  often  fatal  to  ships  in  this  latitude,  had  now  arrived,  and 
the  squally,  lowering  weather,  the  harbingers  which  generally  precede 
them,  had  prevailed  for  some  days  ;  but  on  the  evening  of  the  eventful 
night  which  ushered  in  the  presiding  demon  of  the  storm,  appearances 
had  become  so  much  more  threatening,  that  by  signal  from  the  Com- 
modore's ship,  the  whole  fleet  were  ordered  to  make  all  the  extraordi- 
nary preparations  usual  on  such  occasions.  Every  ship  through  the 
dim  obscure  of  a  murky  atmosphere,  might  be  seen  reefing,  furling, 
striking  top-gallant  .yards  and  masts,  and  taking  all  the  precautions 
which  prudence,  aided  by  experience,  could  dictate,  and  which  the  mo- 
ment seemed  to  demand.  On  board  our  own  ship,  every  thing  was 
furled,  save  the  main-top-sail,  close  reefed  and  the  main  and  fore  stay- 
sails. The  wind  at  sunset  blew  hard  in  squalls  from  the  south-west, 
and  the  weather  was  thick,  hazy  and  rainy.  About  midnight,  how- 
ever, just  as  the  middle  watch  had  relieved  the  deck,  the  wind  sud- 
denly lulled ;  the  dense  mass  of  dark  lowering  clouds,  which  had  so 
long  obscured  the  face  of  the  heavens,  broke  ;  the  moon,  about  the 
full,  shone  forth  in  all  her  brilliancy,  and  we  began  to  flatter  ourselves 
we  had  for  once  been  agreeably  deceived. 


DURING    THE   LATE    WAR.  179 

While  thus  congratulating  each  other  on  the  favourable  change,  full 
of  pleasing  anticipations  of  the  prosperous  termination  of  the  voyage, 
and  a  speedy  sight  of  the  white  cliffs  of  our  native  land — how  many, 
alas  !  with  thoughts,  perhaps,  thus  occupied,  in  one  short  hour,  were  to 
be  hurried  "  to  that  bourne  from  whence  no  traveller  returns,"  and  to 
close  their  mortal  voyage  in  the  gulf  which  even  then  was  yawning  to 
receive  them — a  little  after  1  A.M.  the  wind,  which  as  I  remarked  be- 
fore was  from  the  southward,  and  had  considerably  moderated,  suddenly 
flew  round  to  the  north-west,  and  with  one  tremendous  gust,  or  rather 
explosion,  which  nothing  could  resist,  tore  the  sails  from  the  yards,  and 
threw  the  ship  with  a  dreadful  crash  on  her  beam-ends  ;  even  the 
furled  sails  were  split  to  tatters,  and  the  close-reefed  main-top-sail 
blown  like  a  rag  out  of  the  bolt-rope :  to  this  we  probably  owed  the 
preservation  of  the  ship  and  our  lives ;  a  stouter  sail  might  have  in- 
volved the  loss  of  the  masts,  or  capsized  the  ship ;  as  it  was,  we  were 
for  some  time  in  a  sufficiently  critical  situation.  The  ship  on  her  side, 
the  crew  hanging  on  by  the  weather  gunwales  and  rigging,  unable  to 
move,  so  as  to  sound  the  pumps,  or  take  any  measure  for  her  preserva- 
tion ;  the  sea,  one  vast  expanse  of  foam,  from  which  a  constant  spray, 
like  driving  sleet,  continually  drifted  over  the  bulwarks,  had  all  the 
appearance  of  a  mountainous  desert  covered  with  snow ;  whilst  those 
portentous  meteors  of  the  storm,  regarded  by  seamen  with  such  su- 
perstitious awe,  gleamed  high  aloft  with  a  lurid  light,  and  seemed  to 
hover  about  the  mast-heads  of  the  vessel.  Never  have  I  since  expe- 
rienced such  a  night ;  it  seemed  as  if  the  reign  of  chaos  was  once  more 
at  hand,  and  the  conflicting  elements  in  the  last  throes  of  a  general 
dissolution. 

The  crisis  at  length  passed,  about  4  A.M.  it  moderated,  and  the  ship 
resumed  gradually  a  more  erect  position.  Eagerly  was  the  first  mo- 
ment seized  to  sound  the  pumps,  having  every  reason  to  fear,  from 
the  shock  and  heavy  straining  received  from  the  first  fury  of  the  blast, 
that  she  had  sprung  a  leak :  this,  however,  was  not  the  case  ;  being 
nearly  a  new  and  remarkably  stout-built  ship,  she  weathered  it  nobly, 
and  suffered  but  little  in  comparison  with  the  greater  part  of  her 
consorts.  Some  of  these  foundered  during  the  night,  and  among  the 
rest  the  ill-fated  Calypso,  which,  run  on  board  by  a  merchant  ship 
called  the  Dale,  went  down  with  a  crew  of  one  hundred  and  twenty 
souls,  all  of  whom  perished. 

Daylight  made  us  better  acquainted  with  the  disastrous  effects  of  the 
tempest.  Out  of  a  fleet  of  fifty  sail  in  company  the  evening  before, 
not  more  than  fifteen  or  twenty  were  now  to  be  seen,  most  of  which 
had  suffered  more  or  less.  Here  was  to  be  seen  a  hulk  with  not  a  spar 
standing ;  there,  another  with  only  her  lower-masts.  The  Commodore's 
ship,  the  Goliath,  of  the  line,  was  seen  in  the  distance,  with  all  her 
top-masts  gone :  she,  among  the  rest,  experienced  a  very  narrow  escape, 
having  been  thrown  on  her  beam-ends  by  the  fatal  puff,  and  rescued 
from  an  imminently  perilous  condition  by  these  giving  way. 

[To  be  continued.] 


180 

MY    FIRST   AFFAIR. 

THE   STORMING    OF    THE    REDOUBT. 

[The  following  fragment,  taken  from  the  Journal  of  a  young  French  Officer, 
will  doubtless  interest  our  readers.  It  is  the  unadorned  recital  of  a  first  affair, 
— that  touchstone  of  the  raw  recruit ;  and  in  clothing  the  narrative  in  an  English 
dress,  we  have  endeavoured  to  adhere  as  faithfully  as  possible  to  the  simplicity 
of  the  original.] 

I  JOINED  my  regiment  on  the  evening  of  the  4th  Sept.  The  Colo- 
nel, whom  I  found  bivouacking  with  the  rest  of  the  officers,  received 
me  at  first  with  the  bluntness  of  an  old  campaigner ;  but,  having  read 
the  letters  of  recommendation  with  which  I  had  been  furnished,  he  ca- 
ressed his  thick  jet-black  mustachios,  and  with  some  effort  to  himself, 
addressed  me  in  a  tone  of  softness  and  conciliation. 

I  was  next  introduced  to  my  Captain,  who  had  just  returned  with  a 
reconnoitring  party.  He  was  a  tall,  sun-burnt  veteran,  of  a  peculiarly 
harsh  and  repulsive  countenance.  He  had  risen  from  the  ranks,  and 
owed  his  elevation,  arid  the  cross  of  honour  with  which  he  was  deco- 
rated, to  his  courage  and  conduct  alone.  A  bullet  that  had  made  its 
way  through  his  lungs  at  the  battle  of  Jena,  had  fortunately  left  no 
other  trace  of  its  ravages,  than  a  cracked  piping  voice,  which  offered  a 
strange  contrast  to  the  gigantic  proportions  of  his  person.  On  learn- 
ing that  I  had  just  quitted  the  Military  College  at  Fontainebleau,  the 
soldier  of  fortune  made  a  wry  face.  "  My  lieutenant/'  said  he,  "  was 
killed  yesterday."  I  understood  the  laconic  sarcasm;  I  was  not 
thought  worthy  to  replace  him.  I  had  a  bitter  retort  at  my  tongue's 
end,  but  prudence  restrained  the  expression  of  my  feelings. 

The  moon  rose  behind  the  redoubt  of  Cheverino,  which  was  within 
cannon-shot  of  our  bivouack.  The  silver  planet  that  evening  appeared 
larger  and  more  fiery  than  usual,  and  for  a  moment  the  redoubt  seemed 
like  a  black  speck  attached  to  her  shining  disk.  An  old  soldier  who 
stood  near  me,  remarked  the  deepened  colour  of  the  orb,  which  com- 
municated to  the  redoubt  the  appearance  of  a  volcano  on  the  point 
of  an  eruption.  "  How  red  she  is!"  cried  old  Moustache;  "that 
famous  old  redoubt  will  not  be  had  a  bargain  ;  'tis  an  infallible  sign." 
I  have  ever  been  inclined  to  superstition,  and  such  a  prediction  at  such 
a  moment,  affected  me  with  an  uncomfortable  sensation.  I  lay  down, 
but  sleep  fled  my  eyelids.  Unable  to  remain  long  in  the  same  posi- 
tion, I  rose  and  took  a  turn,  my  eyes  involuntarily  fixed  on  the  long 
range  of  fires  that  covered  the  heights  on  the  other  side  of  the  village 
of  Cheverino. 

When  my  blood  was  sufficiently  cooled  by  the  sharp  night  air,  I  re- 
turned near  the  fire.  Wrapping  myself  carefully  in  my  cloak,  I  closed 
my  eyes,  hoping  to  sleep  soundly  till  morning.  But  Morpheus  was 
inexorable.  Imperceptibly  my  ideas  assumed  a  mournful  hue.  A 
hundred  thousand  men  covered  the  plain  which  served  for  my  hard 
couch :  comrade  had  fought  beside  comrade  on  many  a  glorious  day ; 
friend  had  tried  friend  in  the  hour  of  need ;  and  dangers  shared  had 
attached  more  closely  than  years  of  ordinary  fellowship.  But  I  stood 
alone  amongst  this  vast  crowd  ;  no  splendid  recollections  signalized  my 


MY    FIRST    AFFAIR.  181 

name ;  no  record  of  past  achievement  illustrated  my  maiden  sword  : 
amongst  these  warriors  grown  grey  under  the  harness  of  battle,  I  could 
not  claim  a  single  friend.  Another  thought  came  across  me.  I  re- 
flected that  should  I  be  wounded,  I  should  be  thrown  into  an  hospital, 
amidst  heaps  of  mangled  sufferers,  abandoned  to  the  carelessness  of  ig- 
norant unfeeling  surgeons.  I  thought  of  thee,  too,  Eliza  !  of  the  pangs 
that  would  rend  thy  heart,  couldst  thou  but  see  the  cold  barbarity  of 
the  operator,  hacking,  and  hewing,  and  mutilating  the  frame  on  which 
thy  looks  so  often  hung  with  fondness  !  My  heart  beat  quick,  and 
mechanically  I  arranged  a  silk  handkerchief  and  a  pocket-book,  so  as 
to  form  a  sort  of  cuirass  for  my  breast.  Overpowered  with  fatigue,  I 
fell  into  an  uneasy  dose,  and  at  each  moment  some  sinister  idea  would 
visit  my  dreams,  and  awaken  me  with  a  sudden  start.  Fatigue  at 
length  prevailed,  and  the  drums  beating  the  reveillez,  roused  me  from 
a  sound  sleep.  We  were  ranged  in  order  of  battle  ;  the  roll  was  called, 
the  arms  were  piled,  and  to  all  appearance  our  tranquillity  was  des- 
tined to  remain  undisturbed  for  that  day. 

Towards  three  o'clock  an  aide-de-camp  arrived  with  an  order.  We 
were  immediately  under  arms.  Our  skirmishers  advanced  into  the 
plain,  whilst  we  slowly  followed;  and  before  twenty  minutes  had 
elapsed,  we  could  discern  the  Russian  outposts  falling  back  upon  the 
redoubt. 

We  were  flanked  by  a  corps  of  artillery  on  the  right,  and  by  another 
on  the  left,  both  of  which  were  considerably  in  advance  of  us,  and  kept 
up  a  smart  fire  against  the  enemy.  The  latter  returned  the  compli- 
ment in  their  best  style,  and  the  redoubt  of  Cheverino  soon  disappeared 
from  our  view  amidst  clouds  of  smoke. 

Our  regiment  was  sheltered  by  a  rising  ground  from  the  fire  of  the 
Russians.  They  seldom  favoured  us  with  their  shot,  (which  was  re- 
served almost  exclusively  for  our  artillery,)  and  when  they  did,  it 
passed  inoffensively  over  our  heads,  or  at  most,  sent  us  a  sprinkling 
of  dust  and  gravel. 

As  soon  as  the  order  to  march  had  been  given,  the  Captain  of  my 
company  fixed  his  eyes  on  me,  with  a  degree  of  attention  that  compell- 
ed me  to  twirl  my  newly-fledged  mustachios  in  my  finger  and  thumb, 
with  as  careless  and  soldier-like  an  air  as  I  could  possibly  assume.  I 
may  affirm  with  truth,  that  the  sole  fear  which  I  experienced  arose 
from  an  anxious  dread  lest  my  comrades  should  imagine  that  I  was 
afraid ;  and  besides,  the  inoffensive  bullets  of  the  enemy  contributed 
not  a  little  to  sustain  the  heroic  equilibrium  of  my  mind.  Self-love 
played  its  part,  and  whispered  to  me  that  I  was  really  exposed  to  im- 
minent peril.  Was  I  not  actually  under  the  tire  of  a  battery  ?  It  was 
quite  delightful  to  occupy  the  post  of  danger  and  of  honour,  and  yet  to 
feel  so  much  at  ease,  so  totally  undisturbed  by  those  villainous  bullets ! 
And  then,  with  what  triumph  I  should  tell  the  glorious  tale  next  win- 
ter in  the  crowded  saloons  of  the  enchanting  Madame  Saint  Luxan  ! 
How  would  provincial  beaux  and  Parisian  badauds  sink  into  insignifi- 
cance before  the  hero  of  Cheverino !  How  would  sympathizing  blondes 
and  lively  brunettes  shudder  at  the  fearful  story  of  siege  and  breach, 
whilst  many  a  bright  eye  would  beam  with  admiration  of  the  young 
soldier  modestly  insisting  that  such  feats  as  his  were  by  no  means  un- 
paralleled ! 


182  MY    FIRST   AFFAIR. 

The  Colonel,  riding  in  front  of  the  regiment,  passed  by  my  company, 
and  addressing  himself  to  me, — "  You  are  likely  to  have  sharp  work," 
said  he,  "  for  your  first  affair."  My  reply  was  a  martial  smile,  which 
I  endeavoured  to  render  more  effective,  by  ostentatiously  brushing  my 
coat  sleeve,  which  had  been  spattered  with  a  little  dirt  by  a  ball  that 
had  struck  the  ground  at  the  distance  of  about  twenty  paces  from  our 
line.  The  Russians,  however,  perceived  the  ill-success  of  their  mus- 
ketry, in  place  of  which  they  substituted  howitzers,  that  soon  did  con- 
siderable execution  in  the  hollow  in  which  we  were  posted.  The 
bursting  of  a  shell  at  some  little  distance  carried  off  my  chako,  and 
killed  a  serjeant  close  by  my  side. 

"  I  congratulate  you,"  said  my  hard-featured  Captain,  as  I  picked  up 
my  chako ;  tf  you  and  fortune  are  quit  for  this  day  at  least."  I  was 
aware  of  the  superstition  common  among  military  men,  and  which 
holds  that  "  non  bis  in  idem,"  is  an  axiom  as  infallible  on  the  field  of 
battle  as  in  a  court  of  law.  Replacing  my  chako  with  an  air  of  un- 
daunted gaiety, — "  Par  Dleu  /"  said  I,  "  that  is  what  I  call  a  most 
uncouth  way  of  teaching  a  salute."  The  apropos  of  the  circumstance 
enabled  the  sorry  jest  to  pass.  My  Captain  again  offered  me  his  felici- 
tations :  "  This  evening,"  said  he,  "  you  will  command  a  company.  I 
have  a  presentiment  that  my  bed  is  prepared :  I  have  always  been 
wounded  when  the  officer  next  me  has  had  a  narrow  escape ;  and," 
added  he  in  a  lower  tone,  as  if  ashamed  of  his  superstitious  forebodings, 
"  on  such  occasions,  the  name  of  my  lieutenant  always  began  with 
a  P." 

Here  I  thought  it  necessary  to  assume  the  incredulous  air  of  an 
esprit  fort,  though  in  reality  struck  with  the  sinister  presage,  that 
might  have  made  an  impression  on  a  better  and  an  older  soldier  than 
myself.  Conscript  as  I  was,  I  felt  the  necessity  of  dissembling  my 
sentiments ;  I  felt  that  I  must  appear  callous  to  the  weakness  of  hu- 
manity, and  stoically  insensible  to  danger. 

At  the  expiration  of  another  half  hour,  the  enemy's  fire  had  percep- 
tibly diminished,  and  quitting  the  retreat  which  had  sheltered  us,  we 
then  marched  upon  the  redoubt.  We  were  welcomed  by  several  dis- 
charges of  musketry,  which  however  did  us  no  considerable  mischief. 
The  whistling  of  the  balls  caused  me  some  surprise,  and  induced  me 
now  and  then  to  turn  my  head,  at  the  risk  of  exciting  the  jokes  of  my 
comrades,  who  were  more  familiarized  with  the  sound.  "  After  all," 
repeated  I  to  myself,  "  a  battle  is  not  so  terrible  an  affair  as  I  had 
imagined." 

We  advanced  in  double-quick  time,  covered  by  our  skirmishers. 
On  a  sudden  the  Russians  gave  three  huzzas — three  distinct  huzzas, 
and  then  awaited  our  charge  in  silence,  and  without  drawing  a  trigger. 
"  That  dead  stillness,"  said  my  Captain,  "  bodes  us  no  good."  I 
thought  so  too,  and  could  not  help  internally  contrasting  the  tumultu- 
ous clamour  of  our  troops  with  the  imposing  and  awful  silence  of  the 
enemy. 

We  arrived  at  the  base  of  the  redoubt,  the  mounds  and  palisades  of 
which  had  been  levelled  by  our  fire.  Our  soldiers  rushed  into  the 
gaping  ruins  with  cries  of  "  Vive  I'Empereur  !"  Considering  that  they 
had  already  shouted  so  loudly,  I  was  really  astonished  that  their 
throats  could  hold  out  longer.  Never  shall  I  forget  the  spectacle 


MY    FIRST   AFFAIR.  183 

which  I  witnessed  at  that  moment.  The  volume  of  smoke  had  gradu- 
ally risen,  and  remained  suspended  like  a  canopy  at  an  elevation  of 
twenty  feet  above  the  redoubt.  Through  an  atmosphere  of  thin  bluish 
vapour,  we  could  perceive  the  Russian  grenadiers,  motionless  like 
statues  behind  their  half- destroyed  parapet,  each  soldier  with  musket 
in  readiness,  his  left  eye  fixed  upon  his  advancing  foe,  his  right  con- 
cealed by  the  barrel  of  his  piece.  At  one  of  the  bastions,  at  a  few 
paces'  distance,  stood  an  artillery-man  by  his  gun,  with  a  lighted 
match.  An  involuntary  chill  crept  through  my  veins  ;  I  felt  as  if  my 
last  hour  was  at  hand.  "  Now  the  dance  begins,"  cried  my  Captain; 
— "  Good  night !" — they  were  the  last  words  he  ever  spoke. 

The  drums  beat :  in  an  instant  every  musket  was  levelled  and  pre- 
sented. I  closed  my  eyes :  a  horrible  crash  was  heard,  succeeded  by 
the  cries  and  groans  of  the  wounded.  I  looked  around,  surprised  to 
find  myself  still  an  inhabitant  of  this  world.  The  redoubt  was  again 
enveloped  in  smoke.  At  my  feet  lay  the  dying  and  the  dead.  Among 
the  latter  was  my  poor  Captain ;  his  head  was  shattered  by  a  musket- 
ball,  and  his  life-blood  plentifully  besmeared  me.  Of  my  whole  com- 
pany but  six  men,  besides  myself,  remained  standing. 

A  moment  of  stupor  succeeded  this  fearful  carnage.  The  Colonel, 
fixing  his  chako  on  the  point  of  his  sword,  was  the  first  to  scale  the 
parapet,  with  shouts  of  "  Vive  I'Empereur  !"  All  that  survived  of 
the  regiment  instantly  followed  him.  I  have  no  precise  recollection  of 
what  ensued.  I  only  know  that  we  rushed  into  the  redoubt  pell-mell, 
and  fought  hand  to  hand  in  the  midst  of  a  thick  smoke  that  prevented 
us  from  distinguishing  the  slightest  object.  I  struck  at  random,  but 
yet  struck  home,  for  my  sabre  was  covered  with  blood.  At  last  a  shout 
of  victory  reached  my  ear,  and,  as  the  smoke  gradually  dispersed,  I 
could  perceive  the  bleeding  torses  with  which  the  ground  was 
thickly  strewed,  and  the  cannon  encumbered  with  heaps  of  the  slain. 
About  two  hundred  men  in  French  uniforms  were  grouped  together  in 
disorder ;  some  loading  their  muskets,  whilst  others  wiped  the  clotted 
gore  from  their  bayonets.  Eleven  Russian  prisoners  graced  the  tri- 
umph of  the  victors. 

The  Colonel  was  stretched  bleeding  upon  a  shattered  ammunition 
chest.  A  few  soldiers  eagerly  surrounded  him,  and  offered  their  as- 
sistance. As  I  approached,  "  Where  is  the  senior  captain  ?"  asked  he 
of  a  serjeant  who  supported  his  head.  A  shrug  was  the  significant 

reply.     "  The  senior  lieutenant  then  1"     "  Here  is  Monsieur  P , 

who  joined  yesterday  from  Fontainebleau,"  said  the  serjeant,  in  a  tone 
of  the  most  enviable  sang-froid.  The  Colonel  smiled  bitterly,  and 
turning  towards  me — "  You  are  in  command  of  the  place,"  said  he ; 
"  fortify  the  breach  with  these  waggons,  for  the  enemy  is  in  force ; 

but  Gen.  C will  support  us."     "  Colonel,"  replied  I,  with  a  look 

of  anxiety,  "  you  are  severely  wounded." — "  Tut,  man  !  what  of  that  ? 
The  redoubt  is  taken  ! " 


184 


THE    LATE    REAR-ADMIRAL    CHAMBERS. 

THE  death  of  Rear-Admiral  Chambers,  recorded  in  our  November 
number,  accompanied  with  an  outline  of  his  public  career,  has  elicited 
the  following  sketch  of  his  private  character  from  an  individual  who 
well  knew  and  appreciated  its  worth. 

The  subject  of  this  Memoir  (whose  name  stood  second  on  the  retired 
or  superannuated  list  of  the  Royal  Navy)  was  the  fifth  son  of  the 
late  Thomas  Chambers,  Esq.  of  Studley,  in  Warwickshire,  at  which 
place,  and  at  Tanworth  in  the  same  county,  his  family  have  resided  on 
their  own  estates  ever  since  the  reign  of  Edward  the  Third.  Towards 
the  close  of  the  last  century,  the  Admiral  went  to  reside  at  Rugby,  for 
the  education  of  his  sons,  at  the  celebrated  Grammar  School  in  that 
town,  founded  in  1567,  and  became  so  much  attached  to  the  neigh- 
bourhood, that  he  never  afterwards  changed  his  residence.  The  trus- 
tees, masters,  and  pupils,  of  that  celebrated  seat  of  learning,  indivi- 
dually entertained  for  him  the  highest  respect.  Many  of  the  latter, 
connected  with  some  of  the  first  families  in  the  kingdom,  will,  on  per- 
using this,  call  to  their  recollection,  among  other  acts  of  kindness 
received  at  his  hands,  the  immense  piles  of  toast  and  other  shot  from  the 
locker  they  have  assisted  at  the  demolition  of,  when  drinking  tea  at  the 
Admiral's ;  who,  during  the  well-supported  action,  was  always  as  much 
gratified  as  the  besieging  party,  and  took  special  care  there  should  be 
no  want  of  ammunition.  If  he  accidentally  saw  any  of  the  boys,  in 
their  perambulations,  who  chanced  to  be  "  out  of  bounds,"  going  in  a 
direction  where  he  knew  they  would  fall  in  with  one  of  the  masters, 
he  hailed  them  in  these  words :  ' (  Young  gentlemen,  there 's  danger 
a-head  ;  if  you  take  my  advice,  you  will 'bout  ship."  This  friendly 
hint  was  always  attended  to :  in  short,  were  the  anecdotes,  illustrative 
of  the  undeviating  kindness  of  his  heart,  recorded,  they  would  fill  a 
volume  of  no  ordinary  size.  Whether  we  behold  him  "  walking  the 
quarter-deck,"  or  seated  by  his  own  fire-side,  he  was  equally  an  honour 
to  the  public  service,  and  to  private  society.  His  domesticated  habits, 
cheerful  disposition,  and  delightful  temper,  eminently  qualified  him 
for  the  latter. 

To  the  Navy  he  was  devotedly  attached,  always  taking  a  most  lively 
interest  in  whatever  appertained  to  that  service,  frequently  introducing 
nautical  phraseology  in  his  conversation  and  epistolary  correspondence; 
of  the  latter,  the  following  is  a  verbatim  specimen,  copied  from  a  letter 
addressed  to  his  biographer,  the  last  time  he  ever  left  Rugby. 

"  My  dear . — I  propose  spending  a  few  days  with  you  on  my  return 

home,  and  shall  get  under  weigh,  (wind  and  weather  permitting,)  at  10  A.M.  on 
Thursday.  When  I  have  paid  my  visit  to  you,  shall  bring  myself  to  an  anchor 
in  Rugby  harbour  for  the  winter.  Have  had  an  attack  of  gout  in  my  starboard 
hand,  which  is,  thank  God,  better.  Give  my  love  to  Madam.  Long  may  you 
live,  and  merry  be  your  heart,  says 

"  Your  affectionate, 

"  WM.  CHAMBERS." 

It  is  not  very  uncommon  to  find  characters  on  monuments  which 
never  existed  elsewhere,  but  in  no  instance  was  the  benefit  of  the  old 


THE    LATE    REAR-ADMIRAL    CHAMBERS.  185 

adage,  "  de  mortuis  nil  nisi  bonum"  less  required  than  in  the  present. 
His  unsophisticated  manners,  affability,  and  never-failing  good-humour, 
rendered  him  a  favourite  at  first  sight,  and  a  valued  friend  on  more 
intimate  acquaintance.  No  person  possessed  more  genuine  charity  in 
every  acceptation  of  the  term,  insomuch  that  the  voice  of  scandal  was 
never  tolerated  in  his  presence.  The  natural  smile  of  benevolence 
which  constantly  beamed  on  his  fine  countenance,  was  the  correct  in- 
dex of  his  heart.  In  politics,  he  was  loyalty  itself;  and  on  the  an- 
nouncement of  any  great  national  measure,  frequently  observed,  that 
!e  those  at  the  helm  ought  to  be  the  best  judges  how  to  steer  the  vessel 
of  the  state."  In  person  he  was,  in  every  respect,  a  noble  figure  of  a 
man.  To  a  fine  understanding  was  superadded  a  peculiar  firmness  of 
character,  and  having  once  "  shaped  his  course,"  (which  he  never  did 
without  strict  reference  to  "bearings  and  distances,"  &c.)  he  did  not 
change  it  on  every  trivial  occasion  ;  in  other  words,  he  supported  his 
opinions  with  that  steadiness,  which  the  deliberate  formation  of  them, 
and  soundness  of  his  judgment  justified. 

He  was  well  known  to  most  of  the  leading  families  of  the  county, 
with  many  of  whom  he  was  on  the  most  intimate  terms  of  friendship. 
The  late  Marquis  of  Hertford  evinced  his  particular  regard  for  him  on 
various  occasions.  The  Admiral's  house  was  famed  for  good  old  Eng- 
lish hospitality,  which  was  almost  daily  shared  by  relations  or  friends ; 
and  although  he  never  felt  so  happy  as  when  surrounded  by  them,  yet 
his  habits  of  regularity  were  quite  proverbial,  and  his  movements  like 
clock-work.  In  some  of  the  letters  of  condolence,  received  by  the 
writer  of  this  memoir  on  the  demise  of  this  worthy  man,  the  following 
passages  occur ;  those  shaped  in  nautical  terms,  were  written  by  per- 
sons unconnected  with  the  sea.  "  His  disposition  and  temper  were 
heavenly." — "  We  cannot  sail  by  a  more  desirable  chart  than  that 
adopted  by  the  good  old  Admiral." — "  He  descended  to  the  tomb,  re- 
spected and  lamented  by  all :  I  almost  fear  he  was  the  last  of  a  pecu- 
liar species  of  men.  There  was  a  fine  dash  of  the  seaman  playing  about 
every  thing  he  did ;  an  honest  frankness  which  no  landsman  ever  at- 
tained." 

Nothing  could  possibly  exceed  the  affectionate  and  unceasing  atten- 
tions of  his  kind  Rugby  friends,  whose  anxious  solicitude  to  contribute 
to  his  comfort  on  all  occasions  even  anticipated  his  wishes ;  he  dwelt 
particularly  on  these  inestimable  blessings,  whilst  on  his  death-bed. 
The  following  circumstance  added  greatly  to  the  happiness  of  his  de- 
clining years.  In  1827,  on  his  son  (the  Rev.  William  Chambers,  B.D.) 
resigning  the  Curacy  of  Rugby,  Avhich  he  had  held  for  twelve  years, 
to  take  possession  of  his  Vicarage  at  Ashbury,  Berks,  his  Parishioners 
presented  him  with  some  elegant  massive  plate,  as  a  token  of  their 
esteem,  accompanied  by  the  unanimous  thanks  of  the  Parish  expressed 
in  the  handsomest  terms,  for  the  faithful,  zealous,  and  conscientious 
discharge  of  the  sacred  functions  of  his  office,  during  the  above  period ; 
this  public  testimony  of  approbation  was  a  source  of  heartfelt  grati- 
fication to  the  Admiral. 

It  is  somewhat  singular  that  the  illness  which  terminated  his  mortal 
career,  resulted  in  a  great  measure  from  the  deep  interest  he  retained 
to  the  last  in  Naval  affairs ;  for  being  anxious  to  see  other  particulars 

U.  S.  JOURN.  No.  14.  FEB.  1830.  o 


186       THE  LATE  REAR- ADMIRAL  CHAMBERS. 

respecting  Capt.  Dickinson's  Court  Martial,  than  those  detailed  in  his 
own  paper,  he  left  his  fire-side  on  a  chilly  day,  and  repaired  to  the 
news  room  for  that  purpose,  the  consequence  was  a  severe  cold,  attend- 
ed with  internal  inflammation. 

On  his  death-bed  he  afforded  a  most  impressive  example  of  patience 
and  fortitude,  tempered  with  pious  resignation,  and  although  his  suf- 
ferings, for  some  days  preceding  his  dissolution,  were  not  only  intense 
but  incessant,  a  murmur  never  escaped  his  lips  ;  on  the  contrary,  he 
breathed  no  sentiments  but  those  of  thankfulness,  for  the  many  bless- 
ings he 'had  so  long  enjoyed,  and  offered  up  to  Heaven  his  fervent 
prayers  for  the  happiness  of  those  who  had  contributed  towards  them, 
not  forgetting  his  domestics,  they  having  all  lived  long  in  his  service. 
He  was  sensible  to  the  last,  and  his  frame  of  mind  was  in  that  tranquil 
state  which  nothing  but  a  well-spent  life,  grafted  on  the  firm  hope 
of  salvation,  could  produce.  He  died  as  full  of  "  faith  and  good  works" 
as  of  years ;  while  the  whole  tenour  of  his  life  has  left  every  just 
ground  for  belief  that  when  "  the  last  trumpet  shall  sound," 

"  In  Heaven's  great  log-book  it  will  then  appear, 
That  this  good  sailor  kept  his  reckoning  clear." 

His  death  was  viewed  at  Rugby  as  a  public  calamity,  not  more  by 
the  rich  than  the  poor ;  to  the  latter  his  purse  and  friendly  advice 
were  always  open,  and  so  great  was  the  respect  paid  to  his  memory, 
that  the  appearance  of  the  principal  inhabitants  of  that  respectable 
town  more  resembled  a  period  of  general  mourning,  than  that  of  the 
loss  of  a  private  friend.  His  religious  principles  were  particularly 
sound  and  orthodox,  for  he  was  a  practically  pious  man.  He  married 
a  daughter  of  the  late  Capt.  Mead,  R.N.  by  whom  he  had  four  chil- 
dren :  her  amiable  qualities  rendered  her  worthy,  in  every  respect,  of 
so  good  a  husband.  She  died  in  1815.  His  eldest  son  (alluded  to  be- 
fore) and  only  daughter  survive  him  ;  the  latter  married  George  Harris, 
Esq.  of  Rugby,  a  man  most  highly  esteemed  and  respected. 

So  fine  a  character  as  the  late  Admiral  Chambers  deserves  a  much 
more  able  pen  than  that  employed  on  the  present  occasion,  which 
courts  no  language  but  what  conveys  the  honest  truth;  and  as  the 
picture  here  sketched  will  meet  the  eye  of  many  who  were  well  ac- 
quainted with  the  original,  the  artist  (although  discharging  a  debt  of 
gratitude,  amounting  to  filial  obligations,  in  rendering  this  just  tribute) 
appeals  to  them  whether  it  be  in  the  slightest  degree  too  highly  co- 
loured. 


187 


AFRICAN    TRAVELLERS 

WE  may  appear  somewhat  inconsistent,  with  reference  to  our  former  dis- 
claimer, in  recurring  to  this  topic,  though,  in  fact,  the  following  thoughts  were 
put  together  previous  to  the  publication  of  Gen.  Sir  Rufane  Donkin's  letter  to 
the  Editor  of  the  Quarterly  Review.  That  lively  sally,  however,  from  the  acute 
pen  of  the  author  of  "  The  Dissertation,"  and  the  note  of  the  Reviewer  in 
reply,  (see  Quarterly  Review,  No.  82.)  having  revived  and  increased  the  interest 
of  the  subject,  we  are  tempted  to  relax  from  our  original  vow  of  abstinence, 
though  still  professing  complete  neutrality. 

It  were  an  unworthy  course  to  make  sport  of  the  errors  or  wanderings  of  real 
travellers,  who  peril  life  and  honour  in  the  cause  of  discovery ;  but  the  cavils 
and  disputes  of  speculators  in  geography,  their  theories  and  conceits  may  be, 
and  certainly  are,  fair  game.  And  it  is  not  a  little  curious  to  remark  the  ease  and 
confidence  with  which  the  home-settlers  of  these  matters  dispose  of  rivers,  lakes, 
and  deserts,  their  "  supposed  courses"  and  their  "  terminations/'  in  comparison 
with  the  diffidence  and  caution  observed  by  all  those  who,  from  actual  know- 
ledge and  experience,  feel  the  extreme  difficulty  of  coming  to  a  just  conclusion 
on  anything  but  that  which  they  see  and  know. 

We  shall  not,  therefore,  follow  these  examples,  nor  give  a  dissertation  upon  a 
"  Dissertation/'  but  leave  the  great  controversy  to  the  high  contending  parties ; 
waiting  patiently  till  time  and  the  enterprise  of  future  travellers  shall  have  put 
the  question  beyond  a  doubt,  then,  and  not  till  then,  shall  we  give  license  to  our 
belief.  The  smart  skirmish  that  has  arisen  between  these  two  able  tacticians  on 
secondary  points  (which  not  unfrequently  supersede  the  main  argument),  may 
still  perhaps  afford  some  amusement  to  the  Readers  of  the  United  Service  Jour- 
nal, and  consists  in  the  gallant  General's  charge  on  the  flanks  of  the  Reviewer's 
criticism  ;  one,  at  least,  of  which  we  think  he  has  succeeded  in  turning,  if  not 
in  demolishing  altogether,  and  that  is,  the  charge  of  mis-quoting  and  suppressing 
Beechey's  description  of  the  Northern  Coast  of  Africa,  and  the  country  of  the 
Syrtis,  from  parts  of  his  book,*  which  would,  if  fairly  given,  have  supported  in 
a  great  measure  Sir  R.  Donkin's  suppositions  as  to  the  "  termination"  of  this 
great  unfound  river.  The  Reviewer,  on  the  other  hand,  who  is  perhaps  not 
only  a  general  in  his  own  corps,  but  a  field-marshal,  or  commander-in-chief, 
takes  a  lofty  position,  and  certainly  returns  a  heavy  fire  upon  the  gallant  and 
undaunted  author  of  "  The  Letter.'* 

We  are  the  last  persons  in  the  world  to  think  or  speak  lightly  of  the  impor- 
tance of  geographical  discovery,  or  the  services  of  those  who  have  devoted  them- 
selves to  it ;  on  the  contrary,  none  can  feel  more  deeply  interested  in  what  has 
been  already  done  by  European  travellers,  or  more  anxious  about  what  remains 
to  do.  With  these  feelings,  the  following  remarks  and  reflections  were  written, 
and  with  these  impressions  we  submit  them  to  the  Reader. 

Major-Gen.  Sir  Rufane  Dorikin  has  recently  published  "  A  Dissertation  on 
the  Course  and  probable  Termination  of  the  Niger,"  the  result,  as  he  says  in  a 
neat  dedication  to  the  Duke  of  Wellington,  "  of  those  leisure  hours  which  his 
Grace's  triumphs  have  imposed  upon  the  British  soldier." 

This  intelligent  officer,  who  was  for  a  time  acting-Governor  at  the  Cape,  dur- 
ing the  absence  of  Lord  Charles"  Somerset,  is  evidently  well-informed  and  expe- 
rienced in  the  subject  on  which,  con  amore,  he  writes ;  and  a  long  residence  in 
Africa,  with  those  habits  of  observation  which  alone  enable  travellers  to  turn 
their  travels  to  good  account,  renders  his  book  on  this  interesting  and  intricate 
subject  well  worthy  of  attention. 

Without  pretending  to  decide  a  question  that  has  so  long  baffled  the  inquiries 

*  A  voyage  to  the  Pacific  and  Behring  Strait,  for  the  purpose  of  discovery  and  of  co- 
operating with  the  Expeditions  under  Capts.  Parry  and  Franklin,  performed  in  H.M.  S. 
Blossom,  irt  the  Years  1825,  26,  27,  and  28.  By  Capt.  F.  W.  Beechey,  R.N.  F.R.S. 
In  one  volume,  with  numerous  plates. 

o  2 


188  AFRICAN    TRAVELLERS. 

of  the  learned,  we  think  our  readers  who  have  not  seen  this  spirited  and  ingeni- 
ous Dissertation,  may  be  well  pleased  to  have  a  brief  notice  of  the  very  able 
mariner  in  which  Sir  R.D.  has  treated  it.  The  labours  of  Park  and  Laing,  of 
Denham  and  Clapperton,  have  made  us  of  the  present  day  well  acquainted  with 
the  difficulties  of  tracing  this  far-famed  river,  and  of  reconciling  the  facts  ob- 
served by  those  enterprising  and  now  lamented  travellers,  with  the  accounts  of 
Greek  and  Egyptian  writers  on  the  subject :  Sir  Rufane's  first  object  seems  to 
be  to  show,  that  in  those  early  histories,  we  should  begin  by  reading  a  river  for 
the  river,  which  would  at  once  go  far  to  remove  the  contradiction  which  appears 
in  the  accounts  of  those  travellers,  who  declare  that  they  have  seen  this  Niger,  or 
the  great  river  supposed  to  be  so  called,  running  in  Different,  and  even  in  ad- 
verse directions ;  and  his  theory  will  be  best  understood  by  quoting  his  own 
plain  and  perspicuous  language — 

"  The  desideratum  or  postulatum,  as  I  understand  the  matter,  has  been  to  find  a 
large  river  in  Central  Africa,  which  Ptolemy  and  other  ancient  writers  called  the  Niger, 
and  which  we  still  call  so  ;  which  shall  either  flow  into  the  Atlantic,  or  into  some  great 
central  lake  or  marsh  ;  or  lose  itself  in  central  sands  ;  or  unite  itself  with  the  Egyptian 
Nile  ;  or  empty  itself  by  some  other  channel  into  the  Mediterranean  sea.  These  appear 
to  be  all  the  modes  by  which  a  great  river  known  to  exist  in  Central  Africa,  but  whose 
termination  is  unknown,  can  be  disposed  of. 

"  In  the  course  of  my  researches  I  soon  suspected  that  the  reason  why  geographers 
and  travellers  had  hitherto  failed  in  settling  this  question  was,  because  they  had  made 
a  verbal  or  grammatical  error,  in  stating  the  object  of  their  search  to  be  the  Niger,  or 
rather  the  Nile  (for  by  the  name  of  Nile,  the  great  river  of  Central  Africa  has  been  ge- 
nerally known  to  ancient  and  Arabian  writers,)  instead  of  searching  for  A  Nile — or  A 
Niger ;  and  they  have  thus  been  endeavouring  to  unite  and  reconcile  in  some  one  individual 
river,  qualities  and  circumstances  which  have  been  predicated  of  several  distinct  rivers, 
and  they  have  thus  confounded  a  specific  appellative  with  a  generic  and  descriptive  one. 

"  My  attempt  in  the  following  pages  will  be  to  reconcile  all  or  most  of  what  has  been 
said  of  the  Niger  from  the  times  of  Herodotus  and  Ptolemy,  down  to  those  of  Park  and 
Denham,  notwithstanding  the  many  apparent  contradictions  we  find  in  it ;  and  this  1 
hope  to  do,  partly  by  the  rectification  and  proper  use  of  a  grammatical  particle,  in  follow- 
ing out  the  solution  of  the  geographical  problem  before  us. 

"  My  research,  then,  shall  be  directed  to  the  discovery,  not  of  the  Niger  or  Nile  hitherto 
demanded,  which  shall  unite  in  itself  all  that  has  been  related  by  ancient  and  Arabian 
writers,  and  by  natives,  of  several  Niles  watering  North  and  Central  Africa, — but  to 
show  that  all,  or  most  of  what  has  been  said  or  written,  if  applied  to  a  Nile,  that  is,  to 
some  Nile  or  great  river,  and  not  to  any  specific  one — will  be  reconcileable  with  fact  and 
reason." 

Having  accordingly  constructed  a  map  of  Central  Africa  from  the  original  text 
of  Ptolemy,  our  gallant  Author  proceeds  to  compare  it  with  other  writers,  parti- 
cularly with  the  chart  of  Clapperton  and  Denham,  and  as  it  appears  to  us,  esta- 
blishes the  utter  improbability  of  the  Niger  of  Park  making  a  double,  as  has 
been  strongly  urged  by  some  speculators  in  African  geography,  towards  the 
southern  coast ;  he  shows  also  with  much  ingenuity  the  great  probability  that 
exists,  that  the  final  termination  of  this  many-headed  river  did  once  run  nearly 
parallel  with  the  Nile  of  Egypt,  emptying  into  the  Mediterranean  Sea,  eight  or 
ten  degrees  to  the  westward  of  its  no  less  celebrated  sister  stream. 

Sir  R.  D.  seems  to  clinch  his  own  theory  on  this  point  (to  use  a  familiar  but 
suitable  term)  by  what  he  finds  in  Denham's  Account  of  his  Journey  to  the 
Eastern  shores  of  the  Tschad,  where  he  thought  he  could  trace  the  bed  of  a  river; 
a  no  secco,  as  Sir  R.  calls  it,  and  which  was  confirmed  to  him  by  Sheik  Hamed, 
who  said  that  formerly  the  Tschad  did  run,  at. some  seasons,  into  the  Wad  el 
Ghazel. 

It  certainly  does  appear  that  Niger  is  a  term  applied  by  the  aborigines  of  those 
countries  to  a  black  or  deep  river;  as  Wangara  is  a  general  expression,  denoting 
all  or  any  of  those  parts  where  gold  is  or  has  been  found. 

The  General  dwells  much  on  a  river  which  he  calls  the  Nile,  or  great  river,  of 


AFRICAN    TRAVELLERS.  189 

Bornou,  into  which  his  theory  resolves  all  the  great  rivers  from  the  west  and 
south,  however  named  by  different  writers  of  different  ages  and  countries — and 
to  which  he  gives  eventually  a  northerly  direction,  parallel  as  before  stated,  with 
the  great  Egyptian  Nile.  Our  author,  however,  does  not  seem  to  believe  that 
this  stream  is  now  to  be  found,  but  that  the  course  of  time  has  been  too  much 
for  the  course  of  the  river,  and  that  the  great  accumulation  of  sand  has  really 
choked  up  and  obliterated  its  path,  converting  it  into  a  swamp  or  quicksand. 
In  support  of  this  reasoning  he  says — 

"  But  reasoning  from  analogy,  and  still  more  from  what  we  know  of  the  nature  of  the 
country  of  which  I  am  now  more  immediately  speaking,  I  have  no  doubt  but  that,  in 
very  remote  ages,  the  united  Niger  and  Geir,  that  is  the  Nile  of  Bornou,  did  roll  into 
the  sea,  in  all  the  magnificence  of  a  mighty  stream,  forming  a  grand  estuary  or  harbour 
where  now  the  quicksand  is  :  indeed,  we  find  in  Herodotus  vestiges  of  a  tradition  that 
the  Niger,  or  Nile,  as  he  calls  it,  made  its  way  to  the  Mediterranean ;  although  the 
historian  infers,  or  some  of  his  transcribers  have  made  him  infer,  that  it  does  so  through 
the  Nile  of  Egypt.  The  question  to  be  solved  under  such  a  supposition  is,  what  revo- 
lution in  nature  can  have  produced  so  great  a  change  in  the  face  of  the  country,  as  to 
cause  a  great  river  which  once  flowed  into  the  sea,  to  stop  short  in  a  desert  of  sand.  I 
will  submit  the  following  facts  and  my  reflections  on  them,  as  the  solution  of  this  ques- 
tion. 

"  We  know  from  all  recent,  as  well  as  from  some  of  the  older  modern  travellers, 
that  the  sands  of  those  deserts  which  lie  to  the  westward  of  Egypt,  are  encroaching  on, 
and  narrowing,  by  a  constant  and  irresistible  inroad,  the  valley  of  the  Nile  of  Egypt. 
We  see  the  Pyramids  gradually  diminishing  in  height,  particularly  on  their  western 
sides,  and  we  read  of  towns  and  villages  which  have  been  buried  in  the  desert,  but  which 
once  stood  in  fertile  soils,  some  of  whose  minarets  were  still  visible  a  few  years  ago, 
attesting  the  powers  of  the  invading  sand.  The  Sphynx,  buried  almost  up  to  the  head, 
till  the  French  cleared  her  down  to  the  back,  attested  equally  the  desolating  progress  of 
this  mighty  sand-flood  ;  an  evil,  however,  not  quite  confined  to  the  East,  for  it  is  known 
even  in  the  most  refined  and  cultivated  parts  of  Western  Europe.  I  have  seen  its  in- 
roads in  the  neighbourhood  of  Bayonne  and  Bordeaux,  where  it  is  still  at  work,  and 
where  its  palsying  effects  are  spoken  of  with  dread  by  its  inhabitants.  Pennant,  too, 
tells  us  that  he  has  seen  '  more  than  once,  on  the  east  coasts  of  Scotland,  the  calamitous 
state  of  several  extensive  tracts,  formerly  in  a  most  flourishing  condition,  at  present 
covered  with  sands,  unstable  as  the  deserts  of  Arabia.' 

"  The  parish  of  Fyvie,  in  Aberdeenshire,  has  by  these  means  been  reduced  to  two 
farms,  the  buildings  being  all  buried  in  sand,  and  a  vestige  of  the  church  only  remain- 
ing. Near  Forres  is  another  instance,  so  that  we  need  not  go  far  to  see  the  operation 
of  this  terrible  agent,  on  comparatively  a  small  scale ;  and  if  we  turn  to  the  valley  of  the 
Nile  of  Egypt,  we  shall  see  at  this  moment  the  very  process  going  on  by  which  the  lower 
part  of  the  Niger,  or  Nile  of  Bornou,  has  been  choked  up  and  obliterated  by  the  invasion 
of  the  Great  Sahara,  under  the  names  of  the  Deserts  of  Bilmah  and  Libya.  Thus  has 
been  rubbed  out  from  the  face  of  the  earth,  a  river  which  had  once  its  cities,  its  sages,  its 
warriors,  its  works  of  art,  and  its  inundations  like  the  classic  Nile,  but  which  so  exist- 
ed in  days  of  which  we  have  scarcely  a  record.  Herodotus,  indeed,  in  his  Melpomene, 
seems  clearly  to  imply  that  some  terrible  catastrophe  of  this  nature  had  taken  place  in 
former  times,  in  the  countries  adjacent  to  the  lower  parts  of  the  Nile,  of  Bornou,  and  in 
regard  to  that  river  itself.  He  says,  '  the  Psylli  were  the  next  people  to  the  Nasamones, 
inhabiting  a  country  within  the  Syrtis,  destitute  of  springs  ;  and  when  the  wind  had 
dried  up  all  their  reservoirs  of  water,  (no  doubt  by  filling  them  up  with  drifting  sand,) 
the  Psylli  consulted  together,  and  determined  to  make  war  on  the  wind  :  *  I  only  repeat,' 
says  Herodotus,  '  what  the  Lybians  say ;  and  after  they  had  arrived  at  the  sands,  the 
wind  blowing  hard,  buried  them  alive,  and  then  it  was  that  the  Nasamones  took  pos- 
session of  their  country.'  This  is,  indeed,  a  plain  description  of  the  advance  of  the  sand- 
flood,  and  of  the  giant  desert  treading  down  into  death  a  fruitful  country  with  all  its 
inhabitants. 

*  "This  means  only,  that  they  stayed  in  the  country,  and  tried  to  counteract  the  effects 
of  the  wind,  instead  of  flying  before  it  and  quitting  the  place.  The  cause  of  the  preva- 
lence of  westerly  winds  in  the  vicinity  of  the  tropics,  and  for  some  degrees  beyond  them, 
is  now  sufficiently  understood.  Their  action  on  the  Great  Sahara  is  pretty  constant." 


190  AFRICAN   TRAVELLERS. 

' '  The  destruction  of  all  the  water  is  expressly  mentioned.  These  people  had  no 
springs,  he  says,  and  therefore  may  be  supposed  to  have  made  reservoirs  for  use,  and  to 
have  trusted  to  the  inundation  for  the  fertility  of  their  Egypt.  The  river  having  lost  its 
Talley,  would  be  gradually  invaded  and  filled  up  by  countless,  by  inconceivably  countless 
clouds  of  sand,  each  cloud  containing  again  countless  and  inconceivable  myriads  of 
grains  of  sand,  till  at  length  the  bed  of  the  stream  itself,  however  mighty,  having  been 
filled  up  by  an  operation  which  may  have  taken  ages  in  its  completion,  the  country,  or 
rather  what  was  the  countiy,  under  an  entirely  new  face,  but  which  face  could  be  no 
farther  deformed,  was  taken  possession  of  by  the  Nasamones,  who  became,  as  Herodotus 
and  others  relate,  the  relentless  plunderers  of  any  ships  which  happened  to  be  entangled 
in  the  newly- formed  and  treacherous  Syrtis  !  * 

"  In  the  same  way  shall  perish  the  Nile  of  Egypt  and  its  valley  !  its  pyramids,  its 
temples,  and  its  cities  !  The  Delta  shall  become  a  plashy  quicksand — a  second  Syrtis  ! 
and  the  Nile  shall  cease  to  exist  from  the  lower  cataract  downwards,  for  this  is  about 
the  measure  or  height  of  the  giant  principle  of  destruction  already  treading  on  the 
Egyptian  valley,  and  who  is  advancing  from  the  Libyan  desert,  backed  by  other 
deserts,  whose  names  and  numbers  we  do  not  even  know,  but  which  we  have  endea- 
voured to  class  under  the  ill-defined  denomination  of  Sahara, — advancing,  I  repeat,  to 
the  annihilation  of  Egypt  and  all  her  glories,  with  the  silence,  but  with  the  certainty 
too,  of  all  devouring  time. 

"  There  is  something  quite  appalling  in  the  bare  contemplation  of  this  inexorable  on- 
ward march  of  wholesale  death  to  kingdoms,  to  mighty  rivers,  and  to  nations  ;  the  more 
so  when  we  reflect  that  the  destruction  must,  from  its  nature,  be  not  only  complete,  but 
eternal,  on  the  spot  on  which  it  falls  ! 

"  We  have  however,  in  these  our  days,  a  broad  and  inextinguishable  flood  of  light, , 
breaking  in  on  this  deathlike  gloom.  The  genius  of  expiring  Egypt  may  point  to  the 
press,  and  say,  '  Non  omnis  moriar  ;'  for,  until  some  universal  and  complete  change 
shall  take  place  in  this  globe,  the  records  of  Egypt  and  her  glories  shall  be  preserved, 
shall  be  embalmed,  by  afar  more  durable  art  than  any  of  the  Egyptians  ever  possessed — 
the  art  of  printing.  That  giver  of  immortality  (as  far  as  such  a  word  can  apply  to  any 
thing  connected  with  man  on  this  side  the  grave)  the  press,  has  produced,  in  almost 
countless  forms  and  languages,  from  Labrador  to  Cape  Horn,  from  Lapland  to  New 
Zealand,  all  that  ancient  and  often  solitary  manuscripts,  perishable  in  their  nature,  and 
trembling,  as  it  were,  under  their  trusts,  have  brought  down  to  us  of  the  renowned  land 
of  the  Pharoahs  ;  while  modern  accounts,  multiplied  almost  without  end,  will  convey 
to  the  remotest  posterity  in  the  completest,  and  minutest,  and  the  most  graphic  manner, 
a  knowledge  of  what  Egypt  now  is,  and  has  been  for  several  centuries  past.  The  glory 
of  him  who,  pointing  to  the  Pyramids,  told  his  victorious  bands,  '  to  recollect  that  from 
their  summits  forty  centuries  were  looking  down  on  them,'  shall  also  descend  to  im- 
perishable renown  in  the  narratives  of  all  late  and  of  all  future  writers  of  the  history  of 
modern  Egypt ;  but  this  glory  will  now  go  down  dimmed,  eclipsed  by  the  brighter  star 
of  Wellington ;  and  thus,  when  all  that  we  now  admire  and  venerate  in  that  classic 
country  shall  be  irretrievably  obliterated  by  the  tremendous  footstep  of  a  destroying 
principle,  the  name  of  the  great  conqueror  at  the  Pyramids  shall  survive  those  Pyramids 
themselves,  by  the  instrumentality  of  the  frail,  though  infinitely  reproducible  material 
on  which  this  record  of  his  glory  is  now  here  traced  ;  but  the  same  art  which  gives  im- 
mortality to  the  only  once  defeated  Napoleon,  will  confer  it  as  imperishably  on  his 
great  and  always  successful  conqueror  at  Waterloo." 

Thus  does  the  learned  General  sum  up  his  reflections  on  the  mighty  changes 
of  the  elemental  world,  and  handling  countries  as  easily  as  Platoons,  sweeping 
from  Herodotus  down  to  the  Hero  of  Waterloo — evinces  at  once  how  deeply 
skilled  he  is  in  ancient  lore  and  "  modern  instances." 

We  have  omitted  to  state  that  this  clever  little  book  is  illustrated  with  three 
outline  maps  of  the  seat  of  our  inquiries,  being  first,  a  transcript  of  the  very 
curious  document  given  by  Sultan  Bello  to  Capt.  Clapperton  during  his  first 
residence  at  Sackattoo — secondly,  the  general  map  of  Central  Africa  from  Den- 
ham's  quarto — and  lastly,  Sir  Rufane  DonkirTs  own  map,  according  to  Ptolemy, 
of  the  Gier  and  Ni-Gier. 

•       .         '  Sic  cum  toto  commercia  mundo, 
Naufragiis  Nasamonea  habent.5 

LUCAN,  lib.  ix.  vj  443. 


AFRICAN    TRAVELLERS.  191 

Whilst  we  are  upon  this  highly  curious  and  interesting  subject,  it  occurs  to 
us,  that  the  singular  favour  with  which  the  travels  of  our  countrymen  Denham 
and  Clapperton  in  Northern  and  Central  Africa  were  received,  and  the  interest 
which  was  excited  by  the  success  of  their  enterprise,  will  render  a  brief  retro- 
spect of  the  events  of  the  last  few  years,  in  connexion  with  this  subject,  not  in- 
teresting only,  but  useful :  and  the  public  mind,  which  so  warmly  sympathized 
with  the  travellers  in  the  arduous  perils  of  their  journey  and  their  happy  return, 
will  not  hesitate  to  bestow  a  tear  of  grateful  recollection  to  the  memory  of  those 
brave  spirits  who  have  so  quickly  perished  in  the  cause  of  African  discovery. 

When  the  reader  shall  call  to  mind  the  names  of  Ritchie,  Oudenay,  Denham, 
Clapperton,  Toole,  Tyrwhitt,  Laing,  Pearce,  Dickson,  Morrison,  the  younger 
Park,  and  though  last  not  least,  Belzoni ;  all  now  entombed  beneath  the  sands 
of  Africa ;  all  led  by  the  ardour  of  noble  minds,  to  devote  themselves  to  the 
cause  of  discovery ;  and  when  we  view  them  setting  forth  in  the  prime  and  vi- 
gour of  life  and  health,  bravely  zealous  to  excel  each  other  in  the  race,  and  with- 
in a  very  few  short  years  all  sacrificed  to  the  horrors  of  climate  and  the  perils  of 
the  country ;  what  heart  but  must  deeply  sympathize  with  their  relatives  and 
kindred,  whilst  he  records  his  own  great  debt  of  gratitude  to  their  spirit  and  in- 
trepidity ? 

It  is  with  feelings  of  peculiar  pleasure,  that  the  name  of  Capt.  Lyon  is  omit- 
ted in  the  sad  enumeration  of  gallant  spirits  who  have  fallen ;  as  he  still  lives, 
though  still  untired  in  the  pursuit  of  scientific  knowledge  and  useful  discovery. 
This  intelligent  officer,  whose  career  has  been  as  full  perhaps  of  peril  and  ad- 
venture as  any  that  have  been  named,  was  associated,  it  will  be  remembered,  with 
Mr.  Ritchie,  in  the  first  English  mission  to  the  interior  in  1819,  which  advanced 
no  further  than  Mourzouk,  and  where  Capt.  Lyon  had  the  last  sad  duty  to  per- 
form to  his  friend  and  companion. 

The  general  health  of  Mr.  Ritchie  was  by  no  means  good,  and  it  would  ap- 
pear that  in  undertaking  so  arduous  a  service  he  greatly  miscalculated  his  own 
fitness  and  resources,  as  well  as  the  trying  hardships  he  was  likely  to  encounter. 
He  died  at  Mourzouk,  and  very  little  useful  information  resulted  from  this  jour- 
ney ;  but  Capt.  Lyon  has  ably  described  its  unfortunate  termination.  On  his  re- 
turn from  Africa  he  shared  with  Capt.  Parry  the  honours  of  his  first  and  second 
attempt  to  navigate  the  Arctic  seas,  and  returning  thence  has  made  two  voyages  to 
South  America ;  and  is  now  filling  an  arduous  and  highly  responsible  situation 
in  the  service  of  the  Brazilian  Mining  Company,  highly  to  their  advantage  and 
satisfaction,  and  reaping,  as  we  sincerely  hope,  his  well-earned  reward,  in  the  ac- 
quisition of  wealth  and  honour. 

The  fate  of  Belzoni  in  1824,  and  that  of  the  younger  Park  in  1827,  who  each 
perished  after  having  penetrated  but  a  short  distance  from  the  southern  coast,  in 
the  neighbourhood  of  Benin,  were  much  and  deservedly  lamented;  and  although 
some  surmises  were  entertained  of  their  deaths  having  been  hastened  by  the  in- 
strumentality of  the  natives,  such  reports  rest  on  no  certain  foundation,  and  it  is 
extremely  gratifying  to  record,  that  of  all  the  men  whose  fate  we  are  lamenting 
there  is  no  just  ground  for  charging  any  of  their  sufferings  or  misfortunes  to  the 
natives  of  the  countries  they  visited  ;  but  on  the  contrary,  that  in  all  the  various 
forms  under  which  the  genius  of  each  adventurer  may  have  led  him  to  present 
himself  to  their  astonished  senses,  the  behaviour  and  treatment  of  the  children  of 
the  soil  towards  them  have  been,  with  very  few  exceptions,  uniformly  kind  and 
humane. 

In  Denham's,  Clapperton's,  and  Lander's  interesting  volumes  will  be  found 
all  that  is  known  of  the  fate  of  Oudenay,  Toole,  Tyrwhitt,  Pearce,  and  Mor- 
rison ;  and  although  that  of  Dr.  Dickson  is  not  ascertained,  there  is  faint,  very 
faint  hope  indeed  that  he  can  have  survived,  without  some  tidings  of  him  having 
crossed  Lander  in  his  wanderings  to  and  fro  between  Boussa,  Dunrora,  and 
Badagry,  or  have  reached  some  of  our  settlements  on  the  southern  coast. 

Poor  Lander's  account  of  Capt.  Clapperton's  illness  and  death  at  Sackatoo, 
and  of  his  mortification  and  despair  at  finding  in  the  Sultan  Bello  a  jealous  ene- 


192  AFRICAN    TRAVELLERS. 

my  instead  of  a  confiding  friend,  are  deeply  interesting  ;  and  the  following  brief 
account  of  Col.  Denham's  death  at  Sierra  Leone  may  be  relied  on  as  authentic. 

Having  been  appointed  to  superintend  the  whole  establishment  of  the  black 
population  at  Sierra  Leone,  he  embarked  in  the  latter  end  of  1826,  and  arrived 
there  after  a  pleasant  and  prosperous  voyage  of  twenty-eight  days ;  and  however 
he  might  have  appreciated  the  dangers  of  the  climate,  (and  who  can  suppose  he 
was  insensible  to  them  after  the  experience  he  had  had  ?)  still  he  cheerfully  obeyed 
the  call  of  duty,  and  it  then  appeared  most  likely  that,  as  his  appointment  was 
experimental  his  continuance  there  would  be  but  temporary. 

It  soon  appeared,  however,  that  his  talents  were  peculiarly  fitted  to  grapple 
with  its  difficulties,  and  to  ameliorate  the  condition  of  the  wretched  beings  com- 
mitted to  his  charge.  He  entered  with  all  the  ardour  and  enthusiasm  of  his 
character,  into  the  objects  before  him  ;  he  became  attached  to  the  people,  whom 
he  called  his  flock,  and  seemed  to  think  himself  ordained  in  some  measure  to 
be  the  instrument  of  deciding  the  great  question  of  the  practicability  of  free  la- 
bour among  the  negro  tribes. 

Full  of  this  idea,  he  visited  the  various  villages  in  the  colony,  and  soon  ren- 
dered himself  beloved  by  all  classes  of  the  people.  He  became  a  member  of 
council ;  and  it  is  well  known  that  the  highest  expectations  were  formed  by  the 
inhabitants  that  his  appointment  would  be  a  blessing  to  that  unfortunate  settle- 
ment. In  the  latter  end  of  the  year  1827,  he  visited  the  Gold  Coast  and  Fer- 
nando Po,  and  on  his  return,  was  invested  with  the  government  of  the  colony, 
in  consequence  of  the  death  of  Major-Gen.  Sir  Neil  Campbell.  Having  now 
lived  more  than  a  year  without  any  serious  illness,  his  original  confidence  in 
himself  became  confirmed,  and  it  may  well  be  feared  that  he  was  led  to  relax  in 
some  degree  his  rule  of  living,  for  within  a  month  from  the  day  of  his  landing  at 
Free  Town,  he  was  violently  attacked  by  the  fever  of  the  country,  which  in  ten 
days  closed  his  meritorious  and  active,  his  brief  yet  brilliant  career. 

Two  humble  names,  yet  well  entitled  to  their  due  share  of  the  fatal  honours 
of  these  enterprises,  yet  remain  to  be  remembered,  and  these  are  Hillman,  the 
honest  and  industrious  ship-carpenter  from  Malta,  and  Columbus,  the  personal 
servant  of  Col.  Denham,  both  of  whom  performed  the  whole  journey  to  Bour- 
nou,  and  returned  with  the  successful  members  of  the  mission  to  London  in 
1824. 

Columbus,  who  from  his  name  could  not  but  be  considered  an  auspicious  as- 
sociate on  a  voyage  of  discovery,  afterwards  accompanied  Capt.  Clapperton  on 
his  second  and  fatal  journey  to  Sackatoo,  and  was,  it  is  believed,  the  first  victim 
to  the  climate  on  that  occasion.  It  is  a  little  singular  that  he  is  not  mentioned 
at  all  by  Capt.  Clapperton ;  but  Col.  Denham,  we  know,  entertained  a  very  high 
opinion  of  his  qualifications  for  such  an  undertaking,  as  he  was  an  expert  valet, 
nurse,  cook,  tailor,  and  traveller,  and  acquainted,  more  or  less,  with  almost  all 
the  languages  of  the  east,  and  of  southern  Europe.  He  left  England,  however, 
in  bad  health,  and  it  was  not  expected  he  could  withstand  the  trials  of  the 
journey. 

Poor  Hillman,  who  had  suffered  perhaps  more  than  any  other  of  the  Bournou 
party,  was  too  happy  in  finding  himself  once  more  in  Old  England  to  think  of 
again  exposing  himself  to  similar  trials ;  and  some  appointment  was  obtained 
for  him  in  one  of  the  dockyards.  He  died,  we  believe,  about  two  years  ago, 
amidst  countrymen  and  friends ;  whilst  poor  Columbus  adds  another  to  the  sad 
catalogue  already  enumerated  of  those  who  died  upon  the  field. 


193 


A    PERPETUAL    LOG. 


THE  following  design  of  a  Perpetual  Log,  found  among  the  papers 
of  the  late  Capt.  Philip   Beaver,  R.N.  and  proposed  to  him  when  a 
Lieutenant,  has  been  forwarded  to  us  by  the  Author  of  his  Memoirs 
Capt.  W.  H.  Smyth,  R.N. 


A 


The  wheels,  fixed  horizontally  between  the  keel  and  the  false  keel, 
where  a  perpendicular  raised  on  the  plane  will  pass  abaft  the  wheel 
and  before  the  cabin  partition. 

A  A  A,  a  wheel,  one  foot  diameter,  to  project  two  inches  without  the 
keel. 

BBB,  the  buckets,  two  inches  deep,  three  or  four  broad. 

C,  the  axis  of  other  wheels  with  six  cogs. 

D,  a  thin  plate  instead  of  spokes. 

EE,  a  wheel  with  120  cogs,  moved  by  cogs  on  axis  wheel. 

F,  a  socket  to  receive  the  rod  or  spindle. 

G,  a  cap,  covering  half  the  projecting  part  of  the  wheel,  to  assist 
the  votrix  in  the  chamber. 

The  wheels  to  move  on  pivots. 

A  copper  tube,  of  an  inch  or  three  quarters  diameter,  to  be  fixed 
through  the  centre  of  the  keel,  perpendicular  to  its  plane,  and  extend- 
ing a  few  inches  above  the  kelson;  another  tube  to  fix  in  the  former, 
supported  by  a  cylinder  of  wood,  inclosing  the  pipe  or  tube,  well  se- 
cured to  the  kelson,  and  one  of  the  orlop  deck-beams,  and  rising  up  to 
the  quarter-deck  abaft  the  wheel  and  before  the  cabin  bulkhead,  on 
which  the  rest  of  the  machinery  is  to  be  fixed,  in  the  form  of  a  clock, 
which  receives  its  motion  by  a  long  rod,  fixed  in  the  socket  of  the  se- 
cond wheel,  with  60  cogs  on  the  upper  end  to  move  the  third  wheel.. 

The  first  revolution  of  the  second  wheel,  containing  120  cogs,  will 
be  equal  to  60  feet  of  the  ship's  progressive  motion.  One  revolu- 


194  A    PERPETUAL    LOG. 

tion  of  the  third  wheel,  the  first  in  the  clock,  fixed  perpendicular,  the 
long  spindle  giving  it  motion,  60  cogs  will  be  equal  to  600  feet.  The 
fourth  wheel's  revolution  equal  to  6,000  feet,  nearly  a  geographical 
mile,  containing  as  the  former  60  cogs. 

As  I  have  had  no  opportunity  to  try  what  resistance  the  wheels  may 
meet  in  the  water,  or  what  the  apparatus  will  be  retarded  by  friction, 
I  allow  the  difference  at  random,  but  the  first  experiment  will  easily 
determine  it,  and  can  be  rectified  by  having  the  fourth  wheel,  with 
fewer  or  greater  number  of  cogs  to  complete  one  revolution  exactly 
equal  to  a  geographical  mile.  When  determined,  other  trials  may  be 
constructed  at  pleasure ;  as  a  fifth  wheel,  with  72  cogs,  will  be  equal  to 
12  miles;  a  sixth,  with  120  cogs,  equal  to  240  miles,  &c.  &c. 

Care  should  be  taken  that  nothing  touches  or  rests  against  the  case 
of  the  pipe  or  tube,  lest  the  motion  be  injured  by  bending  the  rod.  I 
do  not  mean  that  the  first,  or  bucket-wheel,  should  be  confined  to  one 
foot  diameter,  but  to  one  suitable  to  the  breadth  of  the  keel;  nor  the 
second  wheel  to  a  certain  number  of  feet :  only  observe,  the  diameter 
of  first  wheel  with  cogs  on  the  second,  which  also  ought  to  be  of  the 
greatest  diameter  the  keel  will  allow,  shall  so  correspond,  that  one 
revolution  of  the  second  equals  60  feet  of  the  ship's  progressive  motion. 

Farther  observe,  the  second  wheel  can  only  move  on  a  pivot  below, 
for  in  the  upper  end  of  the  axis  must  be  a  socket  to  receive  the  square 
point  of  the  rod  that  moves  in  cylinder,  or  the  axis  may  be  pointed, 
and  the  socket  in  the  rod.  I  also  mean  that  the  socket  of  chamber  in 
which  the  axis  moves,  shall  enter  a  little  way  up  the  pipe  in  the  keel, 
to  fit  close  to  prevent  a  leak,  should  the  cylinder  of  wood  which  in- 
closes the  pipe  be  broken  by  any  accident ;  but  as  it  must  run  some 
way  near  the  after-magazine  in  two  deck  ships,  nothing  but  a  shot  can 
possibly  injure  it. 

I  also  think  that  in  large  ships,  it  would  be  better  to  have  the  rod 
in  two  parts,  the  first  ending  on  the  lower  gun-deck,  and  the  third 
wheel  annexed  to  the  lower  end  of  the  second  rod ;  however,  should 
the  plan  be  adopted,  that  and  many  other  improvements  may  be  made, 
to  reduce  the  friction  and  facilitate  the  motion. 

The  cap  I  mentioned  to  cover  half  of  the  projecting  part  of  wheel  to 
assist  the  votrix,  may  as  well  be  part  of  chamber  described  by  the  same 
circle. 

N.B.  I  will  thank  you  to  let  no  copy  be  taken,  and  will  thank  you 
for  any  improvement  you  may  make. 

Sir, 
Your  humble  servant, 

JOHN  BASSETT. 


195 

SKETCH    OF    THE    SERVICES    OF    THE    LATE 
LIEUT.-GEN.    SIR    MILES    NIGHTINGALL,    K.C.B.    &    M.P. 

THIS  officer,  who  died  at  Gloucester  on  the  19th  Sept.  last,  in  his 
sixty-first  year,  entered  the  army  in  1787,  as  an  Ensign  in  the  52d, 
and  joined  that  corps  at  Madras  in  the  summer  of  the  following  year. 
He  served  with  the  army  under  Sir  W.  Meadows,  and  was  present  at 
the  assault  and  capture  of  Dendagul,  in  August  1790;  immediately 
after  which  he  was  appointed  Brigade-Major  to  the  King's  troops  in 
India.  In  the  latter  capacity  he  was  at  the  siege  and  capture  of  Pali- 
gautcherry,  the  siege  and  assault  of  Bangalore,  the  storming  of  Saven- 
droog  and  Outradroog,  and  in  the  general  action  near  Seringapatam,  on 
the  15th  May,  1791.  He  continued  as  brigade-major  during  both 
campaigns  in  the  Mysore,  and  was  present  at  every  affair  in  which  the 
first  brigade  of  the  army  was  engaged  during  that  period,  and  parti- 
cularly in  the  general  attack  on  Tippoo's  position,  under  the  walls  of 
Seringapatam,  when  all  his  redoubts  were  stormed,  and  one  hundred 
pieces  of  cannon  taken  :  a  victory  which  compelled  the  enemy  to  sub- 
mit to  terms  dictated  by  Lord  Cornwallis,  and  peace  was  signed  in 
March  following. 

In  the  same  situation,  and  with  the  same  brigade,  this  officer  in 
August  1793,  was  present  at  the  siege  and  capture  of  Pondicherry, 
after  which  he  was  compelled  by  indisposition  to  return  to  England. 
On  his  arrival  he  was  appointed  aid-de-camp  to  Marquis  Cornwallis, 
then  commanding  the  Eastern  district,  but  having  shortly  after  pur- 
chased a  majority,  he  was  appointed  brigade-major  to  the  district.  In 
the  same  year,  1795,  he  purchased  the  lieutenant-colonelcy  of  the 
115th  regiment,  and  having  volunteered  his  services  with  the  expedi- 
tion then  fitting  out  under  Sir  Ralph  Abercrombie,  for  the  West  In- 
dies, he  was  placed  in  command  of  the  92d ;  but  that  corps  being  soon 
after  reduced,  he  was  removed  to  the  38th,  which  he  commanded 
during  all  the  service  in  which  it  was  engaged  in  the  West  Indies,  and 
at  the  capture  of  Trinidad  in  1797- 

In  the  expedition  against  Porto  Rico,  Lieut.-Col.  Nightingall  attend- 
ed Sir  Ralph  as  extra  aide-de-camp,  it  not  being  practicable  to  employ 
the  38th  on  that  service ;  but,  in  consequence  of  severe  illness,  he  was 
compelled  to  resign  that  office  in  August  1797,  and  to  return  to  Eng- 
land. 

Lieut.-Col.  Nightingall  proceeded  in  1798,  to  St.  Domingo,  as  De- 
puty-Adjutant-General  to  the  forces  in  that  colony,  from  whence  he 
returned  in  charge  of  dispatches,  in  July  of  the  same  year. 

Early  in  1799,  the  Lieutenant-Colonel  was  employed  on  a  particular 
service  with  Major-Gen.  T.  Maitland,  and  sailed  with  that  officer,  in 
the  Camilla,  on  a  mission  to  America,  Jamaica,  and  St.  Domingo.  He 
returned  to  England  in  July,  and  was  appointed  as  Assistant-Adju- 
tant-General to  the  army  destined  for  the  Helder  expedition :  as  such 
he  was  present  in  the  general  actions  of  19th  Sept.  and  2d  Oct. 

In  January  1800,  Lieut.-Col.  Nightingall  was  again  employed  under 
Major-Gen.  Maitland,  in  Quiberon  Bay  and  on  the  coast  of  France,  as 
Deputy-Adjutant-General,  and  returned  to  England  with  dispatches 
in  July  following. 

He  next  served  as  Assistant-Quarter-Master-General  in  the  Eastern 


196         LIEUT.-GEN.    SIR    MILES    NIGHTINGALL,    K.C.B. 

district,  and  on  the  preliminaries  of  peace  being  signed  between  Eng- 
land and  France,  in  October  1801,  the  Lieutenant-Colonel  accompanied, 
as  Secretary,  the  British  Ambassador,  Lord  Cornwallis,  to  Paris  and 
the  Congress  at  Amiens. 

In  1803,  Lieut.-Col.  Nightingall  proceeded  to  the  East  Indies  as 
Quarter-Master-General :  he  joined  Lord  Lake's  army  in  the  field  on 
the  north-west  frontier,  and  was  present  at  the  actions  and  sieges  of 
Agra  and  Laswarree.  On  the  25th  Sept.  in  the  same  year,  he  receiv- 
ed the  Brevet  rank  of  Colonel. 

In  1805,  Col.  Nightingall  was  appointed  Military  Secretary  to  the 
Marquis  Cornwallis,  then  Governor-General  and  Commander-in-Chief; 
and  after  his  Lordship's  decease,  the  Colonel  remained  in  India  as 
Quarter-Master-General,  until  1807- 

Col.  Nightingall  in  February  1808,  was  appointed  a  Brigadier-Gen, 
to  the  forces  under  Major-Gen.  Brent  Spencer,  destined  for  the  Pen- 
insula. At  the  battles  of  Roleia  and  Vimiera,  he  was  in  command  of 
the  29th  and  82d  regiments,  forming  the  third  brigade,  and  for  his 
conduct  on  those  occasions,  received  the  thanks  of  Parliament. 

In  December  1808,  he  was  appointed  Governor  and  Commander-in- 
Chief  at  New  South  Wales,  but  this  appointment  he  was  compelled  to 
relinquish,  from  a  long  and  painful  illness.  After  serving  some  time 
on  the  home  staff,  he  was  again  appointed  to  that  of  Spain  and  Portu- 
gal as  a  Major- General,  having  obtained  that  rank  on  the  25th  July, 
1810. 

He  was  next  appointed  to  the  command  of  a  brigade  in  the  first, 
Sir  Brent  Spencer's,  division,  consisting  of  the  2d  battalion  24th, 
2d  battalion  42d,  and  79th  regiments ;  but  Sir  Brent  being  second  in 
command  of  the  army,  and  frequently  employed  with  other  divisions, 
the  command  of  the  first  division  devolved  on  the  Major-General,  and 
this  important  trust  he  held  in  the  action  of  Fuentes  D'Onor,  where 
he  was  wounded.  Shortly  after  being  removed  to  the  staff  in  Bengal, 
on  his  arrival  there  he  was  nominated  to  the  command  of  a  field 
division  of  the  army,  near  the  frontier ;  but  before  he  joined  the  sta- 
tion, he  was  appointed  by  the  Governor-General,  Lord  Minto,  to  the 
chief  command  in  Java  and  its  dependencies,  with  a  seat  in  the 
Council. 

In  1814,  the  Major-General  commanded  in  person  the  force  against 
the  Rajah  of  Boni,  who  had  assembled  3,000  men  in  a  fortified  position. 
The  column  of  attack  was  formed  under  the  command  of  Lieut.-Col. 
M'Leod  of  the  59th :  that  corps  and  the  flank  companies  of  the  78th, 
carried  all  before  them,  and  in  less  than  an  hour  were  in  possession  of 
the  palace,  the  Rajah  escaping  with  great  difficulty  in  disguise. 

After  settling  the  country,  and  establishing  the  British  supremacy, 
the  Major-General  returned  to  Java,  where  he  continued  till  1815, 
when  he  was  appointed  Commander-in-Chief  at  Bombay,  in  which 
capacity,  and  as  second  in  the  Council  at  that  Presidency,  he  con- 
tinued till  1819,  when  he  returned  to  England. 

At  the  time  of  his  death,  Sir  Miles  Nightingall  was  Colonel  of  the 
40th  Foot,  and  a  member  of  the  House  of  Commons.  In  1815,  he  had 
the  honour  of  having  conferred  on  him  the  title  of  a  Knight  Commander 
of  the  Bath. 


197 

SUGGESTIONS    IN    N/VVAL    ECONOMY. 

Mr.  EDITOR, — Since  the  justice,  not  to  say  liberality  of  the  superior  authori- 
ties, towards  the  brave  and  meritorious  men  who  compose  the  United  Service, 
cannot  but  be  restrained  by  an  apprehension  of  increasing  the  burthen,  which 
immense  expenditure  for  the  service  imposes  on  the  public,  any  measure  calcu- 
lated to  diminish  that  expenditure  seems  likely  to  be  interesting  to  your  readers. 
In  your  Journal  for  last  month,  I  communicated  my  proposal  for  employing 
Government  vessels  as  transports,  thereby  attaining  considerable  saving  to  the 
public  and  the  benefit  of  full-pay,  and  occasional  promotion  to  the  personnel,  a 
measure  which  I  have  the  satisfaction  of  seeing  I  am  not  the  only  one  to  recom- 
mend. I  have  now  to  communicate  another  economical  measure, — that  of 
manufacturing  largely  on  Government  account,  the  materiel  requisite;  which 
proposal  I  am  led  to  offer,  for  the  most  part,  in  the  form  in  which  it  was  hastily 
drawn  up  and  communicated  to  a  Member  of  the  late  Committee  on  Finance. 

Amongst  the  benefits  derivable  to  the  service  from  this  measure  is  that  of 
keeping  up  in  time  of  peace  a  skeleton  personnel  in  the  civil  branch,  as  the  pro- 
posed measure  relative  to  transports  did  in  regard  to  the  military  branch.  It 
was  also  on  this  measure  that  depended  the  practicability  and  economy  of, 
and  the  very  important  benefits  derivable  from,  a  system  of  appropriate  and 
complete  education  for  all  the  personnel  of  the  naval  service,  by  means  of 
seminaries,  the  plans  for  which  were  adopted  by  the  two  successive  naval  ad- 
ministrations of  Earl  Spencer  and  Lord  St.  Vincent,  and  for  which  Mr.  Pitt 
offered  funds  for  the  outset,  to  an  extent  much  beyond  what  was  asked  for.* 

The  savings  to  be  made  by  manufacturing  on  Government  account,  arise  from 
the  following  sources. 

Command  of  capital  at  a  lower  rate  of  interest  than  it  can  be  procured  at  by 
private  individuals. 

Insurance  against  disuse  of  the  article,  for  the  production  of  which  capital  has 
been  laid  out.  The  private  manufacturer  must  be  insured  against  the  chance  of 
a  discontinuance  of  the  demand,  arising  from  a  determination  to  employ  another 
manufacturer,  as  also  against  the  cessation  of  need  for  the  article  in  time  of  peace. 
Government  can  extend  or  contract  its  manufactory  more  easily  than  the  private 
individual,  and  has,  moreover,  earlier  notice  of  the  change  from  war  to  peace  : 
and  although  in  time  of  peace,  a  demand  for  the  use  of  machinery  established 
in  time  of  war,  may  be  too  little ;  yet  all  that  portion  of  capital  expended  in 
buildings  applicable  to  use  as  storehouses,  is  as  profitable  in  time  of  peace 
as  of  war;  and  as  to  the  hands  employed,  the  demands  during  peace  are 
always  sufficient  to  afford  work  for  an  ample  number  of  the  best  operatives,  to 
keep  up  a  skeleton  establishment,  ready  for  filling  in  on  the  breaking  out  of  war. 

Insurance  against  the  exorbitant  prices  required  by  private  manufacturers  in 
war  time,  when  the  quantities  required  are  great,  and  when  it  is  known  that  at 
all  events  they  must  be  obtained  by  Government. 

Although  at  the  time  of  making  contracts  the  prices  agreed  for  may  be  mode- 
rate, yet  the  additions  of  price,  and  other  advantages  afterwards  given  to  con- 
tractors, are  frequently  found  to  render  these  prices  exorbitant.  When  the  cost 
of  materials  or  workmanship  happens  to  fall,  the  manufacturer  never  applies  to 
the  contracting  authorities  to  have  his  prices  diminished ;  but  as  soon  as  the 
prime-cost  of  a  material,  or  the  price  of  workmanship  rises,  or  when  an  increas- 
ed demand  requires  the  laying  out  additional  capital,  he  never  fails  to  apply  for 
"  relief"  in  money  or  money's  worth,  which  Government  seldom  find  themselves 
able  to  avoid  yielding  to.  Numberless  instances  of  this  are  to  be  found  in  the 
books  which  I  have  examined,  from  the  first  records  in  Portsmouth  Dock-yard, 
down  to  the  latest  period  of  the  late  war.  In  these  contracts  with  manufactu- 
rers, all  the  advantages  arising  from  the  purchase  of  materials  when  they  are  at 
a  low  price, — besides  others  from  circumstances  unthought  of  at  the  time  of 
making  contracts, — are  given  to  the  manufacturers,  not  to  Gpvernment.  Such, 

*  See  my  Naval  Papers,  No.  3,  page  134,  and  No.  5. 


198  SUGGESTIONS    IN    NAVAL    ECONOMY. 

for  example,  as  that  insisted  on  by  the  manufacturers  of  improved  copper- 
sheathing,  namely,  that  although  by  the  warranty  of  the  duration  of  the  article 
for  a  certain  period,  and  the  engagement  to  return  new,  instead  of  that  which 
should  last  only  a  shorter  period,  it  was  clearly  understood  that  as  many  new 
sheets  should  be  returned,  as  there  should  have  been  found  to  be  corroded  ones 
within  the  period  they  were  warranted  to  last,  the  manufacturers  refused  to  give 
more  new  sheets  than  what  were  equal  in  weight  to  the  remains  of  the  corroded 
sheets  returned  to  them  ;  and  Government  were  under  the  necessity  of  yielding, 
notwithstanding  the  remonstrances  of  the  dock-yard  officers. 

In  dealing  with  private  manufacturers,  although  competition  may  seem  to  af- 
ford the  means  of  obtaining  the  article  at  the  least  cost,  by  taking  the  lowest 
offer,  another  very  great  mischief  arises  from  this  competition,  namely,  that  in 
many  instances  offers  are  made  at  a  price  much  below  what  the  article  would 
really  cost.  For  instance,  in  one  of  the  works  for  which  I  had  given  the  plan, 
the  work  was  contracted  for  at  a  less  price  than  the  value  of  the  Roman  cement 
necessary  for  it ;  the  consequence  was,  that  the  work  was  begun  in  a  very  insuf- 
ficient manner,  and  Government  were  obliged  to  increase  the  price  paid  to  the 
contractor.  Generally  speaking,  in  all  works  performed  by  contract,  if  circum- 
stances turn  out  more  favourable  than  calculated  upon,  the  contractor  has  the 
advantage ;  if  less  favourable,  Government  never  fails  to  indemnify  the  contractor. 

On  the  contrary,  in  every  manufactory  instituted  and  carried  on  on  good 
principles  on  Government  account,  when  under  the  evident  responsibility  of  an 
officer  in  the  service,  subjected  to  suitable  checks  upon  his  conduct,  the  result 
has  been  a  very  considerable  annual  saving,  over  and  above  improvements  in 
the  goodness  of  the  article  manufactured. 

The  metal  mills  in  Portsmouth  Dock-yard,  even  before  their  extension,  pro- 
duced an  annual  saving  of  above  40,000/.* 

The  manufactory  of  blocks  and  blockmakers' wares,  of  above  16,000/.  per 
annum. 

Various  small  articles  manufactured  in  the  wood-mills,  produced  different 
rates  of  saving ;  as,  for  instance,  of  two-thirds  of  the  cost  of  manufacturing  in 
the  usual  way. 

The  manufacture  of  Roman  cement  in  Sheerness  Dock-yard,  produced  a 
saving  of  58  per  cent,  on  the  price  theretofore  paid  to  contractors. 

The  profits  upon  the  contract  for  digging  mud  off  Woolwich  Dock-yard, 
when  the  contractors  were  raising  700  tons  per  day,  amounted  to  about  40/.  per 
day,  comparing  the  price  paid  to  them  with  the  expense  at  which  it  would  have 
been  raised,  had  Government  raised  it  as  at  Portsmouth  on  their  own  account, 
the  engine  employed  by  the  contractors  being  similar  to  the  one  I  contrived,  and 
brought  first  into  use  off  Portsmouth  Dock-yard. 

In  addition  to  the  above  manufactories  long  in  activity,  the  following  are 
comparisons  between  contract  prices,  and  the  prices  at  which  the  same  articles 
would  have  been  produced,  by  an  intended  manufactory  of  cordage  and  canvass, 
on  improved  principles  by  machinery. 

SAVINGS   ON    CORDAGE    ALONE, 

Per  Ton,  Per  Annum, 

As  compared  to  the  price  paid  to       By  half- work  of  the       By  full  work  of  the 
Messrs.  Huddart  &  Co.  Machinery  Machinery 

£15.  195.  Qd.  £86,310  £159,833 

So  that  the  whole  capital  laid  out  on  buildings  and  machinery,  would  have  been 
repaid  in  little  more  than  two  years  and  a  half  at  half-work,  and  in  little  more 
than  a  year  and  a  half  at  the  full  work  in  war  time,f  after  which  the  saving  to 

*  The  machinery  for  rolling  bolts  was  not  yet  at  work  when  this  account  was  made 
out ;  but  shortly  afterwards  when  they  were  brought  into  use,  I  have  reason  to  believe 
the  annual  savings  were  about  doubled.  And  the  savings  from  these  mills  have  con- 
tinued to  be  immense  down  to  the  year  before  last,  at  least ;  the  latest  period  of  which  I 
have  had  opportunity  of  knowing. 

t  By  full  work  ia  meant,  working  night  and  day  ;  for  this  manufactory  was  calculated, 


SUGGESTIONS    IN    NAVAL    ECONOMY.  199 

Government  compared  to  the  contract  price,  would  have  been  for  the  remainder 
of  the  war,  159,833/.  per  annum,  clear,  or  above  a  million  and  a  quarter  between 
the  time  the  manufactory  might  have  been  completed  to  the  end  of  the  war. 

With  regard  to  canvass  at  the  end  of  last  war,  when  the  price  for  canvass,  No.  1, 
was  2s.  Qd.  per  yard,  the  saving  by  manufacturing  it  on  Government  account, 
according  to  the  intended  plan,  would  have  amounted  to  about  a  shilling  per 
yard ;  therefore,  upon  the  whole  average  quantity  consumed  by  Government 
during  last  war,  namely  100,000  bolts,  the  saving  would  have  amounted  to 
200,000/.  per  annum.  The  canvass  was,  moreover,  to  have  been  manufactured 
in  the  most  perfect  manner,  and  woven  without  starch  or  size.* 

The  following  examples  of  the  difference  between  prices  allowed  by  contract 
for  making  masts  and  yards,  and  those  for  which  the  same  work  was  done  at 
the  same  time  in  the  Dock- Yards,  were  also  prepared  for  the  same  member 
of  the  Committee  on  Finance.  They  were  extracted  from  accounts  and  papers 
ordered  to  be  printed  by  the  House  of  Commons,  22d  January,  and  17th  and 
21st  April,  1806. 

Taking  the  first  article  on  the  list  of  prices  to  contractors  for  making  masts  and 
yards,  namely,  the  main-mast  (in  parts)  for  a  74-gun  ship,  the  savings  will  stand 
as  follows  : —  ' 

Price  allowed  Price  of  the  Work  in       Saving  by  Manufacturing 

Messrs.  Fergusson  &  Todd.     Deptford  Dock- Yard,     on  Government  account. 
£124.  12s.  £59.  14s.  Id.  £64.  17*.  lid 

so  that  the  price  allowed  to  Messrs.  Fergusson  was  more  than  double  the  price 
of  manufacturing  in  the  Dock- Yard. 

These  official  accounts  in  regard  to  masts  as  presented  to  the  House,  exhibit, 
moreover,  a  strong  example  of  what  occurred  not  unfrequently  in  regard  to  con- 
tracts, namely,  that  the  same  article  is  paid  for  at  the  same  time  to  different  con- 
tractors at  different  rates.  For  instance,  Messrs.  Fergusson  were  allowed  for 
a  64-gun  ship's  top-gallant  mast,  the  sum  of  £2.  9s.  8f  5. ;  but  to  Mr.  Kell,  only 
£l.  4s.  5%d.,  being  less  than  half  the  price  allowed  to  Messrs.  Fergusson  ;  and  in 
the  instance  of  a  gaff,  Messrs.  Fergusson's  price  *vas  three  times  that  of  Mr. 
Kell's,  though  both  of  them  in  the  River  Thames. 

The  prices  of  merchants,  when  they  were  in  treaty  with  the  Navy  Board  in  the 
year  1805,  for  building  ships  of  the  line,  were  for  a  74-gun  ship,  £62,430.  Is.  8df 
the  cost  of  a  similar  ship  in  Deptford  Dock-Yard,  was  £43, 359.  13s.  9d;  but  to 
this  must  be  added  a  portion  of  officers'  salaries,  say  £500  ;  rent  of  a  building 
slip  and  workshops,  say  £500  ;  insurance,  interest  of  money  advanced  and  inci- 
dental expenses,  say  £1000 ;  with  these  additions,  the  whole  expense  in  Dept- 
ford Yard,  would,  therefore,  not  have  exceeded  £45,352 . 1 3s.  9c?.  making  a  saving 
on  such  a  ship,  by  building  in  the  Dock-yard,  of  £17,070.  7s.  lid. 

The  above  examples  may  suffice  to  show,  that  articles  of  various  kinds,  and 
by  various  means,  may  be  manufactured  on  Government  account  with  very  con- 
siderable saving  to  the  public.  The  following  is  the  general  view  presented  of 
the  articles  it  would  be  most  advantageous  so  to  provide. 

1st.  All  articles  of  which  the  consumption  for  the  public  is  great,  compared  to 
that  for  private  use,  requiring  a  great  capital,  and  in  which,  therefore,  there  cannot 
be  any  real  competition,  no  private  manufacturer  would  for  such  articles  think  it 
prudent  to  embark  his  capital  for  furnishing,  exclusively,  a  customer  so  uncertain 
as  is  Government  for  warlike  stores,  unless  they  had  very  large  profits  in  riew. 

like  the  metal  mills  in  Portsmouth  Dock-yard,  for  the  machinery  to  make,  by  working  in 
the  day  time  only,  the  quantity  which  it  might  be  advantageous  to  manufacture  when 
the  demand  was  the  least,  so  that  by  working  night  and  day,  without  any  extra  expense 
for  buildings  or  machines,  more  than  double  the  work  might  be  done  during  time  of 
war.  This  was  practised  by  peculiar  arrangements  in  the  establishments  under  my 
direction  in  Portsmouth  Dock  to  the  entire  satisfaction  of  the  operatives,  although  their 
rate  of  pay  was  no  higher  for  the  night  than  for  the  day. 

*  For  details  and  particulars  respecting  the  savings  in  these  manufactories,  the  su- 
periority of  the  articles  produced  in  them,  &c.  see  Naval  Papers,  Nos.  2  and  8. 


SUGGESTIONS    IN    NAVAL    ECONOMY. 

j 

2dly.  All  articles  of  which  the  goodness  of  quality  depends  on  manufacturing 
processes,  not  capable  of  being  ascertained,  or  capable  only  of  being  ascertained 
with  difficulty,  after  the  article  is  fabricated, — such  as  canvass. 

3dly.  All  of  which  their  fitness  for  their  intended  purposes  is  not  capable  of 
being  strictly  defined ;  or  which  are  susceptible  of  improvement,  real  or  ima- 
ginary, which  consequently  afford  grounds  for  manufacturers  to  urge  the  intro- 
duction of  new  modifications  of  the  article,  with  a  view  to  the  obtainment  of 
exclusive  contracts  for  furnishing  them, — as  iron  work,  pumps,  fire  hearths.* 

4thly.  All  such  as  may  be  remanufactured  from  worn-out  or  damaged  articles, 
from  portions  of  materials  coming  off  from,  or  unfit  for  the  principal  use  for 
which  they  were  obtained,  or  such  materials,  as  taking  them  along  with  the  ma- 
terials principally  requisite,  might  enable  that  material  to  be  obtained  on  more 
advantageous  terms — inferior  cordage;  iron  hoops,  and  all  old  metal  articles; 
boats,  and  all  small  articles  of  wood. 

5thly.  Articles  which,  by  affording  employment  for  young  hands  and  old  or 
infirm  men,  would  enable  Government  to  train  up  without  expense,  a  consider- 
able number  of  boys  for  the  future  supply  of  artificers,  and  all  others  employed 
in  the  service,  and  to  lessen  the  expense  of  educating  a  considerable  number  for 
the  superior  employments  of  the  service;  as  also  to  give  employment  and  pro- 
portionate pay  to  meritorious  artificers  when  old  or  infirm,  without  incurring  the 
expense  which  always  has,  and  always  will  otherwise  take  place,  from  the  reluc- 
tance felt  to  superannuate  or  discharge  in  his  latter  years,  a  man  whose  youth  and 
days  of  strength  are  known  to  have  been  meritoriously  employed  in  the  service. 

It  is  not  in  time  of  peace  that  the  difficulties  are  in  so  great  a  degree  expe- 
rienced, or  the  extra  expenses  incurred,  which  arise  from  want  of  co-operation 
in  the  different  departments,  or  from  combinations  of  workmen,  manufacturers 
or  merchants,  as  in  time  of  war.  In  time  of  peace,  all  the  wants  of  the  Navy 
can  be  foreseen  long  before  the  need  exists  of  supplying  them,  and  leisure  is 
thereby  afforded  of  giving  orders  in  detail,  in  regard  to  all  the  several  articles  to 
have  them  ready  by  a  certain  time,  amply  long  enough  for  the  purpose.  A  su- 
perfluity of  workmen  are  always  ready  enough  to  be  engaged,  and  merchants  and 
manufacturers  are  aware,  that  the  quantities  of  articles  required  for  a  peace  sup- 
ply are  so  small,  compared  to  the  quantities  in  the  market,  as  to  render  it  improba- 
ble that  any  combination  for  enhancing  prices  to  a  great  degree  could  be  success- 
ful :  whereas,  in  time  of  war,  artificers  of  certain  descriptions  know  that  enough 
of  the  class  do  not  exist  in  the  country  to  supply  the  demand,  and  the  merchant 
and  manufacturer  also  know  from  experience,  that  at  certain  times  during  war, 
Government  cannot  forego  or  delay  the  acquirement  of  a  variety  of  articles,  that 
therefore  they  are  under  the  necessity  of  paying  any  high  price  that  may  be  fixed 
upon  by  a  combination  of  those  who  happen  to  possess  the  stores  required,  or 
the  means  of  manufacturing  in  great  quantities,  articles  of  which  the  naval  de- 
mand is  so  immense,  as  for  copper  sheathing,  cordage,  and  sail  cloth. 

That  the  contract  prices,  in  time  of  war,  have  risen  greatly  beyond  the  en- 
hancement of  the  market  prices  of  materials  and  workmanship,  many  examples 
might  be  adduced  ;  but  taking  that  of  sail-cloth,  it  will  be  seen  on  reference  to 
prices,  that  the  times  of  sudden  and  great  increase  of  price,  have  been  the  years 
in  which  the  wants  of  Government  were  the  greatest ;  as  for  example,  in  the 
years  1804  and  5,  the  price  of  No.  1,  had  risen  from  Is.  6%d.  a  yard,  to  Is.  9d. 
flax  being  about  £70  per  ton.  In  the  last  year  of  the  war  with  France,  namely, 
March  1814,  flax  being  about  £83  per  ton,  advantage  was  taken  in  a  still  greater 
degree  of  the  needs  of  Government,  and  no  less  than  %s.  8d.  per  yard  was  paid 
for  No.  1 .  That  this  high  price  was  in  consequence  of  combination  can  hardly 
be  doubted,  since  the  difference  in  the  cost  of  the  material,  could  not  have  ex- 
ceeded twelve  or  fifteen  shillings  in  the  bolt,  whereas  the  cost  of  the  bolt  was 
raised  from  £3.  10s.  to  £5.  6s.  8d.  a  difference  of  £l.  16s.  Qd.  or  three  times  the 
difference  occasioned  by  the  extra  cost  of  the  material.  Had,  therefore,  the  sail- 
cloth manufactory,  ordered  in  the  year  1804,  been  carried  into  execution,  the 
annual  savings  at  that  period  of  1814,  would  have  been  increased  to  double 
the  estimated  rate  as  specified  above.  S.  BENTHAM. 

*  See  Naval  Papers,  No.  8. 


•201 


ANNALS   OF   THE   PENINSULAR   CAMPAIGNS.* 

FEW  works  of  fiction  published  in  modern  times  have  created,  or  deserved  to 
create,  what  is  called  a  greater  sensation,  than  Cyril  Thornton  Partaking  just 
as  much  of  a  military  character  as  to  give  to  it  a  kind  of  interest  then  perfectly 
novel,  yet  totally  free  from  the  most  remote  approximation  to  pedantry  or  pro- 
fessionalism, that  powerful  tale  at  once  established  for  its  author  a  high  reputa- 
tion among  the  writers  of  the  day,  and  led  such  as  perused  it  to  look  forward 
with  something  like  impatience  to  a  fresh  essay  from  the  same  gifted  pen.  Whe- 
ther the  expectations  thus  excited  will  be  realized  by  the  performance  now  pro- 
duced, we  of  course  pretend  not  to  decide ;  but  if  they  be  not,  we  have  no  hesi- 
tation to  say  that  the  fact  will  exceedingly  surprise  us. 

Notwithstanding  all  that  has  been  written  on  the  subject  of  the  Peninsular 
war,  in  the  shape  of  histories,  narratives,  recollections,  and  personal  memoirs, 
the  people  of  England  have  possibly  felt,  up  to  this  moment,  that  a  con- 
cise and  spirited  sketch  of  the  late  contest  was  wanting.  Mr.  Southey  has, 
it  is  true,  described  the  progress  of  the  struggle  from  beginning  to  end  with  a 
degree  of  eloquence  and  beauty  peculiar  only  to  himself;  but,  unfortunately  for 
the  cause  of  truth,  not  less  than  his  own  reputation  as  a  historian,  Mr.  Southey 's 
great  work  is  to  be  esteemed  as  little  better  than  a  romance.  Far  be  it  from  us 
to  assert,  that  the  learned  and  amiable  Laureat  has  in  any  instance  wilfully  per- 
verted facts,  or  knowingly  deceived  his  readers.  If  there  be  one  man  in  Eng- 
land less  chargeable  with  these  atrocities  than  another,  that  man  is  Mr.  Southey: 
but  the  very  openness  of  character  and  generosity  of  heart,  which  render 
him  incapable  of  such  crimes,  totally  disqualify  him  for  the  office  which  he  has 
somewhat  unnecessarily  assumed.  Mr.  Southey  sat  down  to  write  under  the 
influence  of  strong  prejudices,  originating  in  his  own  innate  sense  of  what  a 
people  owe  to  themselves  and  to  their  country,  and  fostered  and  brought  to  ma- 
turity by  his  intimate  acquaintance  with  the  traditions  of  chivalry.  He  had 
admired,  as  all  right-thinking  men  admired  with  him,  the  sudden  spirit  of  oppo- 
sition displayed  by  Spain  to  the  attempts  of  the  great  usurper,  and  remembering 
what  Spain  once  was,  not  looking  to  what  she  had  since  become,  he  ceased  not 
to  watch  the  future  conduct  of  her  sons,  through  the  medium,  not  of  reason  but 
of  imagination.  In  the  same  spirit,  Mr.  Southey,  from  year  to  year,  recorded, 
in  the  pages  of  the  London  Annual  Register,  the  events  which  arose  out  of  the 
critical  movement  of  the  6th  of  May,  till  his  mind  became  at  last  so  perfectly 
imbued  with  a  partiality  amounting  to  prejudice,  that  no  statements,  from  what- 
ever quarter  emanating,  could  afterwards  restore  to  it  its  natural  tone.  Hence 
his  extravagant  laudation  of  Spanish  gallantry  and  Spanish  endurance,  qualities 
of  which  those  who  served  the  longest  in  Spain  witnessed  the  fewest  specimens; 
and  hence  also  the  grievously  incorrect  descriptions  of  almost  every  military 
operation,  which  disfigure  his  otherwise  delightful  pages.  Mr.  Southey's  work, 
therefore,  though  singularly  attractive  in  itself, — as  a  mine  of  statistical  lore,  no 
less  than  as  the  production  of  a  man  of  genius, — is,  when  regarded  as  a  history  of 
the  late  war,  absolutely  worth  nothing. 

The  next  work  of  importance  after  Mr.  Southey's,  (for  we  speak  at  present  only 
of  such  performances  as  describe  the  whole  or  a  large  portion  of  the  late  war,) 
is  the  Narrative  of  the  Marquis  of  Londonderry.  As  far  as  it  goes,  perhaps,  no 
description  of  recent  events  advances  a  better  claim  to  be  received  as  authorita- 
tive and  deeply  interesting  than  this.  Without  aiming  at  the  dignity  of  history, 
his  Lordship  has  contrived  to  mix  up  with  his  account  of  his  own  personal  pro- 
ceedings, more  accurate  details  of  the  operations  of  the  Allied  army  in  general, 


*  Annals  of  the  Peninsular  Campaigns  from  1808  to  1814.     By  the  author  of  Cyril 
Thornton,  in  3  vols  12mo.  with  plates. 

U.  S.  JOURN.  No.  14.  FLU.  1830.  P 


202  ANNALS   OF   THE 

than  almost  any  man  besides  himself  could  have  done ;  whilst  he  has  thrown  a 
species  of  interest  into  his  pages  which  will  probably  be  felt  by  the  civilian  to 
the  full  as  much  as  by  the  military  reader.  But  the  Marquis  of  Londonderry's 
Narrative  is,  unfortunately,  incomplete.  It  contains  a  graphic  picture  of  a 
part,  but  only  of  a  part,  of  the  Peninsular  war ;  and  we  lay  it  down,  almost  as 
much  annoyed  that  it  closes  where  it  does,  as  gratified  with  having  been 
carried  so  far  onwards  by  its  magic.  Nor  is  this  all.  Though  delightful  for  its 
simplicity  and  the  candour  of  its  general  tone,  the  Marquis's  work  is  unques- 
tionably too  long.  Speculations  and  opinions  are  interwoven  somewhat  too 
frequently  with  the  description  of  facts ;  and  the  reader  becomes  occasionally 
tired  of  following  a  chain  of  argument,  which,  whether  sound  or  unsound  in  the 
abstract,  is  now  of  no  value  whatever. 

Of  Col.  Napier's  eloquent  and  elaborate  History,  so  little  time  has  elapsed 
since  we  delivered  our  opinion  at  length,  that  it  were  a  needless  repetition  of 
what  was  said  then,  to  give  judgment  concerning  it  now.  For  the  student  in 
the  art  of  war,  as  well  as  for  the  soldier  who  has  studied  that  art  already,  it  will 
continue,  as  long  as  the  English  language  lasts,  to  be  a  text-book,— not  only  be- 
cause its  statements  are  generally  correct  and  authoritative,  but  because  it  com- 
pels him  who  reads  to  think.  No  doubt  Col.  Napier  has  his  prejudices  as  well 
as  Mr.  Southey  ;  still,  he  writes  like  a  soldier.  He  extenuates  the  atrocities  of 
the  French,  indeed,  whenever  an  opportunity  offers,  and  holds  in  utter  contempt 
the  vaunted  exertions  of  the  Spaniards,  but  he  is  as  far  from  denying  to  the  one 
party  all  credit,  as  he  is  desirous  of  exhibiting  the  other  in  a  light  absolutely 
favourable.  Nevertheless,  Col.  Napier's  work,  splendid  and  elaborate  as  it  is, 
may  not  be  the  sort  of  work  to  satisfy  readers  in  general.  It  is,  perhaps, 
too  scientific,  too  professional,  too  recondite,  to  be  relished  as  its  excellencies 
deserve  by  the  mass  of  careless  readers. 

"With  these  facts  staring  him  in  the  face,  the  author  of  Cyril  Thornton  de- 
termined, it  appears,  to  complete  what  he  has  modestly  denominated  Annals 
of  the  Peninsular  Campaigns.  No  title  could  have  been  better  chosen, — 
not  merely  with  reference  to  the  probable  effect  of  the  work  upon  the  public 
at  large,  but  in  respect  to  the  contents  of  the  volumes  to  which  it  is  prefixed. 
These  are  literally  and  truly  what  they  profess  to  be — annals  of  the  most  glo- 
rious struggle  in  which  this  country  was  ever  engaged ;  and  they  contain, 
generally  speaking,  one  of  the  clearest  and  most  concise  sketches  of  the  pro- 
ceedings of  seven  eventful  years  which  we  recollect  to  have  seen.  Steering 
a  middle  course,  our  author  neither  affects  to  paint  the  invaders  in  the  co- 
lours of  blood-thirsty  barbarians,  nor  the  invaded  in  the  light  of  brave 
and  devoted  patriots;  but  giving  to  each  party  the  share  fof  merit  which 
appears  to  him  to  be  due,  he  bestows  upon  both  their  relative  portions  of 
censure.  So  far  the  work  seems  to  us  to  be  peculiarly  happy,  nor  is  there  any 
point,  save  one,  in  which  we  can  discover  in  it  just  ground  of  mis-praise. 
Yet  even  that  attaches  to  the  publisher  more  than  to  the  author, — for  the  single 
circumstance  which  leads  us  to  doubt  as  to  its  absolute  success  is,  that  it  has 
not  appeared  at  the  most  propitious  moment. 

Though  we  stated  at  the  beginning  of  this  paper,  that  the  people  of  England 
might  still  experience  the  want  of  some  manual,  as  it  were,  of  the  military  history 
of  late  times,  we  are  very  far  from  thinking  that  the  present  is  the  moment  at 
which  it  maybe  brought  out  to  the  best  advantage.  On  the  contrary,  with  rivals 
so  numerous  and  so  powerful  to  contend  against,  we  cannot  but  regard  the  at- 
tempt now  made,  even  by  the  author  of  Cyril  Thornton,  as  a  bold  one.  Still, 
if  this  difficulty  can  be  overcome,  and  unquestionably  it  is  a  serious  one,  his 
success  is,  we  think,  certain, — at  least  we  shall  greatly  distrust  our  own  judg- 
ment in  such  matters  for  the  future  if  we  be  deceived  now. 

It  cannot  be  expected  that  we  should  attempt  to  give,  at  a  period  like  the  pre- 
sent, any  outline,  however  brief,  of  the  contents  of  these  volumes.  The  tale  has 
been  told  so  often,  that  were  we  unwise  enough  as  to  tell  it  again,  we  could  never 
expect  our  readers  to  follow  us.  We  must  content  ourselves,  therefore,  by 


PENINSULAR   CAMPAIGNS.  203 

conveying  some  general  idea  of  the  plan  on  which  Capt.  Hamilton's  History  is 
compiled ;  and  after  transcribing  an  extract  or  two,  with  the  view  of  satisfying 
the  doubtful,  that  even  now  battles  and  the  movements  of  troops  may  be  de- 
cribed  in  readable  terms,  we  shall  leave  the  book  to  push  its  own  way,  as  it 
doubtless  will,  among  the  crowd. 

The  Annals  of  the  Peninsular  Campaigns  are  prefaced,  as  they  ought  to  be, 
with  a  concise  but  well-digested  sketch  of  the  condition  of  the  Peninsular  na- 
tions, from  the  period  of  the  breaking  out  of  the  French  Revolution,  down  to 
the  commencement  of  Napoleon's  infamous  attempt  to  annex  them  to  the  crown 
of  France.  Though  we  perceive  in  this  little  to  distinguish  it  from  views  of  the 
same  transaction  which  have  been  taken,  as  well  by  the  French  as  by  others 
of  our  own  writers,  still  we  cannot  conceal  from  our  readers,  that  the  author  has 
contrived  to  crowd,  within  a  very  narrow  compass,  as  much  of  information  as 
will  be  found  scattered  loosely  and  vaguely  elsewhere.  This  done,  he  pro- 
ceeds to  detail  the  series  of  events  which  paved  the  way  to  the  advance  of  Ju- 
not's  army — the  mock  alliance,  which  had  for  its  object  the  dismemberment  of 
Portugal, — the  intrigues  and  cabals  which  were  carried  on  at  Madrid, — the  ca- 
jolling  of  the  House  of  Bourbon  within  the  grasp  of  its  relentless  enemy, — and 
finally,  the  bold  declaration  that  it  had  ceased  to  be  a  Royal  one.  The  march 
of  French  troops  from  the  Pyrenees  to  the  Tagus,  is  likewise  traced ;  the  flight 
of  the  Braganza  family,  and  the  subsequent  display  of  the  French  eagles  from 
the  towers  of  Lisbon,  are  described  ;  whilst  to  the  movements  of  other  columns, 
the  occupation  of  Madrid  by  Murat,  and  the  popular  commotions  consequent 
upon  it,  just  enough,  and  no  more  than  enough,  of  space  is  afforded.  Finally, 
after  recording  the  first  efforts  of  the  Spaniards  in  their  own  defence,  the  former 
siege  of  Saragoza,  the  battle  of  Baylen,  our  author  hastens  to  introduce  a  British 
army  into  the  field,  by  briefly  and  lucidly  explaining  the  circumstances  which 
led  to  the  victories  of  Roliya  and  Vimiero. 

From  this  point  the  author  proceeds  to  record  in  regular  order  every 
event  calculated  to  affect  the  issue  of  the  war,  as  from  year  to  year  it  occurred. 
After  analysing  the  results  of  the  first  campaign,  and  taking  a  favourable  view 
of  the  convention  of  Cintra,  he  describes  the  proceedings  on  the  part  both  of 
Napoleon  and  the  Spaniards,  which  were  keeping  pace,  as  it  were,  with  the 
deliverance  of  Portugal.  Under  this  head  we  have  a  well-told  outline  of  the 
operations  both  in  the  North  and  South  of  Spain ;  of  the  appointment  of  a  Su- 
preme Junta,  of  the  violent  proceedings  of  Cuesta.  of  the  defeat  of  Blake,  and 
the  battle  of  Tudela;  and  then  reverting  to  his  proper  theme,  the  author  brings 
us  back  again  to  the  proceedings  in-  Portugal  which  arose  out  of  the  success 
of  the  British  arms.  The  recall  of  Sir  Hugh  Dalrymple  is  touched  upon 
rather  than  described;  and  Sir  John  Moore,  with  his  gallant  band,  is  put 
in  motion. 

The  campaign  which  followed  is  well  described,  as  it  has  been  well  described 
a  dozen  times  already  ;  but  we  cannot  at  present  pause  to  notice  the  description. 
Not  absolutely  condemning,  yet  equivocally  eulogising  the  accomplished  leader  of 
the  British  army,  Capt.  Hamilton  assigns  him  the  meed  of  praise  to  which  he 
thinks  him  entitled.  He  contends,  that  for  the  precipitate  retreat  upon  Corunna 
there  was  no  occasion  ;  and  that  the  strong  province  of  Gallicia  might  have  been 
defended,  and  ought  to  have  been  defended,  till  the  recall  of  Napoleon  into  Ger- 
many. On  this  subject,  however,  we  have  ourselves  some  data  which  escaped 
the  knowledge  or  consideration  of  the  Peninsular  Annalist.  Our  space  will  not 
permit  us  to  dwell  here  upon  the  merits  of  this  memorable  campaign ;  but  we 
may  take  an  early  opportunity  of  reverting  to  a  question  so  much  discussed ; 
though  still,  perhaps,  notthoroughly  understood.  Of  the  account  given  of  the  prin- 
cipal proceedings  which  followed  the  re-embarkation  of  Moore's  army,  we  cannot 
speak  in  favourable  terms.  We  are  surprised  to  see  a  man  of  Capt.  Hamilton's  sound 
sense  and  military  education,  falling  into  the  error  which  Mr.  Southey  has  commit- 
ted with  reference  to  the  second  siege  of  Saragoza.  We  should  have  thought  that 
he  knew  something  mere  of  war  as  it  is,  than  to  copy  all  that  historian's  roman- 

P  2 


204?  ANNALS   OF    THE 

tic  legends  of  the  devotion  of  the  Saragozans,  of  the  daring  bravery  of  the  wo- 
men, and  above  all,  of  the  heroism  of  Palafox  himself.  Of  Palafox  we  know, 
by  the  statements  of  those  who  served  under  him,  that  there  never  lived  a  more 
successful  Charlatan ;  how  could  Capt.  Hamilton  bestow  upon  him  the  epithet 
of  heroic  ?  and  as  to  the  women — we  were  assured  on  the  spot,  that  with  one  or 
two  exceptions,  they  did  neither  more  nor  less  than  women  always  do  when 
brought  to  the  pinch.  They  endured  much,— they  were  constant  in  their  attend- 
ance upon  the  sick  and  wounded,  and  occasionally  conveyed  bread  and  wine  to 
their  husbands  and  fathers  through  a  heavy  fire,— but  as  to  working  guns,  and 
disputing  the  approach  of  the  French  "  to  the  knife's  point,"  all  this  is  what 
Mr.  Burchel  would  call  fudge.  Still,  the  story  is  a  very  beautiful  one,  and 
we  are  not  sure  that  its  repetition,  even  by  Capt.  Hamilton,  will  do  any  harm. 

In  this  manner  we  are  carried  on  from  spring  to  winter,  and  from  winter  to 
spring ;  the  movements  of  the  hostile  powers  being  distinctly  and  graphical- 
ly delineated,  as  well  in  the  cabinet  as  in  the  field.  Of  the  campaign  of  1809, 
a  very  fair  account  is  given.  Capt.  Hamilton,  we  may  observe,  has  evidently 
not  gathered  his  materials  from  the  fountain  head,  at  least  we  could  put  him 
right  in  a  variety  of  minute  points,  and  now  and  then  upon  important  ones. 
But  for  a  popular  history,  we  do  not  know  that  the  story  has  ever  been  more 
clearly  told,  and  we  are  sure  that  the  public  in  general  will  esteem  it  as  it 
deserves.  The  narrative  of  the  operations  of  1810,  is  upon  the  whole  excellent- 
ly drawn  up.  The  designs  and  efforts  of  Massena,  not  less  than  the  manoeuvres 
of  his  illustrious  opponent,  are  well  put;  but  here,  as  elsewhere,  our  author 
trusts  more  than  he  ought  to  do  to  the  narratives  of  subordinates.  It  is;  a  great 
mistake  to  suppose  that  "  the  Government  of  Portugal  entered  manfully"  into 
Lord  Wellington's  views.  The  Government  of  Portugal  did  its  best  to  thwart 
his  projects,  and  nothing  but  his  own  extraordinary  firmness  and  decision, 
caused  even  the  imperfect  obedience  which  was  afforded  to  the  order  of  general 
devastation.  Imperfect,  however,  that  obedience  was,  from  the  nature  of  the  sa- 
crifice required,  for  multitudes  of  the  inhabitants  lagged  behind,  with  their  stores 
and  their  effects  in  their  possession,  of  which  Massena  reaped  all  the  benefits 
during  his  protracted  halt  in  front  of  the  lines. 

There  is  one  point,  however,  connected  with  the  proceedings  of  this  moment- 
ous year,  into  which  we  are  surprised  to  find  that  Capt.  Hamilton  has  not  more 
fully  entered  ;  we  allude  to  the  conduct  of  the  Cortes,  assembled  within  the 
walls  of  Cadiz,  and  acting  as  the  ostensible  Government  of  the  Spanish  nation. 
We  are  told  of  that  body  only  that  it  declared  the  crown  to  be  inalienable  to  the 
House  of  Bounaparte ;  that  it  exhibited  too  much  of  a  tendency  towards  abstract 
legislation ;  and  that  a  prospect  for  regulating  the  representation  of  the  Colonies 
was  passed  into  a  law.  All  this  is  true  enough;  but  if  the  conduct  of  the  Cortes 
was  to  be  discussed  at  all,  it  ought  to  have  been  discussed  more  fully.  Not  one 
word  is  said  of  the  communications  which  passed  between  the  authorised  agents 
of  South  America  and  the  mother  country,  as  to  the  consequences  which  were 
to  ensue  upon  a  certain  possible  contingency.  We  hear  nothing  of  a  declara- 
tion on  the  part  of  the  Supreme  Government,  that  America  must  go  with  Spain  ; 
that  if  Spain  were  forced  to  submit  to  France,  America  must  submit  also,  and 
that  under  no  circumstances  whatever  could  a.  dismemberment  be  sanctioned. 
As  little  are  we  enlightened  on  the  subject  of  the  uses  to  which  the  supplies  of 
arms  and  money  granted  by  Great  Britain,  for  the  resistance  of  the  common 
enemy,  were  turned.  Not  a  syllable  is  said  of  the  expeditions  fitted  out  and 
sent  forth  from  Cadiz  at  this  eventful  moment,  to  compel  the  Colonies  to  follow 
the  fortunes  of  the  mother  country,  for  better  or  for  worse ;  nor  is  a  hint  thrown 
out  of  the  secret  negotiations  which  were  then  carried  on,  between  the  agents  of 
Joseph  and  several  of  the  most  influential  men  in  the  patriotic  Government. 
We  do  not  say,  that  to  notice  all  these  points  was  absolutely  incumbent  upon 
Capt.  Hamilton,  but  if  he  saw  meet  to  describe  the  proceedings  of  the  Spanish 
Government  at  all,  it  strikes  us  that  he  ought  to  have  done  so  correctly. 


PENINSULAR   CAMPAIGNS.  205 

The  campaign  of  1811,  though  not  without  its  weight  in  determining  the 
final  results  of  the  war,  and  abounding  in  brilliant  affairs,  was,  perhaps,  the  least 
decisive  of  any  that  took  place  during  the  contest.  It  is  not,  however,  on  that 
account,  described  either  correctly  or  briefly  by  our  author;  on  the  contrary, 
the  murderous  affair  of  Albuera,  and  the  strife  at  Fuentes,  are  each  depicted  in 
just  and  glowing  colours ;  whilst  criticisms  are  adventured  sufficiently  bold, 
if  they  be  not  absolutely  just.  Their  justice,  however,  it  is  not  our  part  to 
dispute. 

"  Let  the  gall'd  jade  wince,  our  withers  are  unwrung." 

There  are  few  sections  of  the  Peninsular  Annals  more  delicate  than  the  cam- 
paign of  1812.  Commencing  with  the  most  brilliant  and  unlocked  for  suc- 
cesses, it  terminated  in  the  retreat  from  Burgos,  a  movement  which  undeniably 
produced,  at  the  moment,  very  serious  discontent,  both  at  home  and  abroad. 
Perhaps,  too,  there  is  no  portion  of  the  eventful  history  of  the  Duke  of  Wel- 
lington on  which  men  are  more  apt  to  differ  in  opinion.  We  are  not  called 
upon  to  give  sentence  one  way  or  the  other, — but  this  we  must  admit,  that 
Capt.  Hamilton  has  extricated  himself  from  this  dilemma,  if  such  it  be,  with  re- 
markable address.  After  describing  the  capture  of  Rodrigo  and  Badajos,  the 
subsequent  manoeuvres  of  the  hostile  arms,  the  battle  of  Salamanca,  the  ad- 
vance upon  Madrid,  and  the  investment  of  Burgos,  he  gives  us  in  detail,  both 
the  circumstances  of  the  retrogression  upon  Tormes,  and  a  brief  and  sensible 
critique  upon  the  latter  movement,  in  which  he  lays  the  principal  blame,  partly 
upon  Generals  Blake  and  O'Donnel,  partly  upon  the  British  Ministers.  Whe- 
ther the  occupation  of  Madrid  at  all,  at  that  particular  juncture,  was  or  was  not 
an  error,  may  be  questioned, — but  if  it  were,  the  consequences  arising  out  of  it 
were  amply  redeemed  by  the  campaign  of  1813. 

Never  was  advance  more  splendid  than  that  which  began  upon  the  frontiers 
of  Portugal  on  the  16th  of  May,  and  ended  at  the  foot  of  the  Pyrenees  on  the 
2 1st  of  June.  It  was  beyond  all  comparison  the  most  magnificent,  as  well  as 
the  best  arranged  manoeuvre  ever  executed  by  a  British  army  ;  and  the  battle  of 
Vittoria  to  which  it  led  was  the  most  important,  both  in  its  direct  and  contin- 
gent consequences,  of  any  that  was  fought  during  the  whole  war.  By  that  single 
victory,  the  Peninsula  may  be  said  to  have  been  cleared, — for  the  detached  corps 
of  the  enemy  which  still  polluted  the  Spanish  soil  became  comparatively  power- 
less,— whilst  its  influence  in  affecting  the  decisions  of  the  Northern  powers, 
then  wavering  between  the  desire  of  peace  and  the  hope  of  farther  successes, 
was  immense.  To  the  victory  of  Vittoria,  indeed,  even  more  than  to  that  of 
Leipsic,  Napoleon's  first  abdication  was  owing;  for  had  the  former  not  been 
won,  the  latter  never  would  have  been  fought  for, — yet  there  are  historians  who 
forget  to  record  this, — or  to  speak  more  accurately,  who  studiously  keep  the  fact 
out  of  view.  We  do  not  envy  the  candour  of  these  men's  minds,  to  whatever 
nation  they  belong,  and  we  will  not  do  so  much  honour  to  their  names  as  to 
transcribe  them. 

The  same  spirit  which  characterizes  his  details  of  the  operations  of  1812,  give 
a  tone  to  our  author's  narrative  of  the  campaign  of  1813.  He  describes  the 
siege  and  capture  of  St.  Sebastian,  the  battle  of  the  Pyrenees,  the  crossing  of  the 
Bidassoa,  and  the  several  actions  in  the  south  of  France,  with  great  spirit  and 
fidelity;  indeed,  no  man  can  read  his  narrative  without  receiving  full  assurance, 
that  the  utmost  care  has  been  bestowed  upon  its  compilation.  Such,  however, 
is  manifestly  the  case  with  the  entire  work  from  beginning  to  end.  Every 
source  of  information  within  the  author's  reach  has  been  sedulously  explored; 
general  impartiality  has  been  exercised  in  using  the  materials  obtained  for  it ; 
and  if  here  and  there  a  trifling  error  may  be  discovered,  it  is  not  more  than 
might  be  asserted  of  the  most  admired  history  in  existence. 

Reverting  for  a  moment  to  Captain  Hamilton's  note  on  Colonel  Napier's 
view  of  the  Capture  (or  Sack)  of  Cordova,  for  which,  the  former  observes,  Colo- 


206  ANNALS   OF   THE 

nel  Napier  has  not  quoted  any  authority,  we  may  remark  that  Colonel  Napier 
grounds  his  statement  on  Dupont's  "  Journal  of  Operations,"  confirmed  by  the 
information  collected  on  the  spot  by  a  distinguished  British  officer.  Captain 
Hamilton  appears  to  lay  great  stress  on  the  authority  of  General  Foy,  whose  ac- 
count of  that  affair  he  quotes:  but  it  must  not  be  overlooked,  that  Foy's  book 
is  posthumous,  that  he  was  not  an  eye-witness  of  the  transaction,  and  that  he 
was,  besides,  a  political  enemy  of  Dupont  after  the  restoration.  We  are  not 
ourselves  amongst  those  who  are  inclined  to  palliate  the  cruel  disposition  and 
wanton  acts  of  the  French  troops  during  their  usurpation  of  the  Peninsula  ;  but 
we  state  these  facts  in  proof  of  the  difficulties  and  perplexity  under  which  the 
conscientious  Historian  must  inevitably  labour. 

We  shall  conclude,  as  we  promised  to  do,  with  giving  a  couple  of  extracts, 
illustrative  of  our  author's  power  of  description  ;  and  with  a  hearty  recommen- 
dation of  his  work,  as  one  well  entitled  to  the  general  approbation  of  his  coun- 
trymen. 

The  following  is  Capt.  Hamilton's  mode  of  introducing  his  sketch  of  the  af- 
fair of  Rolica. 

"  It  was  morning,  and  a  calm  and  quiet  beauty  seemed  to  linger  on  the  scene  of  the 
impending  conflict.  The  heights  of  Holloa,  though  steep  and  difficult  of  access,  pos- 
sessed few  of  the  sterner  and  more  imposing  features  of  mountain  scenery.  The  heat 
and  drought  of  summer  had  deprived  them  of  much  of  that  brightness  of  verdure  which 
is  common  in  a  colder  and  more  variable  climate.  Here  and  there  the  face  of  the 
heights  was  indented  by  deep  ravines,  worn  by  the  winter  torrents,  the  precipitous  banks 
of  which  were  occasionally  covered  with  wood ;  and  below,  extended  groves  of  the  cork- 
tree and  olive  ;  while  Obidos,  with  its  ancient  walls  and  fortress,  and  stupendous 
aqueduct,  rose  in  the  middle  distance.  To  the  east  the  prospect  was  terminated  by  the 
lofty  summit  of  the  Monte  Junto,  and  on  the  west  by  the  Atlantic. 

"  As  the  centre  column  commenced  its  advance  towards  the  steep  acclivity  in  front, 
the  enemy  gave  no  demonstration  of  hostility  ;  and  all  was  still  and  peaceful,  as  when 
the  goatherd  tended  his  flock  on  the  hilly  pastures,  and  the  peasant  went  forth  to  his 
labours,  carolling  his  matin  song  in  the  sunrise.  Such  was  the  scene  about  to  be  con- 
secrated in  the  eyes  of  posterity  by  the  first  considerable  outpouring  of  British  blood,  in 
a  cause  as  pure,  just,  noble,  and  generous,  as  any  of  which  history  bears  record." 

BATTLE  OF  ALBUERA. — "  About  eight  o'clock  on  the  morning  of  the  16th,  the 
French  army  were  observed  to  be  in  motion  ;  and  shortly  afterwards  a  strong  force  of 
cavalry,  supported  by  two  columns  of  infantry  and  several  guns,  issued  from  the  wooded 
ground  between  the  Ferdia  and  the  Albuera,  and  directed  its  march  towards  the  bridge. 
The  artillery  immediately  opened  fire,  and  a  heavy  cannonade  was  kept  up  on  both 
sides,  with  great  effect  on  the  part  of  the  British,  from  their  advantages  of  ground.  In 
the  meanwhile,  Soult,  crossing  the  Albuera,  under  cover  of  the  wood,  above  the  posi- 
tion, advanced  with  the  main  body  of  his  army,  and  without  opposition,  took  possession 
of  the  heights  on  the  right  flank  of  the  Spaniards.  The  combat  then  commenced.  The 
Spanish  troops,  after  a  short  resistance,  were  driven  from  their  ground,  and  Soult  then 
formed  his  army  in  a  line,  extending  to  the  Valverde  road,  and  raking  that  of  the 
Allies. 

•'  It  became  instantly  essential  to  the  safety  of  the  army,  that  the  enemy  should  be 
driven  from  the  commanding  station  he  had  thus  assumed.  Beresford  directed  a  new 
alignment ;  Gen.  Cole's  division  was  placed  in  an  oblique  line,  with  its  right  flank 
thrown  back,  and  an  endeavour  was  made  to  bring  up  the  Spanish  troops  to  the  charge. 
This  failed.  A  heavy  fire  was  kept  up  by  the  French  artillery,  and  a  charge  of  cavalry 
again  forced  them  to  retire  in  confusion.  Gen.  Stewart's  division,  therefore,  was 
brought  up,  and  passing  through  the  Spaniards,  advanced  to  gain  possession  of  the 
heights.  At  this  period  a  storm  of  rain  came  on,  which  completely  darkened  the  atmos- 
phere, and  rendered  it  impossible  to  discern  the  movements  of  the  enemy  at  any  dis- 
tance. The  right  brigade,  under  Col.  Colburne,  consisting  of  the  Buffs,  the  66th,  the 
second  battalion  48th,  and  the  31st,  was  in  the  act  of  deploying,— the  two  leading  bat- 
talions alone,  having  completed  the  manoeuvre, — when  a  regiment  of  Polish  lancers, 
which  under  shelter  of  the  mist  had  circled  their  flank,  made  a  furious  charge  from  the 
rear.  The  result  was,  that  the  whole  brigade,  with  the  exception  of  the  31st,  which 


PENINSULAR    CAMPAIGNS.  207 

still    remained  in    column,  were  driven  forward  into  the  enemy's  line,  and   made 
prisoners. 

"  Gen.  Latour  Maubourg,  with  the  cavalry,  then  took  post  beyond  the  right  of  the 
Allies,  waiting  for  the  first  indication  of  retreat,  to  execute  a  grand  and  decisive  charge, 
and  throw  confusion  into  the  movement.  Their  motions  were  watched  by  the  heavy 
brigade,  under  Gen.  Lumley,  and  the  horse  artillery  did  considerable  execution  in  their 
ranks. 

"  It  was  under  such  circumstances  that  the  brigade  of  Gen.  Houghton  was  advanced 
to  retrieve,  if  possible,  the  fortunes  of  the  day.  A  contest  of  the  most  bloody  and  perti- 
nacious character  ensued.  The  leading  regiment,  the  29th,  no  sooner  reached  the  sum- 
mit of  the  heights,  than  it  was  assailed  by  a  fire  of  musketry  and  artillery,  which  spread 
havoc  through  the  ranks, — and  in  leading  this  regiment  to  the  charge,  Gen.  Houghton 
fell  pierced  with  wounds.  Unfortunately,  the  intervention  of  a  steep  but  narrow  gulley 
rendered  it  impossible  to  reach  the  enemy  with  the  bayonet,  and  the  29th  was  directed 
to  halt  and  open  fire.  The  57th  and  48th  then  came  up,  and  assuming  their  position 
in  line,  the  struggle  was  maintained  on  both  sides  with  desperate  courage. 

"  In  this  state  of  things,  Gen.  Cole  directed  the  Fusileer  brigade  to  advance  on  the 
enemy's  left,  and  ascend  the  disputed  heights  from  the  valley.  In  the  execution  of  this 
movement,  Gen.  Cole,  and  almost  every  individual  attached  to  his  staff,  were  wounded. 
The  Fusileer  brigade,  on  crowning  the  ascent,  was  received  with  a  fire  so  tremendous, 
that  it  at  first  recoiled,  but  instantly  recovering  its  ground,  displayed,  throughout  the  re- 
mainder of  this  desperate  conflict,  a  degree  of  steadiness  and  intrepidity  impossible  to 
be  surpassed.  Col.  Sir  William  Myers,  commanding  the  brigade,  was  killed  early  in 
the  action,  and  his  country  was  thus  deprived  of  the  services  of  a  most  gallant  and  ac- 
complished officer. 

"  In  the  meanwhile,  Gen.  Houghton's  brigade  kad  maintained  its  ground  in  spite  of 
all  the  enemy's  efforts  to  dislodge  it.  Above  two-thirds  of  its  number  had  fallen,  yet 
the  remainder  continued  unbroken,  and  not  one  inch  of  ground  had  been  yielded.  At 
length,  the  entire  exhaustion  of  ammunition  made  it  necessary  to  retire,  and  the  retro- 
gressive movement  was  made  by  the  small  number  of  survivors  with  the  most  perfect  re- 
gularity. A  brigade  of  guns  was  then  advanced  to  the  front,  and  immediately  opened 
fire.  They  were  charged  in  flank  by  the  Polish  lancers,  and  for  a  moment  taken  ;  but 
the  Fusileer  brigade  coming  up,  the  cavalry  were  driven  back,  and  the  guns  with- 
drawn. 

"  At  length  the,  French  were  forced  from  their  position  with  immense  slaughter,  and 
retired  across  the  Albuera.  Marshal  Beresford,  from  his  great  inferiory  in  cavalry,  did 
not  judge  it  prudent  to  continue  the  pursuit ;  and  Soult,  alarmed  at  the  extent  of  his 
loss,  made  no  effort  to  regain  the  post,  the  pertinacious  maintenance  of  which  had  in- 
volved a  sacrifice  so  prodigious. 

"  While  these  events  were  passing  on  the  right,  several  attempts  were  made  to  gain 
possession  of  the  bridge  and  village  on  the  left.  Though  a  great  proportion  of  the  troops 
had  been  withdrawn  from  this  point,  Gen.  Allen's  light  infantry  brigade,  and  Gen. 
Hamilton's  Portuguese  division,  succeeded  in  repelling  every  attack. 

"  About  three  o'clock,  the  firing  had  entirely  ceased,  and  both  armies  took  post  on 
the  ground  they  had  occupied  in  the  morning.  Thus  terminated,  perhaps,  the  most 
fierce  and  murderous  contest  which  took  place  during  the  war.  Out  of  7500  British, 
4158  were  killed,  wounded,  or  missing.  The  total  loss  of  the  Allies  in  the  engagement, 
amounted  to  nearly  7000  men.  Soult,  in  his  official  dispatch,  rated  the  French  loss  at 
only  2,800  ;  but  it  was  ascertained,  by  an  intercepted  letter  from  Gen.  Gazan,  that  up- 
wards of  4000  wounded  were  under  charge  of  that  officer.  Taking  this  fact  in  con- 
junction with  the  number  of  killed  and  wounded  left  on  the  field,  the  loss  of  the  French 
army  cannot  be  reasonably  calculated  at  less  than  9000  men, — an  amount  of  slaughter 
on  both  sides,  which,  in  proportion  to  the  numbers  engaged,  is  altogether  enormous." 


208 


THE    LIFE    OF    SIR    THOMAtf  MUNRO.* 

WHERE  the  reputation  and  talent  of  the  biographer  correspond,  as  in  the 
present  instance,  with  the  celebrity  and  endowments  of  his  subject,  the  result 
cannot  be  doubtful : — the  Life  of  Sir  Thomas  Munro  will  rank  with  the  most 
valuable,  instructive,  and  judicious  Memoirs  in  the  range  of  British  Biography. 

The  man  who  from  a  simple  Cadet,  not  more  favoured  than  his  compeers  on 
the  score  of  fortune  or  patronage,  attained  by  his  own  splendid  abilities  and  ad- 
mirable conduct  the  highest  office  of  the  Presidency  to  which  he  had  been 
originally  attached,  it  is  needless  to  say  was  no  ordinary  person  : — such  a  career 
legitimately  claims  investigation  and  record ;  in  order  that,  embodied,  it  may 
serve  as  a  stimulus  to  the  aspirant,  a  study  to  all,  and  a  monument  of  the  worth 
passed  away. 

It  rarely  happens  that  the  posthumous  annals  of  the  great  sustain  the  impres- 
sions produced  by  their  dazzling  course.  Like  meteors  they  appear  and  vanish, 
while  their  track  is  too  often  found  but  a  faint  indication  of  a  progress  more 
brilliant  than  systematic.  In  developing  the  latent  springs  of  character  and 
events — an  office  which  belongs  alike  to  biography  and  history — it  is  more  usual, 
to  find  the  general  picture  impaired  than  improved  by  the  process.  In  these 
memoirs,  however,  we  not  only  discover  the  most  satisfactory  confirmation  of*the 
justice  done  to  the  qualities  of  their  subject  when  living,  but  are  surprised  by 
unobtrusive  evidence  of  deserts  far  exceeding  our  previous  estimate.  Like 
Bishop  Heber,  we  know  him  better  and  esteem  him  more,  since  we  have  read 
his  journal  and  shared  his  secret  thoughts.  It  has  struck  us,  that  between  these 
admirable  men  there  are  many  points  of  affinity.  Distinguished  by  the  most 
elevated  characteristics  of  their  respective  professions,  they  assimilate  in  the 
soundness  and  philanthropy  of  their  general  views  ; — both  met  their  fate  under 
nearly  the  same  circumstances  and  in  sudden  succession, — both  are  sepulchred 
in  the  adopted  land  they  visited  as  strangers  and  served  as  sons. 

In  the  beginning  of  the  year  1780,  Thomas  Munro,  then  in  his  eighteenth 
year,  landed  at  Madras  in  the  quality  of  a  Cadet.  His  father,  a  respectable  and 
once  affluent  merchant  of  Glasgow,  had  become  involved  in  his  circumstances 
in  consequence  of  the  rupture  with  our  American  Provinces,  with  which  he 
principally  traded — a  reverse,  which  as  it  led  to  the  Indian  destination  of  the 
son,  also  called  into  action  the  powerful  principle  of  domestic  duty  and  attach- 
ment, which  prompted  the  latter  to  contribute  regularly  to  the  exigencies  of  his 
family  throughout  the  whole  of  his  subsequent  life.  Arriving  in  India  at  one  of 
the  most  critical  periods  of  our  sovereignty  in  that  quarter,  (we  allude  to  the 
formidable  coalition  and  invasion  of  the  Carnatic,  under  the  inveterate  auspices 
and  able  direction  of  Hyder  Ally,  aided  by  Lally  and  his  Europeans,)  Mr. 
Munro  instantly  entered  the  field  of  active  operations,  and  from  the  outset  gave 
signal  proofs,  in  his  correspondence,  of  the  masculine  and  vigorous  intellect 
which,  in  his  after  career,  imparted  an  almost  oracular  value  to  his  opinions. 
Even  as  a  recruit,  perfectly  inexperienced  in  the  practice  and  details  of  war,  his 
sketches,  communicated  in  letters  to  his  family,  of  the  important  and  compli- 
cated events  then  in  progress,  are  characterized  by  a  critical  perception  and  pre- 
cision of  language  almost  intuitive.  Feeling  the  inefficacy  of  such  meagre  ex- 
tracts, as  our  limits  would  permit  us  to  offer,  towards  the  end  of  adequately  ex- 
hibiting to  the  reader  the  ground-work  of  our  own  favourable  impressions,  we 
must  content  ourselves  for  the  present  with  quoting  part  of  a  letter  to  his  sister, 
which  presents  a  complete  and  spirited  picture  of  his  mode  of  life,  and  proves 
that,  whether  his  subject  were  gay  or  grave,  he  drew  with  the  hand  of  a  master. 

"  Madras,  23d  January,  1789. 

'  You  seem  to  think  that  they  (Indian  officers)  live  like  those  satraps  that  you  have  read 
of  in  plays  ;  and  that  I  in  particular  hold  my  state  in  prodigious  splendour  and  magnifi- 
cence— that  I  never  go  abroad  unless  upon  an  elephant,  surrounded  with  a  crowd  of  slaves 

*  The  Life  of  Major-General  Sir  Thomas  Munro,  Bart,  and  K.C.B.  late  Governor  of 
Madras.  With  Extracts  from  his  Correspondence  and  Private  Papers. 


THE    LIFE   OF    SIR   THOMAS    MUNRO.  209 

— that  I  am  arrayed  in  silken  robes,  and  that  most  of  my  time  is  spent  in  reclining  on  a 
sofa,  listening  to  soft  music,  while  I  am  fanned  by  my  officious  pages  ;  or  in  dreaming,  like 
Richard,  under  a  canopy  of  state.  But  while  you  rejoice  in  my  imaginary  greatness,  I  am 
most  likely  stretched  on  a  mat,  instead  of  my  real  couch  ;  and  walking  in  an  old  coat,  and 
a  ragged  shirt,  in  the  noonday  sun,  instead  of  looking  down  from  my  elephant,  invested 
in  my  royal  garments.  You  may  not  believe  me  when  I  tell  you,  that  I  never  experienced 
hunger  or  thirst,  fatigue  or  poverty,  till  I  came  to  India, — that  since  then,  I  have  fre- 
quently met  with  the  first  three,  and  that  the  last  has  been  my  constant  companion.  If 
you  wish  for  proofs,  here  they  are. — I  was  three  years  in  India  before  I  was  master  of 
any  other  pillow  than  a  book  or  a  cartridge-pouch  ;  my  bed  was  a  piece  of  canvass, 
stretched  on  four  cross  sticks,  whose  only  ornament  was  the  great  coat  that  I  brought 
from  England,  which,  by  a  lucky  invention,  I  turned  into  a  blanket  in  the  cold  weather, 
by  thrusting  my  legs  into  the  sleeves,  and  drawing  the  skirts  over  my  head.  In  this 
situation  I  lay,  like  Falstaff  in  the  basket, — hilt  to  point, — and  very  comfortable,  I  as- 
sure you,  all  but  my  feet ;  for  the  tailor,  not  having  foreseen  the  various  uses  to  which 
this  piece  of  dress  might  be  applied,  had  cut  the  cloth  so  short,  that  I  never  could,  with 
all  my  ingenuity,  bring  both  ends  under  cover  ;  whatever  I  gained  by  drawing  up  my 
legs,  I  lost  by  exposing  my  neck  ;  and  I  generally  chose  rather  to  cool  my  heels  than 
my  head.  This  bed  served  me  till  Alexander  went  last  to  Bengal,  when  he  gave  me  an 
Europe  camp-couch.  On  this  great  occasion,  I  bought  a  pillow  and  a  carpet  to  lay  un- 
der me,  but  the  unfortunate  curtains  were  condemned  to  make  pillow-cases  and  towels; 
and  now,  for  the  first  time  in  India,  I  laid  my  head  on  a  pillow.  But  this  was  too  much 
good  fortune  to  bear  with  moderation  ;  I  began  to  grow  proud,  and  resolved  to  live  in 
great  style  ;  for  this  purpose  I  bought  two  table-spoons,  and  two  tea-spoons,  and  ano- 
ther chair, — for  I  had  but  one  before, — a  table,  and  two  table-cloths.  But  my  prospe- 
rity was  of  short  duration,  for,  in  less  than  three  months,  I  lost  three  of  my  spoons,  and 
one  of  my  chairs  was  broken  by  one  of  John  Napier's  companions.  This  great  blow  re- 
duced me  to  my  original  obscurity,  from  which  all  my  attempts  to  emerge  have  hitherto 
proved  in  vain." 

There  is  infinite  beauty  and  feeling  in  those  letters  of  Mr.  Munro,  in  which, 
laying  aside  the  harsher  themes  of  war  and  politics,  he  gives  free  expression  to 
the  amiable  impulses  of  his  uncorrupted  nature.  Satiated  with  details  of  the 
desolating  dissensions  and  tortuous  policy  of  the  East,  painted  with  a  power  we 
have  never  seen  surpassed,  we  dwell  gratefully  on  his  refreshing  episodes  of 
vivid  retrospect  and  graphic  narration.  On  topics  of  graver  import,  and  most 
liable  to  prejudice,  the  manly  sobriety  of  his  arguments  bespeaks  our  faith, 
while  the  vigour  of  his  language  and  reasoning  generally  commands  our  ac- 
quiescence in  his  conclusions. 

The  operations  of  the  eventful  war  referred  to,  from  its  commencement  to  the 
cessation  of  hostilities  with  the  French,  in  July  1783,  and  the  conclusion  of  a 
short-lived  peace  with  Tippoo,  the  restless  son  and  successor  of  Hyder,  in  March 
of  the  following  year,  are  detailed  with  an  accuracy  and  clearness  calculated  to 
give  the  most  distinct  impression  of  the  transactions  narrated ;  and,  sooth  to  say, 
of  the  aggregate  blunders  committed  during  the  contest,  the  much  larger  share 
is  proved  to  have  been  ours.  The  relative  merits  of  the  officers  in  command 
and  the  movements  they  conducted  are  freely  though  fairly  discussed,  while  in- 
ferences are  drawn  and  positions  laid  down  with  a  judgment  that  instructs 
while  it  surprises.  This  remark  is  not  confined  to  particular  events  or  seasons, 
it  is  applicable  to  the  whole  tenour  of  his  recorded  opinions.  Possessing  in  a 
remarkable  degree  the  quality  of  perspicacity,  his  cool  discernment  readily  pe- 
netrated and  weighed  men  and  measures — judging  those  of  the  past  or  present 
upon  their  merits,  and  calculating  the  future  with  singular  sagacity.  So  pro- 
phetic, indeed,  do  many  of  his  reflections  appear,  that  we  sometimes  forget  they 
preceded  events  at  which  they  glance,  till  recalled  from  our  error  by  a  date. 

During  the  brief  interval  of  peace  which  ensued,  Mr.  Munro,  now  appointed 
a  Lieutenant,  was  not  idle,  having  become  even  at  that  early  period  so  distin- 
guished for  talents  and  discretion,  as  to  have  been  named  an  assistant  in  the 
intelligence  Department.  In  this  capacity,  he  served  under  the  orders  of  Capt. 
Read,  in  the  occupation  of  the  ceded  district  of  Guntoor,  and  at  the  frontier  sta- 
tion of  Ambore,  until  the  breaking  out  of  the  war  with  Tippoo,  in  1790,  when  he 
again  took  the  field  with  the  army,  and  was  present  at  me  principal  events,  till 


210  THE    LIFE    OF    SIR   THOMAS   MUNRO. 

the  hollow  peace  with  the  above  unstable  Prince,  in  March  1 792 .  A  consequence 
of  this  truce,  was  the  cession,  by  Tippoo,  of  the  Baramahl,  in  the  civil  adminis- 
tration of  which  province  Mr.  Munro  was  again  employed,  under  Capt.  Read, 
till  the  year  1799,  with  infinite  advantage  to  that  country,  and  equal  honour  and 
gratification  to  himself.  In  the  ensuing  campaign,  which  terminated  in  the 
capture  of  Seringapatam  and  death  of  Tippoo,  Capt.  Munro  served  in  the  army 
of  Lord  Harris,  as  Secretary  to  his  friend  Colonel  Read,  who  commanded  a  de- 
tached force. 

On  the  conclusion  of  the  Partition  Treaty,  which  he  had  contributed  to  arrange, 
as  Secretary  to  the  Commission  for  the  settlement  of  Mysore,  conjointly  with 
his  friend  Captain  (now  Sir  John)  Malcolm,  he  was  nominated  by  Lord  Morn- 
ington,  then  Governor-General,  to  the  charge  of  the  civil  administration  of 
Canara,  a  province  acquired  by  the  late  treaty.  Forming  a  rugged,  wild,  and 
barren  strip  on  the  Western  or  Malabar  coast  of  the  Peninsula,  the  territory,  its 
climate,  and  inhabitants  were  alike  forbidding ;  superadded  to  which  objections, 
were  those  of  separation  from  his  friends,  exclusion  from  European  society,  and 
removal  from  a  district  (Baramahl)  he  had  mainly  contributed  to  organize, 
and  to  which  he  was  greatly  attached.  The  appointment  was  certainly  a  most 
flattering  testimony  to  the  well-earned  reputation  and  extraordinary  qualifications 
of  Capt.  Munro ; — still  nothing  but  a  paramount  sense  of  public  duty  overcame 
his  personal  repugnance  to  the  office,  which  he  most  reluctantly  accepted,  and 
retained,  with  eminent  success  and  advantage  to  the  state,  till  the  latter  end  of 
the  year  1800.  Perhaps  in  no  portion  of  his  useful  life  was  his  conduct  more 
admirable,  or  his  labours  more  arduous,  than  in  his  charge  at  Canara.  Sur- 
mounting with  infinite  temper  incredible  difficulties  in  the  discharge  of  his  soli- 
tary functions,  and  manfully  bearing  up  against  the  severe  privations  incidental 
to  his  situation,  the  energy  of  his  character,  and  the  powers  of  his  mind,  were 
never  more  conspicuous. 

About  this  period,  a  name  of  illustrious  presage  occurs  in  these  Memoirs. 
Colonel  Wellesley,  in  command  of  the  army  of  Mysore,  took  the  field  against 
Dhondee  Wahag,  an  adventurer  of  Mahratta  extraction,  but  a  native  of  the  former 
country.  This  chief,  after  the  usual  vicissitudes  as  a  trooper  in  Hyder's  army, 
a  freebooter,  and  a  partisan,  having,  at  the  time  of  the  capture  of  Seringapatam, 
escaped  from  a  dungeon  in  that  fortress,  into  which  he  had  been  thrown  by  Tip- 
poo, had  succeeded  in  collecting  a  formidable  force  to  the  north  of  the  Toombud- 
dra,  and  aimed  at  nothing  less  than  sovereignty.  After  a  series  of  active  and  skil- 
ful movements,  indicative  in  no  slight  degree  of  the  pre-eminent  talents  for  com- 
mand, which  have  since  raised  our  military  reputation  to  the  first  rank  in  Europe, 
Colonel  Wellesley  overtook,  totally  defeated,  and  slew  "  The  King  of  the  Two 
Worlds," — so  the  Colonel  ironically  styles  Dhondee,  in  his  familiar  and  spirited 
correspondence  with  Major  Munro ; — a  correspondence  from  which,  were  proof 
wanting,  we  derive  the  conviction  that  even  then  foresight,  decision,  and  system 
guided  the  military  operations  of  the  writer.  We  would  give  Colonel  Wellesley's 
letter  announcing  this  victory,  but  that  a  document  of  peculiar  interest  to  the 
professional  reader  claims  our  disposable  space. 

It  is  necessary  to  premise,  that  Major  Munro,  having  succeeded  in  putting  the 
intricate  affairs  of  Canara  in  train,  applied  for  and  was  transferred  to  the  manage- 
ment of  the  Ceded  Districts;  these  were  composed  of  certain  provinces  assigned 
in  perpetuity  to  the  Company  by  the  Nizam,  as  a  commutation  for  his  monthly 
subsidy  appropriated  to  the  maintenance  of  the  subsidiary  force  at  his  capital, 
Hyderabad.  In  this  new  field,  to  the  full  as  laborious  as  his  late  charge,  and 
much  more  personally  dangerous  in  consequence  of  the  presence  of  lawless 
bands  of  armed  and  conflicting  natives,  Major  Munro  displayed  with  the  same 
effect  those  superior  qualities,  which  not  only  achieved  the  complete  organiza- 
tion of  a  disturbed  and  barbarous  territory,  but,  during  the  seven  years'  of  his 
continued  superintendence,  won  him  golden  opinions  from  all  classes  of  the 
Ceded  Districts,  where  he  was  known  by  the  appellation  of  "  The  Father  of  the 
People." 


THE    LIFE   OF   SIR   THOMAS   MUNRO.  211 

In  the  mean  time  war  with  Scindiah  and  the  Rajah  of  Berar  broke  out,  and 
the  battle  of  Assye  was  fought  on  the  23d  Sept.  1803.  Shortly  after,  the  fol- 
lowing letter,  to  which  we  have  alluded  above,  was  addressed  by  the  conqueror 
on  that  memorable  day  to  Major  Munro,  who  had  criticised  certain  dispositions 
preceding  the  battle.  On  the  interest  and  value  of  this  document  it  is  unne- 
cessary for  us  to  comment. 

"  Camp  at  Cherikain,  Nov.  1st,  1803. 

"  My  dear  Munro, — As  you  are  a  judge  of  a  military  operation,  and  as  I  am  desirous 
of  having  your  opinion  on  iny  side,  1  am  about  to  give  you  an  account  of  the  battle  of 
Assye,  in  answer  to  your  letter  of  the  19th  October  ;  in  which  I  think  1  shall  solve  all 
the  doubts  which  must  naturally  occur  to  any  man  who  looks  at  that  transaction  with- 
out a  sufficient  knowledge  of  the  facts.  Before  you  will  receive  this,  you  will  most  pro- 
bably have  seen  my  public  letter  to  the  Governor-General  regarding  the  action,  a  copy 
of  which  was  sent  to  Gen.  Campbell.  That  letter  will  give  you  a  general  outline  of  the 
facts.  Your  principal  objection  to  the  action  is,  that  I  detached  Col.  Stevenson.  The 
fact  is,  I  did  not  detach  Col.  Stevenson.  His  was  a  separate  corps  equally  strong,  if 
not  stronger  than  mine.  We  were  desirous  to  engage  the  enemy  at  the  same  time,  and 
settled  a  plan  accordingly  for  an  attack  on  tbe  morning  of  the  24th.  We  separated  on 
the  22d  ;  he  to  march  by  the  western,  I  by  the  eastern  road,  round  the  hills  between 
Eudnapore  and  Jalna  ;  and  I  have  to  observe,  that  this  separation  was  necessary, — 
first,  because  both  corps  could  not  pass  through  the  same  denies  in  one  day  ;  secondly, 
because  it  was  to  be  apprehended,  that  if  we  left  open  one  of  the  roads  through  those 
hills,  the  enemy  might  have  passed  to  the  southward  while  we  were  going  to  the  north- 
ward, and  then  the  action  would  have  been  delayed,  or  probably  avoided  altogether. 
Col.  Stevenson  and  I  were  never  more  than  twelve  miles  distant  from  each  other  ;  and 
when  I  moved  forward  to  the  action  of  the  23d,  we  were  not  much  more  than  eight 
miles.  As  usual,  we  depended  for  our  intelligence  of  the  enemy's  position  on  the  com- 
mon hircarrahs  of  the  country.  Their  horse  were  so  numerous,  that  without  an  army 
their  position  could  not  be  reconnoitred  by  an  European  officer  ;  and  even  the  hircar- 
rahs in  our  own  service,  who  were  accustomed  to  examine  and  report  on  positions,  can- 
not be  employed  Jiere,  as,  being  natives  of  the  Carnatic,  they  are  as  well  known  as  an 
European. 

"  The  hircarrahs  reported  the  enemy  to  be  at  Bokerdun.  Their  right  was  at  Boker- 
dun,  which  was  the  principal  place  in  their  position,  and  gave  the  name  to  the  district 
in  which  they  were  encamped  ;  but  their  left,  in  which  was  their  infantry,  which  I  was 
to  attack,  was  at  Assye,  which  was  six  or  eight  miles  from  Bokerdun. 

"  I  directed  my  march  so  as.  to  be  within  twelve  or  fourteen  miles  of  their  army  at 
Bokerdun,  as  I  thought,  on  the  23d.  But  when  I  arrived  at  the  ground  of  encamp- 
ment, I  found  that  I  was  not  more  than  five  or  six  miles  from  it.  I  was  then  informed 
that  the  cavalry  had  marched,  and  the  infantry  was  about  to  follow,  but  was  still  on  the 
ground  ;  at  all  events,  it  was  necessary  to  ascertain  these  points  ;  and  I  could  not  ven- 
ture to  reconnoitre  without  my  whole  force.  But  I  believed  the  report  to  be  true,  and 
I  determined  to  attack  the  infantry  if  it  remained  still  upon  the  ground.  I  apprized 
Col.  Stevenson  of  this  determination,  and  desired  him  to  move  forward.  Upon  march- 
ing on  I  found  not  only  their  infantry,  but  their  cavalry  encamped  in  a  most  formidable 
position,  which,  by  the  by,  it  could  have  been  impossible  for  me  to  attack,  if,  when  the 
infantry  changed  their  front,  they  had  taken  care  to  occupy  the  only  passage  there  was 
across  the  Kaitna. 

"  When  I  found  their  whole  army,  and  contemplated  their  position,  of  course  I  con- 
sidered whether  I  should  attack  immediately,  or  should  delay  till  the.  following  morn- 
ing. I  determined  upon  the  immediate  attack,  because  I  saw  clearly  that  if  I  attempt- 
ed to  return  to  my  camp  at  Naulniah,  I  should  have  been  followed  thither  by  the  whole 
of  the  enemy's  cavalry,  and  I  might  have  suffered  some  loss  :  instead  of  attacking,  I 
might  have  been  attacked  there  in  the  morning  ;  and,  at  all  events,  I  should  have  found 
it  very  difficult  to  secure  my  baggage,  as  I  did,  in  any  place  so  near  the  enemy's  camp, 
in  which  they  should  know  it  was  ;  I  therefore  determined  upon  the  attack  immediately. 
"  It  was  certainly  a  most  desperate  one  ;  but  our  guns  were  not  silenced.  Our  bul- 
locks, and  the  people  who  were  employed  to  draw  them,  were  shot,  and  they  could  not 
all  be  drawn  on  ;  but  some  were  ;  and  all  continued  to  fire  as  long  as  the  fire  could  be 
of  any  use.  Desperate  as  the  action  was,  our  loss  would  not  have  exceeded  one-half  of 
its  present  amount,  if  it  had  not  been  for  a  mistake  in  the  officer  who  led  the  picquets 
which  were  on  the  right  of  the  first  line. 


212  THE    LIFE    OF    SIR    THOMAS    MUNRO. 

"  When  the  enemy  changed  their  position,  they  threw  their  left  to  Assye,  in  which 
village  they  had  some  infantry  ;  and  it  was  surrounded  by  cannon.  As  soon  as  I  saw 
that,  I  directed  the  officer  commanding  the  picquets  to  keep  out  of  shot  from  that  vil- 
lage ;  instead  of  that,  he  led  directly  upon  it ;  the  79th,  which  were  on  the  right  of  the 
first  line,  followed  the  picquets,  and  the  great  loss  we  sustained  was  in  these  two  bodies. 
A  nother  evil  which  resulted  from  this  mistake  was  the  necessity  of  introducing  the  ca- 
valry into  the  cannonade  and  the  action,  long  before  it  was  time,  by  which  that  corps 
lost  many  men,  and  its  unity  and  efficiency,  which  I  intended  to  bring  forward  in  a 
close  pursuit  at  the  heel  of  the  day.  But  it  was  necessary  to  bring  forward  the  cavalry 
to  save  the  remains  of  the  79th  and  the  picquets,  which  would  otherwise  have  been  en- 
tirely destroyed.  Another  evil  resulting  from  it  was,  that  we  had  then  no  reserve  left, 
and  a  parcel  of  straggling  horse  cut  up  our  wounded  ;  and  straggling  infantry  who  had 
pretended  to  be  dead,  turned  their  guns  upon  our  backs. 

"  After  all,  notwithstanding  this  attack  upon  Assye  by  our  right  and  the  cavalry,  no 
impression  was  made  upon  the  corps  collected  there,  till  I  made  a  movement  upon  it 
with  some  troops  taken  from  our  left,  after  the  enemy's  right  had  been  defeated  ;  and  it 
would  have  been  as  well  to  have  left  it  alone  entirely  till  that  movement  was  made. 
However,  I  do  not  wish  to  cast  any  reflection  upon  the  officer  who  led  the  picquets.  I 
lament  the  consequences  of  his  mistake  ;  but  I  must  acknowledge  that  it  was  not  pos- 
sible for  a  man  to  lead  a  body  into  a  hotter  fire  than  he  did  the  picquets  on  that  day 
against  Assye. 

"  After  the  action  there  was  no  pursuit,  because  our  cavalry  was  not  then  in  a  state 
to  pursue.  It  was  near  dark  when  the  action  was  over  ;  and  we  passed  the  night  on  the 
field  of  battle.  Colonel  Stevenson  marched  with  part  of  his  corps  as  soon  as  he  heard  that 
I  was  about  to  move  forward,  and  he  also  moved  upon  Bokerdun.  He  did  not  receive 
my  letter  till  evening.  He  got  entangled  in  a  nullah  in  the  night,  and  arrived  at  Bo- 
kerdun, about  eight  miles  from  me  to  the  westward,  at  eight  in  the  morning  of  the  24th. 

"  The  enemy  passed  the  night  of  the  23d  at  about  twelve  miles  from  the  field  of  bat- 
tle, twelve  from  the  Adjuntee  Ghaut,  and  eight  from  Bokerdun.  As  soon  as  they  heard 
that  Colonel  Stevenson  was  advancing  to  the  latter  place,  they  set  ofF,  and  never  stopped 
till  they  had  got  down  the  Ghaut,  where  they  arrived  in  the  course  cf  the  night  of  the 
24th.  After  his  difficulties  of  the  night  of  the  23d,  Colonel  Stevenson  was  in  no  state 
to  follow  them,  and  did  not  do  so  till  the  26th.  The  reason  for  which  he  was  detained 
till  that  day  was,  that  I  might  have  the  benefit  of  the  assistance  of  his  surgeons  to  dress 
my  wounded  soldiers,  many  of  whom,  after  all,  were  not  dressed  for  nearly  a  week,  for 
want  of  the  necessary  number  of  medical  men.  I  had  also  a  long  and  difficult  negotia- 
tion with  the  Nizam's  sirdars,  to  induce  them  to  admit  my  wounded  into  any  of  the  Ni- 
zam's forts  ;  and  I  could  not  allow  them  to  depart  until  I  had  settled  that  point.  Be- 
sides, I  knew  that  the  enemy  had  passed  the  Ghaut,  and  that  to  pursue  them  a  day 
sooner  or  a  day  later  could  make  no  difference.  Since  the  battle  Stevenson  has  taken 
Barhampoor  and  Asseergur.  I  have  defended  the  Nizam's  territories.  They  first 
threatened  them  through  the  Caperbay  Ghaut,  and  I  moved  to  the  southward,  to  the 
neighbourhood  of  Arungabad.  I  then  saw  clearly  that  they  intended  to  attempt 
the  siege  of  Asseergur,  and  I  moved  up  to  the  northward,  and  descended  the  Adjuntee 
Ghaut,  and  stopped  Scindiah.  Stevenson  took  Asseergur  on  the  21st.  I  heard  the  in- 
telligence on  the  24th,  and  that  the  Rajah  of  Berar  had  come  to  the  south  with  an  army. 
I  ascended  the  Ghaut  on  the  25th,  and  have  marched  a  hundred  and  twenty  miles  since 
in  eight  days,  by  which  I  have  saved  all  our  convoys,  and  the  Nizam's  territories.  I 
have  been  near  the  Rajah  of  Berar  two  days,  in  the  course  of  which  he  has  marched 
five  times  ;  and  I  suspect  that  he  is  now  off  to  his  own  country,  finding  that  he  can  do 
nothing  in  this.  If  that  is  the  case,  I  shall  soon  begin  an  offensive  operation  there. 

Believe  me  ever  yours  sincerely,  ARTHUR  WELLESLEY." 

We  have  dwelt  so  long  on  the  earlier  and  less  familiar  portion  of  Sir  Thomas 
Munro's  career,  that  we  must  hasten  to  its  consistent,  though  premature,  con- 
summation. In  April  1808,  he  at  length  revisited  England,  with  the  rank  of 
Lieutenant-Colonel,  after  twenty-eight  years'  uninterrupted  service  in  India ; 
and  after  a  residence  of  six  years  in  the  British  Islands,  where  he  was  received 
and  courted  with  flattering  distinction,  and  finally  married  a  lady  who  has  done 
honour  to  his  choice,  Col.  Munro  returned  to  Madras  in  1814,  as  the  head  of 
a  Commission  of  Inquiry  into  the  Judicial  Administration  of  our  Eastern  domi- 
nions; a  charge  which  he  fulfilled  with  his  customary  judgment  and  intelligence. 

In  the  war  with  the  Pindarries  and  Mahrattas,  in  1817  and  the  following  year 


THE    LIFE   OF    SIR   THOMAS    MUNRO.  213 

Colonel  Munro,  with  the  rank  of  Brigadier,  was  at  length  gratified  with  an  ac- 
tive command.  For  the  admirable  manner  in  which  he  conducted  his  portion  of 
the  operations,  we  must  refer  our  readers  to  his  life ;  the  details  cannot  be  read 
without  benefit.  In  the  field  as  in  the  cutcherry,  lie  was  alike  shrewd,  energetic, 
and  successful. 

Having  resigned  his  military  command  at  the  conclusion  of  the  war,  Sir  Tho- 
mas Munro,  accompanied  by  his  family,  again  visited  England  in  1819 ;  but  his 
talents  for  government  were  too  necessary  to  the  state  to  allow  him  repose ;  and 
amidst  the  most  honourable  testimonials  of  esteem,  he  returned  to  Madras,  as  suc- 
cessor to  Mr.  Elliott  in  the  Government  of  that  Presidency.  He  had  now  the 
rank  of  Major-General,  with  the  insignia  of  K.C.B. ;  and  in  1826,  as  'an  addi- 
tional mark  of  favour,  was  created  a  Baronet.  The  Burmese  war  occurring  most 
inopportunely  for  his  views  of  finally  and  immediately  quitting  India,  he  sacri- 
ficed his  personal  wishes  and  convenience  to  the  public  service,  in  retaining  his 
office  till  the  conclusion  of  the  treaty.  Having  at  length,  in  1827,  made  every 
arrangement  for  returning  to  enjoy  his  well-earned  honours  in  his  native  island, 
he  proceeded  to  pay  a  farewell  visit  to  his  old  friends,  the  People  of  the  Ceded 
Districts,  for  whom  he  had  continued  to  feel  a  strong  interest, — and  being  at- 
tacked on  the  5th  July  with  cholera,  then  prevalent  in  the  country,  he  expired 
amongst  them  on  the  following  day,  near  Gooty,  where  he  lies  interred.  Never, 
it  would  appear,  was  functionary  more  deeply  and  universally  lamented. 

While  the  military  movements  of  Sir  Thomas  Munro,  with  very  inadequate 
means  as  in  1817,  were  most  skilfully  directed,  no  one  more  sedulously  studied  or 
more  thoroughly  understood  the  habits  and  character  of  the  Natives,  or  has  suc- 
ceeded so  well  in  managing  and  attaching  them.  He  addressed  the  people  through 
their  own  dialects  with  which  he  had  made  himself  familiar, — an  example  which 
demands  a  more  general  imitation  in  every  quarter  connected  with  Colonial 
Government.  Profoundly  versed  in  the  political  and  social  relations  of  India, 
his  active  thought  appears  to  have  equally  embraced  every  topic  of  its  literature 
and  topography,  while  his  knowledge  of  human  nature  was  equally  extensive 
and  minute.  His  views  of  society  are  traced  with  a  singleness  and  power  which 
convince ;  and  if  there  appear  an  occasional  shade  of  stoicism  or  singularity  in 
his  philosophy,  it  is  dispelled  on  the  instant  by  the  charms  of  a  cultivated  wit, 
and  the  redeeming  influences  of  domestic  affection  and  comprehensive  benevo- 
lence. To  the  attractions  of  Nature  he  was  as  confessedly  alive  as  her  most  sen- 
timental votaries,  and  his  local  predilections  were  distinguished  by  their  warmth 
and  permanence.  His  professional  and  public  zeal  are  proved  to  have  been 
unbounded,  and  to  have  suffered  no  diminution  under  circumstances  of  per- 
sonal disappointment  or  disgust. 

In  trenching,  as  we  have  been  thus  tempted  to  do,  on  the  domain  of  the  bio- 
grapher, we  would  guard  our  readers  against  the  supposition  that  our  language 
conveys  an  adequate  impression  of  the  masterly  and  elegant  sketches  of  Mr.  Gleig, 
nor  of  the  sound  selection  and  happy  arrangement  of  his  materials.  Fortunately  so 
much  remains  of  Sir  Thomas  Munro's  correspondence  and  papers,  as  to  form  an 
almost  unbroken  chain  of  narrative  during  half  a  century,  comprising  the  most 
important  period  of  our  oriental  empire ;  and  the  series  is  so  judiciously  con- 
nected, the  links  are  so  fine,  and  the  whole  is  so  skilfully  woven,  without  unne- 
cessary digression  or  dissertation,  into  its  natural  order,  that  even  when  guided 
by  the  biographer,  we  still  keep  sight  of  his  gifted  original. 

We  have  been  advisedly  particular  in  giving  an  outline  of  Sir  Thomas 
Munro's  career  for  the  general  information  of  our  readers  ; — but  of  the  multifa- 
rious, interesting,  and  always  valuable  details  comprehended  in  these  sterling 
volumes,  we  do  not  pretend  to  have  furnished  more  than  a  hasty  glimpse.  It 
will  become,  we  predict,  a  standard  work,  inseparable  from  Indian  history, 
civil,  military,  and  topographical ;  and  will  be  duly  prized  by  the  general 
reader,  if  we  err  not  in  thinking  it  does  honour  to  our  literature,  as  well  as  by 
all  who  feel  interest  in  those  regions  on  which  it  throws  the  light  of  a  superior 
intelligence  and  an  acknowledged  authority. 


214 

FOREIGN    MISCELLANY. 

FRANCE. 

"  IT  has  been  asserted,  and  it  is  generally  believed,"  saysM.  de  Chambray,* 
"  that  troops  fight  more  bravely  in  the  midst  of  their  own  country,  in  defence  of 
their  own  homes,  of  their  friends  and  relations,  and  all  that  is  most  dear  to  them, 
than  they  do  in  the  territory  of  an  enemy :  but  it  is  a  great  deception,  at  least  in. 
all  that  regards  the  attack  of  fortified  places,  as  well  as  combats  and  battles.  It 
may  happen  otherwise  with  troops  who  have  to  defend  places,  because  their  in- 
dividual valour  plays  the  principal  part :  for  this  reason  it  is  that  inhabitants,  or 
new  or  ill-organized  levies,  who  can  make  no  stand  in  the  field,  often  defend  a 
place  more  bravely  than  excellent  troops;  a  very  remarkable  instance  of  which 
occurred  during  the  Peninsular  war  in  1809. 

"  The  army  of  Arragon,  commanded  by  Castanos,  and  composed  of  new  levies, 
was  beaten  in  the  plains  of  Tudela  by  a  French  corps,  which  was  inferior  to  it 
in  number,  and  to  which  it  scarcely  opposed  any  resistance.  But  the  Spanish 
corps  was  only  a  simple  reunion  of  men  scarcely  organized,  and  the  French  a 
body  of  battalions  and  squadrons  long  experienced  in  war.  This  same  army  of 
Arragon,  having  taken  refuge  in  Saragossa,  effaced,  by  an  heroic  defence  of  that 
fortress,  the  disgrace  with  which  they  had  covered  themselves  but  a  short  time 
before.''  (p.  19.) — We  are  ready  to  admit  the  general  principle  here  laid  down, 
but  with  regard  to  its  illustration  in  the  siege  of  Zaragoza,  beg  to  refer  M.  de 
Chambray  to  the  excellent  observations  of  Col.  Napier  on  that  remarkable  de- 
fence, on  perusing  which,  he  will,  we  think,  coincide  with  the  enlightened 
author  in  his  well-grounded  assertion,  that  "  It  was  not  patriotism,  nor  was  it 
courage,  nor  skill,  nor  fortitude,  nor  a  system  of  terror,  but  all  these  combined 
under  peculiar  circumstances,  that  upheld  the  defence  of  Zaragoza/'f 

"  Places,"  continues  M.  de  Chambray,  "  are  taken  by  methodical  operations 
traced  by  art ;  good  dispositions  executed  with  vigour,  and  the  good  conduct  of 
battalions,  squadrons,  and  batteries,  gain  the  victory  in  combats  and  battles. 

"  This  good  conduct  depends,  in  a  great  measure,  on  the  confidence  which 
troops  have  in  their  general,  and  the  confidence  of  the  different  arms,  and  that 
of  the  different  corps  of  which  each  arm  is  composed,  among  themselves.  The 
presence  of  the  enemy  in  the  territory,  with  the  defence  of  which  the  troops  are 
entrusted,  must  diminish  or  destroy  this  confidence,  and  nothing  can  restore  it ; 
it  augments,  on  the  contrary,  among  troops  who  penetrate  into  the  enemy's  ter- 
ritory ;  desertion  to  the  interior  becomes  impossible :  the  soldier  far  from  his 
home,  in  the  middle  of  a  hostile  country,  surrounded  with  people  of  whose  lan- 
guage he  is  ignorant,  and  who  are  sometimes  in  insurrection,  closes  to  his  co- 
lours, and  the  army  becomes  better.  Thus,  generally  speaking,  armies  fight  less 
bravely  in  their  own  territory  that  in  that  of  the  enemy."  (p.  20.) 

M.  de  Chambray  then  cites  the  defeats  of  the  Roman  armies  almost  under  the 
walls  of  Rome,  and  the  overthrow  of  the  Vandals  by  Belisarius,  in  the  heart  of 
their  African  possessions. 

The  same  subject  is  followed  up  in  the  second  chapter,  where  also  the  ancient 
mode  of  warfare,  order  of  battle,  &c.  are  discussed  and  contrasted  with  those  of 
a  later  period. 

"  The  best  infantry,"  observes  the  author,  "  is  that  which  has  the  best  officers 
and  non-commissioned  officers  (cadres)^  and  the  best  mould  (noyau)  of  old  sol- 
diers ;  and  as  the  former  cannot  exist  without  the  latter,  it  follows  that  in  general 
that  infantry  which  has  the  best  cadres  is  the  best.  The  question  is  therefore 
reduced  to  the  examination  of  what  constitutes  the  excellence  of  the  cadres. 

"The  best  cadres  are  those  who  have  received  military  instruction,  who  possess 
esprit  de  corps,  are  disciplined,  experienced,  and  composed  of  brave  soldiers; 
with  such  cadres,  battalions  will  do  their  duty,  no  matter  under  what  circum- 
stances they  may  be  placed. 


"  Philosophic  de  la  Guerre,  par  le  M.  de  Chambray,"  (continued  from  our 
t  Napier's  History  of  the  War  in  the  Feninsula,  Vol.  ii.  p.  48. 


last.) 


FOREIGN    MISCELLANY.  215 

"  The  passions  and  feelings  of  which  I  have  before  spoken,  will  undoubtedly 
exercise  some  influence  upon  the  battalions,  and  augment  the  ardour  with  which 
they  are  animated  ;  but  these  causes  are  only  accessary,  and  exercise  but  a  tem- 
porary and  variable  influence.  Soldiers  being  moreover  bound  to  observe  a 
blind  obedience  towards  their  superiors,  in  every  thing  connected  with  the  ser- 
vice, find  themselves  in  a  state  of  dependance,  which  renders  them  less  suscep- 
tible of  the  effect  of  passions.  That  cause  which  exercises  the  most  influence 
upon  troops  is,  undeniably,  the  opinion  which  they  have  of  the  talents  of  the 
general  who  commands  them."  (pp.  40.  41.) 

The  third  chapter  contains  some  reflections  upon  the  organization  of  armies, 
among  which  is  the  following  clear  view  of  the  different  modes  of  advancement, 
and  their  consequences. 

"  There  are  four  distinct  modes  of  advancement,  by  seniority,  by  choice,  by 
purchase,  and  by  election. 

"  The  first  mode,  which  presents  an  appearance  of  justice  in  certain  respects, 
produces  the  most  disastrous  results:  seniority  is  blind  ;  it  extinguishes  the  fire 
of  emulation,  and  only  supplies  us  with  officers  who  have  grown  old  in  the  in- 
ferior grades  :  the  head  of  the  army,  chilled  by  age,  cannot  well,  in  time  of  war, 
fulfil  the  important  functions  which  are  confided  to  him ;  the  best  troops  then 
find  themselves  paralysed,  and  the  army  becomes  a  body  without  a  soul.  Prus- 
sia experienced  this  cruel  consequence  in  1806."  (p.  65.) 

The  inequality  of  the  moral  and  physical  powers  of  the  unfortunate  Duke  of 
Brunswick,  who  was  seventy-two  years  of  age  when,  in  1806,  he  undertook  the 
chief  command  over  the  Prussian  army,  no  doubt  led  to  that  train  of  military 
errors  winch  terminated  in  the  fatal  battles  of  Auerstadt  and  Jena,  and  finally, 
laid  Prussia  prostrate  at  the  feet  of  Napoleon  :  it  is,  however,  probable,  that  the 
military  talent  which  this  Prince  had  shown  during  the  Seven  Year's  War,  when 
his  name  was  often  associated  with  that  of  the  great  Frederick,  and  not  the  cir- 
cumstance of  his  seniority,  led  to  the  confidence  which  was  reposed  in  him  by 
the  King  of  Prussia,  who  might  have  called  to  mind  that  Ziethen  was  sixty-one 
when  he  decided  the  battle  of  Torgau,  and  that  SuwarrofF  was  seventy  when  he 
made  a  retreat,  of  which  Moreau  is  reported  to  have  said,  "je  donnerois  toutes 
mes  campagnes  pour  celle  dela  Suisse  du  General  Souwarroff."  Such  instances 
of  "  green  old  age  "  are,  however,  of  rare  occurrence,  and  ought  not  to  be  looked 
for  in  the  military  roster. 

"  Unconditional  advancement  by  choice,"  continues  M.  de  Chambray,  places 
promotion  in  the  hands  of  favour  and  intrigue,  but  this  mode  has  never  been 
practised  in  any  standing  aniny.  Choice  is  only  exercised  on  certain  conditions ; 
that  is  to  say,  no  officers  can  be  selected  for  promotion  who  are  not  in  a  situa- 
tion determined  by  the  laws  or  ordinances,  or  sometimes  by  custom,  and  never- 
theless favour  and  intrigue  always  preserve  a  great  influence. 

"  Unconditional  advancement  by  purchase  would  be  attended  with  the  last 
degree  of  immorality,  and  would  not  only  destroy  emulation,  but  the  noble 
feelings  that  ought  to  be  preserved  with  so  much  care  in  the  heart  of  the  soldier: 
therefore,  we  have  no  example  of  advancement  by  purchase  unqualified  by  de- 
termined rules  and  ordinances,  or  unaccompanied  by  one  of  the  two  preceding 
modes,  or  by  both  of  them. 

"  Advancement  by  election  can  only  be  employed  regimentally.  In  this  mode 
there  is  no  fear  of  persons  notoriously  incapable  or  ill-conducted  being  promot- 
ed ;  the  election  will  depend  much  on  the  composition  of  the  corps  of  officers  ; 
that  of  a  corps  composed  of  uneducated  men  taking  a  different  direction  from 
that  of  a  corps  of  officers  well  educated  and  instructed  Under  any  circum- 
stances, this  mode  of  advancement  is  prejudicial  to  discipline,  and  may  become 
fatal  in  times  of  disturbance,  as  an  instrument  in  the  hands  of  the  factious.  Be- 
sides these  four  modes  of  advancement,  there  are  many  others  which  result  from 
the  combination."  (p.  87.) 

M.  de  Chambray  does  not  take  upon  himself  to  determine  which  of  these  dif- 
ferent modes  of  advancement,  or  what  combination  of  them  is  most  conducive 


FOREIGN    MISCELLANY, 

to  the  interests  of  a  state,  which  he  allows  must  be  considered  in  a  political  as 
well  as  military  point  of  view:  he,  however,  justly  observes,  that  "  the  mode  of 
advancement  by  purchase  is  peculiarly  a  political  measure  ;  that  in  endeavour- 
ing to  avoid  the  evils  resulting  from  promotion  by  seniority,  we  fall  into  those 
which  follow  promotion  by  choice ;  and  that  pecuniary  or  political  reasons  are 
always  opposed  to  the  adoption  of  a  mode  of  advancement,  which  in  all  its 
bearings  would  be,  in  a  military  point  of  view,  the  best."  (£&.) 

The  system  of  promotion  now  followed  in  the  British  army,  is  a  combination 
of  the  three  first  modes  pointed  out  by  M.  de  Chambray,  and  is,  perhaps,  as 
generally  beneficial  to  the  interests  of  the  kingdom  as  any  other  that  could  be 
devised.  By  it  the  support  of  our  aristocracy  is  insured,  the  excitement  of  pro-^ 
motion  is  kept  up,  the  claims  of  hard  services  are  liberally  acknowledged-;'— 
peace  does  not  encumber  us  with  superannuated  veterans,  nor  war  surprise  us 
by  an  unanswerable  demand  upon  energy  and  exertion.  Like  all  human  insti- 
tutions, our  system  admits  of,  and  will  no  doubt  progressively  receive,  improve- 
ment ;  but  we  should  consider  ourselves  guilty  of  an  ungrateful  indifference  to 
the  patriotic  exertions  of  that  illustrious  Prince  by  whom  it  was  founded,  were 
we  to  forego  the  opportunity  which  M.  de  Chambray's  observations  afford  us, 
of  acknowledging  its  general  excellence. 

FRENCH    ARMY    FOR    1830. 

The  following  is  the  return  made  by  the  Minister  at  War  to  the  King  in 
Council,  of  the  number  of  officers,  including  the  last  annual  general  promotion, 
according  to  the  military  ordinance  of  the  25th  Nov. 

Marshals  of  France.       ....  12 

Officers  of  the  General  Staff          .         .  2,608 

of  the  King's  Household    .         .  1,449 

Gendarmerie  Roy  ale          .         .  670 

Cavalry  Garde  Itoyale  (French)  565 

Infantry  ditto     ditto      (ditto)  590 

• Swiss  Guards            .         .         .  196 

Regular  Cavalry        .         .         .  2,540 

Infantry  of  the  Line  (French)  7,187 

(Swiss)  425 

Royal  Artillery          .         .         .  1,180 

Engineers          .         .         .         .  268 


—  Waggon  Train           ...  54 

—  Garrison  Companies          .         .  254 

—  Medical  Staff            .         .         .  320 

—  Veterinary  Surgeons          .         .  1 40 

—  Commissariat            .  120 


Total         .         .         .     18,718 

CAVALRY  OF  THE  GARDE  ROYALE. 

4  Regiments  of  Cuirassiers, 
6         ditto         Hussars, 

4  ditto         Lancers, 

6  ditto  Chasseurs, 
6  ditto  Dragoons, 
1  ditto  Horse  Artillery. 

REGULAR    CAVALRY. 

6  Regiments  of  Cuirassiers, 
15         ditto         Hussars, 

6         ditto         Lancers, 
1 2         ditto         Chasseurs,' 
20         ditto         Dragoons, 

5  ditto         Artillery. 


FOREIGN    MISCELLANY.  217 

And  there  are  180  Regiments  of  Infantry,  making  a  total  number  of  250,000 
effective  men,  which  is  constantly  kept  up  by  the  conscription. 

AMERICA. 

In  the  short  prospectus  to  the  "  Foreign  Miscellany"  offered  in  our  last  num- 
ber, we  omitted  (most  uncourteously  we  must  allow)  to  suggest  the  probability 
of  the  American  continent  affording  us  any  subject-matter  for  our  melanges: 
that  our  readers  in  those  latitudes  will  attribute  this  omission  to  intentional 
neglect,  we  trust  our  constant  endeavours  to  be  impartial  will  prevent  the  possi- 
bility, and  will  accept,  in  atonement,  the  following  extract. 

Report  upon  the  Military  Academy  of  West-Point,  made  to  the  Secretary  of 
the  United  States,  by  the  examining  Commissioners  : 

Nothing  can  surpass  the  knowledge  of  the  cadets  in  every  thing  that  concerns 
arithmetical  calculation.  The  most  complicated  problems  in  geometry  were 
drawn  with  the  greatest  neatness,  dexterity,  and  precision;  and  all  the  ques- 
tions, although  difficult  and  complicated,  were  resolved  with  a  promptitude  and 
exactness  which  astonished  several  members  of  the  Commission,  who  are  good 
judges  in  such  matters. 

In  civil  and  military  engineering,  the  knowledge  of  the  cadets  was  not  less 
satisfactory. 

However,  with  respect  to  fortification,  the  Commissioners  are  obliged  to  con- 
fess, that  models  in  relief  are  wanting ;  and  it  solicits  an  allowance  of  funds,  in 
order  that  the  academy  may  be  able  to  procure  them. 

The  pupils  have  made  a  remarkable  progress  in  natural  philosophy,  in  which 
is  included  mechanics,  optics,  electricity,  magnetism,  and  astronomy  ;  but  it  is 
observable  that  acoustics,  the  application  of  which  facilitates  the  transmission  of 
the  words  of  command  during  manoeuvres,  have  been  forgotten;  the  inspectors 
request  that  the  funds  placed  at  the  disposition  of  the  academy  may  be  aug- 
mented, for  the  purpose  of  enabling  it  to  procure  the  apparatus  necessary  for 
these  experiments. 

In  learning  French,  the  cadets  aim  less  at  purity  of  accent,  than  at  reading 
and  translating  correctly  the  works  written  in  that  language.  The  Commission- 
ers consider  that  this  object  has  been  obtained. 

The  Government  not  having  established  any  professorship  of  chemistry,  the 
pupils  only  receive  notions  of  this  important  science  professed  by  a  Lieutenant. 
The  Commissioners,  appreciating  the  advantage  of  this  science  to  the  art  of  war 
in  particular,  would  gladly  see  a  professorship  of  chemistry,  mineralogy,  and 
geology  established  by  the  Congress,  and  the  professor  placed  on  the  same  foot- 
ing as  the  other  professors. 

The  pupils  have  made  great  progress  in  drawing  ;  they  are  very  expert  at  in- 
fantry manoeuvres,  but  their  knowledge  of  artillery  leaves  much  to  be  desired, 
which  proceeds  from  the  short  time  devoted  to  this  branch.  The  Commission- 
ers are,  therefore,  of  opinion,  that  the  time  which  its  importance  demands 
ought  to  be  granted,  in  order  that  the  cadets  may  be  occupied  with  the  execution 
of  siege-pieces,  and  the  study  of  pyrotechny. 

The  police  and  discipline  are  excellent ;  but  the  Commissioners  claim,  in 
favour  of  the  officers  who  support  it,  an  increase  of  pay  as  a  just  indemnifica- 
tion for  their  trouble,  and  for  a  duty  in  itself  ungrateful  and  disagreeable ;  and 
which,  according  to  the  inspectors,  cannot  be  too  liberally  remunerated. 

The  regimen  of  the  academy  with  respect  to  the  food  of  the  cadets,  their 
clothing,  necessaries,  &c.  have  not  escaped  the  attention  of  the  inspectors  ;  they 
have  entered  into  the  detail  of  all  these  objects,  and  have  found  them,  in  every 
respect,  well  regulated.  They  conclude  by  petitioning  for  the  construction  of  a 
chapel  and  an  infirmary,  neither  of  which  the  establishment  possesses. — Bulletin 
des  Sciences  Militaires,  No.  10. 

AMERICAN  NAVY. 

According  to  the  list  drawn  out  under  the  direction  of  the  Secretary  of  the 
Navy,  for  the  year  1829,  there  were  at  that  time  thirty-five  eaptains,  thirty-three 
U.  S.  JOURN.  No.  14.  FEB.  1830.  Q 


218  FOREIGN    MISCELLANY. 

of  whom  were  natives  of  America,  one  a  native  of  England,  and  one  of  Ireland  ; 
thirty-five  masters  commanding,  two  hundred  and  fifty-seven  lieutenants,  forty- 
three  surgeons,  fifty-four  surgeons'  mates,  forty-one  paymasters,  nine  chaplains, 
twenty-three  midshipmen  who  had  served  their  time,  four  hundred  and  thirty- 
five  ordinary  midshipmen,  and  thirty  sailing  masters. 

The  corps  of  marines  is  composed  of  one  lieutenant-colonel  commanding,  nine 
captains,  twenty-four  first  lieutenants,  and  fifteen  second  lieutenants. 

There  are  afloat  seven  vessels  of  the  line  of  seventy-four  guns  each ;  one  of 
them,  the  Delaware,  is  on  the  Mediterranean  station,  the  others  are  in  the  navy 
docks,  viz.  the  Independent  and  the  Columbus,  at  Boston,  the  Franklin,  the 
Washington,  and  the  Ohio  at  New  York,  and  the  North  Carolina,  at  Gosport. 

There  are  seven  frigates  of  the  first  class,  that  is  to  say  of  forty-four  guns ; 
two,  the  Guerriere  and  the  Brandywine,  on  the  Pacific  Ocean,  the  Java,  in  the 
Mediterranean,  and  the  Hudson,  on  the  coast  of  Brazil ;  the  three  others  are  in 
dock,  viz.  the  United  States,  and  the  Constitution,  at  New  York,  and  the  Poto- 
mac, at  Washington  :  the  thirty-gun  frigates  of  the  second  class  are  four  in 
number,  the  Congress,  at  Washington,  the  Constellation  and  the  Macedonian, 
at  Norfolk,  and  the  Fulton,  (a  steam- vessel,)  at  New  York. 

Of  sixteen  sloops  of  war,  there  are  two  of  twenty-four  guns,  and  the  rest  are  of 
eighteen  guns,  the  greater  part  are  abroad,  either  in  the  East  Indies,  the  Medi- 
terranean, or  on  the  coast  of  Brazil.  Four  schooners  are  armed  with  twelve, 
and  three  with  three  guns.  Altogether  the  navy  of  the  United  States  amounts 
to  thirty-eight  vessels,  twenty-one  of  which  are  at  sea,  and  the  rest  peribrm  the 
ordinary  duty.  Besides  these,  five  men-of-war  and  six  frigates  are  upon  the 
stocks. — Bulletin  des  Sciences  Mililaires,  No.  10. 

PRUSSIA. 

His  Majesty  the  Emperor  of  Russia  has  been  pleased  to  address  the  follow- 
ing rescript  to  Lieut.-Gen.  Baron  Von  Muffling,  dated  Sept.  22d,  1829. 

"  Your  judicious  counsels  and  persevering  endeavourings  have  at  length  suc- 
ceeded in  convincing  the  Divan  of  the  danger  of  its  situation,  as  well  as  of  our 
sincere  wish  to  preserve  the  Ottoman  Empire  from  the  fatal  consequences  to 
which  the  farther  progress  of  the  victorious  Russian  arms  might  lead.  Duly 
appreciating  your  counsels,  the  Divan  resolved  to  enter  into  negotiations  for  the 
restoration  of  peace.  The  exertions  which  you  have  made  to  bring  about  so 
desirable  a  result,  have  given  you  indisputable  claims  to  our  gratitude,  and  in 
order  that  you  may  possess  a  splendid  proof  our  feeling  towards  you,  we  have 
appointed  you  Grand  Cross  of  the  Order  of  St.  Wladimir  of  the  first  class,  the 
insignia  of  which  we  herewith  send  you,  to  be  worn  according  to  the  statutes. 

"  Your  well  affected, 

Preussische  Staats  Zeitung,  Dec.  31.  (Signed)         "  NICHOLAS." 

AUSTRIA. 

His  Majesty  the  Emperor  was  present  at  a  review  of  the  troops  near  Lintz  on 
the  17th  of  September,  when  experiments  were  made  upon  a  new  kind  of  tower, 
made  of  earth,  which  is  intended  to  be  employed  in  retrenching  a  fortified  camp. 
This  tower,  the  invention  of  his  Imperial  Highness  the  Archduke  Maximilian, 
resisted,  if  the  reports  are  to  be  believed,  the  most  destructive  fire  of  several 
batteries  of  heavy  artillery,  which  made  but  a  slight  impression  upon  it. — Spec- 
tateur  Militaire,  December,  1829. 

RUSSIA. 

The  Emperor  attended  a  grand  review  held  at  Krasnoje-Sels,  on  the  23d  July ; 
the  troops  consisted  of  fifteen  battalions  of  infantry,  eight  regiments  of  cavalry, 
and  several  batteries  of  artillery. 

After  the  manoeuvres  had  terminated,  the  colours,  horse  tails,  and  other  tro- 
phies taken  at  Silistria,  were  carried  in  triumph  before  the  troops,  who  saluted 
them  with  three  cheers. 

A  manifesto  of  the  22d  August,  modified  by  a  Ukase  of  the  4th  October,  de- 
crees, in  substance,  as  follows. 


FOREIGN    MISCELLANY.  219 

1st.  A  levy  of  two  recruits  for  every  five  hundred  souls  shall  be  effected 
throughout  the  whole  Russian  Empire,  with  the  exception  of  the  provinces  of 
Grusia  and  Bessurabia ;  this  levy  will  replace  the  losses  sustained  in  the  war 
with  the  Turks. 

2d.  The  levy  will  commence  on  the  13th  November,  and  will  terminate  on 
the  last  day  of  December,  1829. 

3d.  Recruits  of  levies  anterior  to  the  95th,  (the  present  levy,)  who  may  have 
obtained  a  temporary  exemption,  will  be  required  to  join  at  the  same  time  (end 
of  December). 

4th.  On  this  occasion,  the  limited  height  of  recruits  will  be  reduced  to  two 
archenes,  three  werskock  (four  feet,  nine  inches ;  seven  livres,  French  measure). 

5th.  The  recruits  to  be  at  least  eighteen,  and  at  most  thirty-five  years  of  age. 

6th.  The  proprietors,  local  authorities,  and  corporations,  who  are  obliged  to 
furnish  recruits,  will,  on  the  arrival  of  the  men  at  the  chief  town  of  the  province, 
be  required  to  pay  the  sum  of  forty-three  roubles,  a  sum  equal  to  the  amount  of 
the  first  disbursement. 

7th.  The  subsistence  hitherto  furnished  in  kind  by  the  same  authorities, 
during  the  march  of  the  recruits  to  the  chief  town  of  the  province,  will  be  paid 
to  the  Government  in  money. 

8th.  Jews  will  have  the  power,  as  heretofore,  of  procuring  substitutes,  if  they 
do  not  prefer  serving  in  person. 

9th.  The  minister  of  marine  will  previously  deduct  the  contingent  necessary 
to  complete  his  service ;  the  remainder  of  the  levy  will  be  directed  to  the  mili- 
tary depots. — Spectateur  Militaire,  December,  1829. 

WIRTEMBERG. 

The  Court  Gazette  of  Stutgard  contains  a  royal  ordinance,  dated  January  the 
1st,  of  which  the  following  is  the  preamble. 

"  Animated  by  a  desire  to  honour  and  preserve  the  memory  of  his  late  Majesty 
our  father,  and  of  his  great  services  to  our  royal  house  and  to  the  state,  we  have 
resolved  to  found  a  new  order  of  Knighthood,  and  to  call  it  the  '  Royal  Wir- 
temberg  Order  of  Frederick.'  We  have  thought  fit  to  combine  the  foundation 
of  this  order  with  the  commemoration  ordered  by  our  late  father  of  the  accept- 
ance of  the  royal  dignity  by  our  house,  which  occurs  this  day,  and  accordingly 
decree  the  following  regulations  for  the  new  order. 

(Here  follow  the  particulars  in  nine  articles.) 

The  order  has  only  one  class,  that  of  the  knights :  the  insignia  are  a  gold 
enamelled  cross,  radiating  into  eight  points.  In  the  centre  is  the  effigy  of  the 
late  King  Frederick  of  Wirtemberg,  with  his  name,  and  on  the  reverse  the  words 
"  For  Merit,"  with  the  motto  of  the  deceased  monarch,  "  God  and  my  right." — 
Allgemeine  Zeitung,  Jan.  4. 

EGYPT. 
####*# 

The  sending  young  men  to  France,  in  order  that  they  may  be  instructed  in  the 
sciences,  in  administration,  and  in  the  useful  arts,  has  not  been  discontinued 
since  1826,  when  forty-six  young  men,  destined  for  a  scientific  career,  were  sent 
to  Paris. 

Six  Egyptians  have  been  sent  to  Toulon  to  learn  the  art  of  building  ships  of 
war.  The  young  brother  of  Noureddin  Bey,  a  Major-General  in  the  service  of 
the  Pacha,  and  four  new  pupils,  who  are  to  apply  themselves  to  the  study  of 
mechanics,  and  various  manufactures,  are  come  to  Paris.  Recently,  thirty-four 
scholars  from  the  ages  of  eight  to  fifteen,  have  arrived  at  Marseilles ;  they  are 
destined  for  the  study  of  hydraulics,  naval  architecture,  and  the  acquirement  of 
fifteen  other  mechanical  arts;  thirty  other  pupils  are  to  follow  them.  In  fine, 
one  hundred  and  fifteen  other  individuals,  for  similar  purposes,  are  to  arrive  in 
France,  independently  of  those  young  Egyptians  who  are  to  prosecute  their 
studies  in  England  and  Austria,  &c. — Letter  from  Gen.  Jomard  to  the  Editor 
of  the  Moniteur. 


THE  ROYAL  NAVAL  COLLEGE  AT  PORTSMOUTH. 

THE  usual  half-yearly  examination  of  the  students  at  this  National  Es- 
tablishment, took  place  in  December,  previous  to  the  Christmas  vacation, 
at  which  all  the  officers  of  the  establishment  attended.  The  mode  of 
conducting  the  examination,  is  either  by  direct  question,  viva  voce,  or  by 
a  printed  paper,  containing  those  to  which  answers  are  to  be  written, 
the  questions  on  each  subject  being  given  without  the  student's  previ- 
ous knowledge  of  them.  The  following  is  a  brief  sketch  of  the  proceed- 
ings on  the  recent  occasion. 

The  junior  class  was  examined  in,  and  gave  clear  and  satisfactory  de- 
monstrations from,  Euclid's  Geometry. 

To  the  next  class,  were  given  various  questions  in  Algebra,  as  far  as 
equations,  in  right-angled  plane  and  spherical  Trigonometry,  and  the 
application  of  the  former  to  the  measurement  of  inaccessible  heights 
and  distances. 

A  junior  class  in  Astronomy,  proved  amongst  other  problems,  that 
"  the  Equator  intersects  the  Horizon  in  the  East  and  West  Points ;" 
and  that  "  the  Altitude  of  the  Pole  above  the  Horizon  is  always  equal 
to  the  latitude  of  the  place." 

To  the  senior  classes  in  navigation  were  given  practical  questions  as 
to  the  mode  of  observing  with  the  sextant,  and  the  construction  and 
use  of  an  azimuth  compass, — answered  viva  voce. 

Also  the  manner  of  working  a  day's  work,  the  latitude  by  meridian 
altitudes,  both  above  and  below  the  elevated  pole,  and  by  double  alti- 
tudes of  the  sun  :  the  method  of  rating  a  chronometer,  and  of  obtain- 
ing the  longitude  from  it,  as  well  as  by  means  of  the  lunar  distance : 
also  the  method  of  finding  the  time  of  high  water  at  any  place,  and  the 
several  means  of  ascertaining  the  variation  of  the  compass.  Examples 
of  each  of  these  problems  were  individually  solved. 

The  same  class  was  examined  in  the  construction  and  use  of  the  Theo- 
dolite, with  its  adjustments  and  application  in  the  measurement  of  ho- 
rizontal and  vertical  angles.  The  manner  of  surveying  a  harbour,  and 
also  a  line  of  coast  which  is  inaccessible  to  a  ship  sailing  along  it. 
The  description  and  use  of  a  portable  transit  Telescope,  with  its  va- 
rious adjustments,  and  the  readiest  method  of  placing  it  in  the  plane 
of  the  meridian. 

A  class  in  Fortification  were  required  to  delineate  a  Counterguard, 
and  a  vertical  plan  of  a  Rampart,  Parapet,  Covertway,  and  Glacis, 
stating  the  exact  proportionate  dimensions  of  each.  Also  a  Horn  work, 
and  a  Crownwork,  and  to  give  the  proportions  of  each. 

The  above  formed  the  principal  course  of  examination  on  mathema- 
tical subjects.  Questions  in  the  history  of  our  country  succeeded. 
Great  attention  is  paid  at  the  College  to  this  branch  of  education,  the 
examination  in  which  comprises  the  whole  period  from  the  introduc- 
tion of  the  Saxons  into  the  island  to  the  present  time,  and  usually 
occupies  an  entire  day  :  the  replies  to  the  various  questions — embracing 
the  principal  events  of  an  entire  reign — the  causes  which  have  led  to 
the  most  important  changes  in  the  government  of  the  country — com- 
plete descriptions  of  the  most  distinguished  engagements  by  sea  and 
land,  &c.,  were  given  in  writing,  and  the  correct  informationmanifested 


NOTES   ON    MILITARY  PENSIONS.  221 

y  the  Pupils  on  these  subjects,  called  forth  the  warm  encomiums  of 
he  officers  present. 

The  progress  of  the  senior  students  in  the  French  language  was  most 
satisfactory;  and  some  very  capital  specimens  of  their  progress  in 
drawing,  under  the  able  direction  of  Mr.  J.  C.  Schetky,  were  submitted 
to  the  inspection  of  the  masters  and  visitors  who  attended. 

The  examinations  occupied  a  week,  and  at  their  termination  the  two 
prize  medals  were  adjudged.  The  students  being  collected  for  this 
purpose,  Professor  Inman,  in  presence  of  the  first  Lord  of  the  Ad- 
miralty, the  Port  Admiral,  the  Commissioner  of  the  Dock-yard,  and 
other  officers,  bestowed  flattering  expressions  of  encomium  on  the  pro- 
gress which  Mr.  David  Melville  Ross  had  made  in  his  general  studies, 
and  awarded  to  him  the  principal  gold  medal.  He  also  complimented 
Sir  Frederick  William  Erskine  Nicolson,  Bart,  for  the  able  manner  in 
which  he  had  passed  his  examinations,  and  awarded  to  him  the  second 
medal.  The  Professor  then  expressed  his  approbation  of  the  progress 
made  by  several  of  the  other  students,  after  which  the  vacation  com- 
menced. 


NOTES    ON    MILITARY    PENSIONS. 

NEW    SCALE    OF    PENSIONS    FOR    LENGTH    OF    SERVICE    IN    THE   FRENCH    ARMY 

CHARLES,  by  the  Grace  of  God,  King  of  France  and  Navarre. 

Having  examined  the  Ordonnance  of  the  27th  August,  1814,  and 
particularly  the  tables  which  contain  the  scale  of  pensions  awarded  to 
officers  and  soldiers  of  the  army. 

Having  deliberated  also  upon  the  25th  Article  of  the  law  in  regard 
to  the  finances,  bearing  date  25th  March,  1817- 

Wishing  to  improve  the  scale  of  military  pensions  in  as  far  as  it  ad- 
mits of  amelioration. 

Upon  the  report  of  Our  Secretary-at-war, 

We  have  ordered,  and  do  order  as  follows : 

i.  The  table  of  military  pensions  for  length  of  service,  contained  in 
the  Ordonnance  of  the  27th  Aug.  1814,  is  abrogated,  and  the  annexed 
scale  is  substituted  for  it. 

n.  All  military  pensions  awarded  from  this  date,  are  to  be  granted 
according  to  the  new  scale. 

in.  In  the  suppositions  years  which  are  allowed  to  be  reckoned  on 
account  of  campaigns  above  the  period  of  actual  service,  a  fraction  of  a 
year  may  be  reckoned  a  whole  year,  and  the  same  rule  holds  good  in 
fractions  of  several  years, 

iv.  Where  the  former  regulations  have  not  been  abrogated  by  this 
Ordonnance,  they  are  to  continue  in  force. 

v.  Our  Secretary  of  State  for  the  War  Department  and  the  Minister 
of  Finance,  are  directed  to  be  guided  by  this  Ordonnance,  in  as  far  as 
they  are  concerned.  This  Ordonnance  is  to  be  published  in  the  Bulle- 
tin of  Laws. 

Given  at  Our  Palace  of  Saint  Cloud,  the  10th  day  of  October,  1829, 
and  the  Sixth  of  Our  reign. 

CHARLES,  the  King. 
COMTE  DE  BOURMONT,  Secretary  at  War. 


222 


NOTES   ON    MILITARY    PENSIONS. 
PENSIONS  FOR  LENGTH  OF  SERVICE. 


RANK. 

Minimum 
after  thirty 
years 
service. 

Increase  for 
each  year's  ser- 
vice, after  thir- 
ty years,  or  for 
the  suppositi- 
ons years  al- 
lowed to  be 
reckoned  for 
campaigns. 

Maximum 
after  fifty  years 
service, 
campaigns 
included. 

Francs. 
4000 
3000 
2400 
1800 
1500 
1200 
800 
600 
400 
300 
250 
220 
200 

800 

600 

400 
250 

250 

200 
3000 
2400 
1500 

2400 

1800 
1200 
800 
400 
400 
300 
4000 
3000 
2400 
1200 
2400 
1200 
800 

Francs. 
100 
50 
30 
30 
25 
20 
20 
20 
10 
10 
7.50 
6 
5 

20 

20 

10 
7.50 

7.50 

5 
50 
30 
25 

60 

30 
30 
20 
10 
10 
10 
100 
50 
30 
30 
60 
30 
20 

Francs. 
6000 
4000 
3000 
2400 
2000 
1600 
1200 
1000 
600 
500 
400 
340 
300 

1200 

1000 

600 
400 

400 

300 
4000 
3000 
2000. 

3600 

2400 
1800 
1200 
600 
600 
500 
6000 
4000 
3000 
1800 
3600 
1800 
1200 

Chef  de  Bataillon  d'Escadron  Major     . 

Sergent-  Maj  or,  Mar£chal  -des-logis-chef 
Sergent,  Mar6chal-des-logis    .... 

Garde  d'Artillerie,  1st  and  2d  Classes    .  ") 
Garde  du  Genie,  1st  Class,  Chef  d'ouvrier  V 
d'Etat-Master  Artificer  in  the  Arsenals   ) 
Garde  du  Genie,   2d  Class,   Garde  d'S 
Artillerie,  3d  Class,  Conductor  of  Ar-  ( 
tillery  souschef-ouvrier  d'Etat  in  the  j 

Garde  du  Genie,  3d  Class      .... 
Ouvrier  d'Etat     .  •   

Master-  Workman  in  the  Royal  Manu-  > 
factures  of  Arms  and  Founderies  .     .  3 

Adjoint  aux  sous-intendans  Militaires    . 
Officier  de  Sant<§  en    chef  d'Armee,  et  ) 
Officier  de  Sant6  Inspecteur      .     .     .  f 

f\m  •     j          ..£.        {"Principal    .     .     S 
Officier  de  Sante  ou  J  ]yjajor                     ( 

d'administration   <  AidJe_M*ajor     '.      f 
deshoptaux     .      [sous-  Aide-Major  J 
Veterinary  Surgeon,  1st  Class      .     .     . 
Ditto,  2d  Class    

Inspecteur  en  chef  aux  revues       .     .     . 

Sous-inspecteur  aux  revues      .... 
Adjoint  aux  sous-inspecteur  aux  revues 
Commissaire  ordonnateur  
Commissaire  des  guerres     
Adjoint  aux  Commissaires  des  guerres  . 

***  The  pensions  to  widows,  or  annual  gratuities  to  orphans,  are  one- fourth  of  the 
maximum  of  those  allowed  for  length  of  service,  according  to  the  respective  ranks  of  the 
deceased  officer. 

Approved.  CHARLES,  the  King. 

Secretary-at-War,  COMTE  DE  BOURMONT. 


223 

GENERAL  CORRESPONDENCE. 

TO    THE    EDITOR    OF    THE    UNITED    SERVICE    JOURNAL. 

Colonel  Napier  in  reply  to  General  Brennier. 

MR.  EDITOR, — Gen.  Brennier's  observations  upon  the  battles  of  Rorica  and 
Vimiero,  demand  some  explanation  on  my  part. 

With  respect  to  the  first  action,  the  General  affirms,  that  he,  with  only  two 
French  companies,  broke  the  29th.  I  said  a  whole  battalion  attacked  that  corps, 
because  my  inquiries  led  to  that  conclusion ;  but  I  cannot  pretend  on  hearsay  to 
contradict  one  who  was  an  eye-witness,  and  it  is  for  the  officers  of  the  29th  regi- 
ment to  confirm  or  deny  the  General's  statement.  Appearances  are  deceitful, 
especially  as  to  numbers  in  a  sudden  attack.  Yet  Colonel  Way,  who  was  one 
of  the  prisoners,  could  from  that  circumstance,  if  he  yet  lives,*give  satisfactory 
evidence.  Here  I  cannot  forbear  relating  an  anecdote  of  that  brave  man.  I 
have  heard,  that  whilst  in  the  midst  of  his  captors,  he  never  ceased,  regardless  of 
his  own  life,  to  wave  his  hat,  and  as  long  as  his  voice  could  be  heard,  called  on 
those  of  his  regiment  who  remained  fighting,  to  persevere  and  charge  the  enemy. 

With  respect  to  the  grounds  upon  which  I  give  5000  men  to  Laborde,  I  can 
add  nothing  to  my  text.  Gen.  Brennier  must  be  the  best  judge  of  the  fact;  but 
if  there  were  only  1900  French,  I  adhere  to  my  opinion,  that  it  was  a  rash  act 
to  defend  the  heights  of  Azambugeira,  a  rasher  act  to  remain  so  long  on  the 
plain  of  Rorica  in  advance  of  those  heights,  and  that  Laborde's  generalship  re- 
solves itself  into  a  fortunate  folly.  This,  however,  is  merely  opinion  against 
opinion. 

Gen.  Brennier  might  well  feel  hurt  if  I  had  attributed  to  him  the  expression 
quoted  in  your  extract  relative  to  Vimiero,  namely,  "  Has  the  reserve  of  Gen. 
Kellerman  come  up?"  which  implies  ignorance  of  the  disposition  and  state  of 
the  French  army  previous  to  the  action.  But  the  General  has  probably  seen 
some  inaccurate  extract  from  my  work,  as  both  the  original  text  and  the  trans- 
lation of  it  by  the  Count  Mathew  Dumas  are  clear — "  If  the  reserve  had  yet 
charged?"  "  Si  le  reserve  avait  deja  donne?"  Now  this  was  neither  an  un- 
soldierlike  nor  a  foolish  question  from  a  man  just  taken  in  an  unsuccessful 
charge.  He  had  been  long  retarded  by  the  ravine,  and  he  naturally  wished  to 
know  if  his  own  attack  had  been  combined  with  the  charge  of  the  reserve,  in 
short,  if  all  hope  of  final  success  was  extinguished. 

The  General  says,  that  he  first  saw  Sir  Arthur  Wellesley  at  Maceira.  It  is 
probable,  that  as  there  were  two  Commanders-in-chief,  Gen.  Brennier  may  have 
mistaken  Sir  Harry  Burrard  for  Sir  Arthur;  and  again,  it  is  possible  that  Sir 
Arthur  Wellesley  mistook  some  other  French  officer  for  Brennier;  either  sup- 
position would  reconcile  conflicting  authorities ;  for  it  was  the  Duke  of  Wel- 
lington himself  who  related  to  me  the  conversation  in  question. 

I  am,  Sir,  your  obedient  servant, 

W.  NAPIER,  Lieut.-Col. 


Military  Science. 

Mr.  EDITOR, — In  a  remark  inserted  in  last  month's  number  of  the  United 
Service  Journal,  you  are  so  good  as  to  express  a  wish  of  again  hearing  from  roe. 
If  by  this  invitation  you  only  mean  to  call  for  a  rejoinder  to  the  observations 
made  on  my  former  letter,  all  I  can  say  is,  that  I  am  perfectly  conscious  of  the 
error  I  fell  into,  in  supposing  the  first  brigade  of  Gen.  Stuart's  division  to  have 
been  commanded  at  Albuera  by  Gen.  Iloughton.  I  alluded,  as  was  evident,  to 
the  brigade  overthrown  by  the  French  cavalry  ;  and  if  the  inference  drawn  from 
that  event  is  in  other  respects  just,  the  name  of  the  commander  can  signify  but 
little :  if,  on  the  other  hand,  you  think  that  any  farther  contributions  of  mine 

*  The  present  Colonel  Sir  G.  H.  B.  Way,  Kt.  and  C.B.— ED. 


224  CORRESPONDENCE, 

can  be  of  use,  in  forwarding  the  very  laudable  undertaking  in  which  you  are  en- 
gaged, I  can  assure  you  that,  as  you  have  always  had  my  best  wishes,  so  you 
may  at  any  time  command  whatever  aid  it  may  be  in  my  power  to  render. 

In  endeavouring  to  extend  the  knowledge  of  the  science  of  war,  a  wide  field 
is  open  to  your  exertions  :  for  though  the  history  of  mankind  is  little  more  than 
the  history  of  their  wars  and  dissensions,  the  science  of  war  itself  is  still  enve- 
loped in  darkness  and  perplexity :  and  though  requiring,  from  the  total  absence 
of  all  positive  rules,  more  thought  and  reflection  than  any  other,  it  is  yet  the 
very  one  on  which  the  least  thought  is  bestowed ;  and  by  a  strange  combination 
of  absurdities,  the  science  that  has  in  all  ages  decided  the  fate  of  nations,  (let  de- 
claimers  say  what  they  will,)  is  by  a  great  majority  of  mankind  looked  upon  as 
independent  of  all  thought  and  study,  and  as  requiring  only  a  fair  proportion  of 
constitutional  strength  and  courage, — an  error  by  far  too  frequently  taken  up 
and  acted  upon  by  those  who  enter  on  the  military  profession. 

In  the  naval  service,  the  youngest  midshipman  cannot  work  his  first  day's 
reckoning,  or  make  out  the  simplest  problem  in  navigation,  without  a  degree  of 
scientific  knowledge,  that  in  difficulty  of  attainment  immeasurably  exceeds  all 
that  is  contained  in  the  books  of  cavalry  and  infantry  regulations  ;  and  the  study 
necessary  to  its  acquirement  engenders,  as  a  matter  of  course,  a  habit  of  thought 
that  naturally  expands  with  the  knowledge  acquired,  and  extends  by  degrees, 
according  to  the  talents  of  the  individual,  to  all  the  branches  of  the  profession. 
But  the  fatal  facility  of  the  elementary  branches  of  the  military  profession,  has, 
unfortunately,  a  very  different  tendency.  Because  there  is  little  that  can  be  dis- 
tinctly taught,  it  is  too  hastily  concluded  that  there  is  little  to  be  learned ; 
whereas,  the  very  reverse  is  the  case ;  for  the  absence  of  all  guiding  rules,  (im- 
possible in  war,  where  no  two  instances  ever  were,  or  probably  ever  will  be 
alike,)  can  alone  be  supplied  by  study  and  reflection,  and  by  attaining  a  know- 
ledge of  every  thing  that  bears  on  the  science  of  war, — and  what,  I  might  almost 
ask,  does  not  bear  upon  it. 

I  am  not  addressing  these  reflections  to  officers  of  rank,  from  whom  thought 
and  knowledge  seem  to  be  alone  required,  for  few  have  attained  to  any  rank 
without  having  been  forced  to  think  to  the  full  extent  of  their  powers,  and  hav- 
ing but  too  often  had  cause  to  regret  that  the  habit  had  been  so  long  delayed  ; — I 
am  alluding  more  particularly  to  the  junior  departments,  to  subalterns,  captains, 
&c.  who  considering  that  they  have  only  to  execute  the  orders  of  their  superiors, 
willingly  throw  upon  them  all  the  burthen  of  reflection,  entirely  forgetting  what 
different  consequences  may  result  from  the  skilful  and  unskilful  execution  of 
orders.  The  captain  who  posts  or  withdraws  a  picket,  can  only  receive  gene- 
ral directions  for  his  conduct ;  the  manner  of  carrying  them  into  effect  must  de- 
pend upon  himself,  and  on  that  manner  the  lives  of  those  entrusted  to  his  charge 
must  also  depend.  The  youngest  ensign  who  neglects  to  form  up  his  subdivi- 
sion in  time,  or  who  does  not,  or  does  not  know  how,  to  attend  to  the  steady 
and  correct  firing  of  his  men,  may  fall  by  his  own  inattention,  or  have  the  blood 
of  others  to  answer  for.  This  terrible  responsibility,  increasing  with  increasing 
rank,  which  the  profession  of  arms  entails  upon  all  officers,  can  be  met  only  by 
the  conscientiousness  of  having  exerted  every  power  for  the  attainment  of  quali- 
ties necessary  for  the  discharge  of  duties,  on  which  not  only  the  lives  of  hun- 
dreds and  of  thousands,  but  even  the  honour  and  reputation  of  the  country 
may  depend  ;  and  which  have  besides  to  be  performed  in  the  most  trying  situa- 
tions, when  instant  death  and  horrible  mutilation  are  threatening  in  every  di- 
rection. 

I  beg  to  illustrate  what  I  have  here  stated,  by  two  very  striking  examples ; 
and  as  I  formerly  pointed  out  to  you  how  far  a  man,  supposed  to  be  at  the  very 
head  of  his  profession,  was  still  removed  from  having  a  just  view  of  that  most 
difficult  profession,  and  to  what  consequences  his  error  led,  so  I  now  beg  to 
point  out  to  you,  the  consequences  that  have  resulted  from  the  incapacity  of 
those,  whose  subordinate  rank  and  situation  make  them  fancy  themselves  free 


CORRESPONDENCE.  225 

from  the  necessity  of  all  professional  study  and  application;  and  you  will  per- 
ceive that  the  folly  of  captains  and  subalterns,  in  its  place  just  as  pardonable  as 
that  of  a  marshal,  may  in  the  end,  lead  to  consequences  equally  fatal. 

When  at  the  opening  of  the  Marengo  campaign,  the  main  column  of  the 
French  army,  under  Napoleon,  crossed  the  Alps,  they  came  very  suddenly  on  a 
fort,  called  Fort  Bard ;  and  if  they  were  surprised  at  this  unlocked  for  obstacle, 
the  commandant  of  the  fortress,  an  Austrian  captain,  was  no  less  so  at  their  un- 
expected appearance  ;  for,  strange  to  say,  neither  party  seemed  to  have  had  the 
most  distant  idea  of  the  existence  of  the  other.  As  the  only  road  practicable 
for  artillery  lay  close  under  the  walls  of  the  place,  and  as  the  infantry  could  not 
even  proceed  without  making  a  long  and  fatiguing  detour;  fortune  had  here 
placed  in  the  hands  of  a  captain  of  infantry,  the  means  of  arresting  the  career  of 
Napoleon  at  its  very  outset ;  for  subsequent  events  proved  that  a  single  day's 
delay  would  have  frustrated  the  whole  of  the  enterprise.  But  the  Austrian  offi- 
cer, however  brave  he  might  have  been  when  acting  under  the  eyes  of  his  supe- 
riors, was  totally  incapable  of  acting  for  himself:  he  not  only  allowed  the  French 
to  drag  their  guns  along  under  cover  of  the  night,  almost  without  molestation, 
but  capitulated  as  soon  as  two  pieces  of  artillery  had  been  brought  to  bear  upon 
the  place,  at  a  merely  nominal  range,  and  before  a  single  stone  of  the  works  had 
been  injured.  The  French  proceeded  on  their  march,  intercepted  Gen.  Otto, 
who  was  marching  to  join  Melas,  by  two  or  three  hours,  and  ultimately  gained 
the  battle  of  Marengo  :  that,  ill  fought  as  it  was  on  all  hands,  could  not  have  been 
gained  against  a  few  additional  battalions,  still  less  against  an  additional  army. 
"  II  serait  je  pense  superflu,''  says  Frederick  the  Second  ;  "  de  critiquer  la  con- 
duite  d'  un  homme  qui  rend  une  place  sang  qu'  il  y  ait  ni  tranchee  ouverte  ni 
brbche." 

Having,  as  in  duty  bound,  given  captains  the  preference,  I  now  come  to  the 
subalterns. 

When,  after  the  catastrophe  of  Ulm,  Vienna  was  taken  by  the  French,  in  the 
winter  of  1805,  the  remains  of  the  Austrian  army  crossed  to  the  left  bank  of  the 
Danube,  in  order  to  join  the  Russians,  who  were  advancing  in  the  direction  of 
Krems.  The  only  bridge  having  been  mined,  was  left  in  charge  of  a  subaltern's 
picket,  and  the  officer  directed  to  fire  the  train,  and  to  withdraw  as  soon  as  the 
enemy  should  approach.  Nothing  certainly  could  be  easier,  and  yet  the  un- 
happy man  on  whom  this  simple  duty  devolved  was  unequal  to  its  execution. 
He  allowed  himself  to  be  cajoled  and  danced  out  of  his  post,  (See  Rapp's  Me- 
moir,) retired  without  firing  the  train,  and  gave  up  the  bridge  to  the  enemy. 
The  consequence  was,  that  they  were  enabled  to  cross  the  river,  and  to  attack 
the  Allied  army  at  Austerlitz,  before  the  latter  were  fully  prepared  to  meet  them : 
the  result  is  well  known.  In  1809,  the  Danube  arrested  the  French  for  six 
weeks ;  had  it  arrested  them  for  only  three  days  in  1805,  it  must  have  changed 
the  fate  of  the  campaign  ;  for  not  only  were  numerous  armies  advancing  on  their 
flanks  and  in  their  rear  in  every  direction,  but  the  Prussian  declaration  of  war 
actually  arrived  in  their  camp  the  day  after  the  battle  had  been  fought.  But 
the  minister  who  was  the  bearer,  instead  of  nailing  it,  as  a  Roman  would  have 
done  under  similar  circumstances,  to  the  very  eagles  of  the  conquerors,  stole 
away  with  it  in  his  pocket  the  moment  he  knew  the  turn  events  had  taken,  and 
entailed  on  his  unhappy  country,  by  this  base  piece  of  diplomacy,  deemed 
vastly  clever  at  the  time,  all  the  evils  that  followed  the  disastrous  battle  of  Jena. 
To  make  any  reflections  on  examples  of  this  kind  would  be  needless,  they 
should  lead  to  reflections  :  for  it  is  but  a  poor  evasion  of  the  subject  to  say,  that 
such  instances  are  not  again  likely  to  recur  :  what  has  happened  once  may  happen 
again  ;  and  all  who  may  be  placed  in  similar  situations  should  be  prepared  for 
the  emergency.  But  leaving  these  considerations  out  of  the  question,  are  not 
the  duties  that  daily  fall  to  the  lot  of  officers  sufficient  to  call  for  every  exertion ; 
is  it  not  enough  for  generous  minds  to  know  that  the  happiness  of  their  subordi- 
nates is  intrusted  to  them  in  peace,  as  well  as  their  safety  in  war  ?  The  ablest 


226  CORRESPONDENCE. 

and  most  eloquent  of  all  military  writers,  states  these  duties  in  so  clear  a  inau- 
ner,  that  I  cannot  here  refrain  from  quoting  his  words.*  "  To  assist  and  console 
the  soldier  in  sorrow  and  in  suffering;  to  relieve  his  wants ;  to  teach  him,  but  with 
mildness,  not  merely  the  different  points  of  tactics  that  he  must  know,  but  also 
what  their  object  is ;  and  above  all,  to  acquire  themselves  (the  officers)  such  a 
knowledge  of  human  nature  as  to  be  capable  of  animating  men,  who  in  the  pre- 
sent state  of  society  take  little  interest  in  the  cause  of  quarrel,  to  brave  the  dan- 
gers, and  to  bear  up  against  the  fatigues  and  privations  of  all  military  enter- 
prizes.  Such  should  be  the  conduct  of  officers  both  in  peace  and  in  war  :  such 
was  the  conduct  of  those  centurions,  who  at  the  head  of  their  manipuli,  over- 
threw all  the  enemies  that  ever  dared  to  face  them,"  &c.  &c.  Courage  is  here 
passed  over  as  almost  a  matter  of  course  ;  and  in  addressing  myself  to  British 
officers,  who  have  that  quality,  I  might  do  the  same,  were  it  not  that  too  many 
of  them  look  upon  it  as  covering  more  sins  than  it  really  does ;  forgetting  also, 
that  there  is  a  wide  difference  between  the  mere  constitutional  countm  that 
brings  even  the  private  soldier  to  the  charge  at  the  beck  of  his  superior,  and  the 
higher  species  of  heroism  that  "  smiles  in  danger  stern  and  wild,  before  which 
obstacles,  appalling  to  ordinary  men,  sink  into  insignificance,  and  the  very  ap- 
pearance of  which  in  the  front  of  battle  is,  "  worth  a  thousand  men.''  Those 
who  knew  the  British  army  during  the  war  know  that  this  nobler  sort  of  spirit 
was  not  wanting  in  its  ranks  ;  whether  it  was  always  accompanied  by  the  degree 
of  prefessional  knowledge,  and  habit  of  reflection,  that  could  alone  have  raised  it 
to  its  highest  efficiency,  is  a  question  that  I  shall  not  at  present  agitate :  the 
errors  of  the  brave,  if  errors  there  have  been,  shall  be  overlooked  in  the  lustre 
that  their  gallantry  has  shed  over  their  country's  fame  and  arras. 

I  am,  Sir,  your  most  obedient, 

J.  M. 


Sam  Sprit  to  the  Heditur. 

HONNER'D  SIR, — You  're  a  propper  good  'un  for  hinsertin  my  lettur  against 
the  justasses  as  wishes  to  injer  the  King's  sarvis,  in  your  Jarnal, — and  when  I 
stood  for  the  Block  &  Quadrant,  I  found  Crossgrain,  and  the  Quill-driver,  and 
some  chaps,  was  wating,  like  jews  on  a  pay-day,  to  rattle  a  salute.  So,  when  I 
hove  in  site,  they  gov  three  cheers  and  sings  out — "  Hurrah !  Sam  Sprit's  an 
orther,— he  '11  ship  long  togs  yet." — "  Well,"  says  I,  "  what  of  that?  if  a  fellors 
got  bility,  why  shouldn't  he  show  it  ?  I  '11  just  fly  'em  another  lettur  when  I 
likes, — so  take  it  out  of  that!"  Howsomever,  as  I  seed  the  broadside  was  only 
in  a  purser's  grin,  down  we  sits ;  then  we  begins  to  drink,  and  of  course  to 
sing.  So  they  says,  "  Sam,"  says  they,  "tip  us  a  stave  ;" — "  I  will  bo',"  says  I; 
"  here  goes" — 

"  Our  ship  was  on  the  coast  of  France, 

And  war  was  her  imploy  ; 
All  vessels  with  tricullerd  flag, 
To  take,  burn,  or  distroy " 

"  Oh  !  sink  your  ship,"  roars  they ;  "  give  us  summut  about  love."  "  Why," 
says  I,  "  how  can  ship  &  love  be  seperated  ?  don't  we  all  stick  to  our  barkies  ? 
&  tho'  sailors  is  willified,  dont  they  all  get  shore-hits  atwixt  wind  &  water? 
Some  chouder-harted  codgers  thinks  we  shudnt  marry,  acos  we  're  never  stash- 
unery,  &  our  familys  may  becum  expensiv  to  the  country  :  paultry  chaps  !  as  if 
the  sollace  of  sivilizashun  is  to  be  denied  to  your  defenders,  &  the  laws  of  Na- 
tur  be  defected,  by  cold  considerashuns  of  shillins  &  pense.  Wives  for  ever ! 
But  it  may  chance  to  many  a  smart-un  to  grapple  a  tartar  what  won't  strike,  tho' 
she  keeps  him  in  tow  : — no  joke  I  can  tell  you, — makes  one  heave  &  sett  about 

*  Berenhorst.  I  quote  from  recollection,  but  the  words  of  such  a  writer  are  not 
easily  forgotten. 


CORRESPONDENCE.  227 

the  brest-bone,  as  much  as  a  lited  pipe  would  in  a  powder-room." — "  Hollo, 
Sam  ! "  bawls  Crossgrain  athawrt  the  table, — "  have  you  battled  the  watch  on 
that  tack  ?  instead  of  frisking  like  a  shrimp  in  sea-weed,  get  to  close  quarters, 
&  you  '11  carry  the  point  in  the  snapping  of  a  flint." — "  You  mite  have  been  a 
tolerable  bisket-nibbling  reefer,"  says  I,  "  but  what  do  you  know  more  about 
making  love  nor  I  do?" — "  Bravo,  Sam!"  cries  the  Quill-driver. — "  You  be 
d — cl,"  says  I,  "  no  more  bravo  than  you  ;  an  if  you  don't  keep  your  tacks  be- 
layed, I  '11  nock  the  first  of  June  into  your  ugly  mug."  So,  when  they  was  si- 
lent, I  sung  them  a  ditty  as  I  rote  myself,  'bout  being  in  love : — 

"  Some  at  the  Block  &  Quadrant  takes  delite, 
Some  in  the  cock-pit  loves  to  dive  below  ; 
Some  in  their  cabbins,  shunnin  vulgar  site, 
Drane  the  full  can,  the  smoky  volum  blow. 

Lo  !  while  my  messmates  take  th'  inspiring  draft, 
And  Crossgrain  stows  away  his  deep  libashun  ; 

To  cheer  my  moments,  if  a  tot  I  quaft, 
I  need  n't  swig  enuffto  swamp  a  nashun. 

For  dear  art  thou  to  me,  as  grog  to  tars, 

As  oil  to  Russians,  or  to  wimmen  gab  ; 
As  boasting  is  to  sodgers  ruff  with  scars, 

Or  to  the  streeming  deck — a  thirsty  swab. 

Sweet  in  my  ears  thy  voice,  like  bosun's  wissle, 

Unbounded  as  an  Admiral's  is  thy  powr  ; 
But,  ah  !  thy  hart's  as  hard  as  doctur's  pessel, 

And  cold  thy  brest,  as  any  north-east  showr." 

Just  at  this  tippography,  in  bounces  Squire  Hearty,  with  a  little  book  in  his 
flipper ;  &  without  wating  to  hear  what  we  was  a  singin  on,  he  breaks  out  with 
— "  What  the  devil's  the  meening  of  all  this  ?"  says  he, — "  Here's  the  gloryous 
Brittish  Navy  tumbling  to  the  dogs,  acordin  to  your  Mildmays,  &  Saints,  & 
snivellin  Midshipmen,  &  other  detractinaturs.  Here  's  one  wants  to  put  down 
the  unjudishus  preddelikshun," — I  can  hardly  come  that  word — "  for  a  sailor's 
life;  another  makes  his  hero  accept  a  female's  hand  wot  is  just  getting  marryed 
to  somebody  else ;  &  a  third  sketches  out  a  proffligat  mixter  of  cant  &  ribbaldry, 
&  calls  it  a  pictur  of  sea  manners. — Sea  manners,  indeed  !  Nothing  but  dis- 
gustin  filth, — &  Frank  himself  is  fool  &  rascal  enuff  to  bring  his  actress  &  natre 
child  to  a  bride  !  Out  upon  such  grossness  !  Even  these  orthers  find  himita- 
ters,  for  now  comes  this  here  scribbler  &  dubs  his  nonsense  '  Life  on  board  a 
man-of-war.'  If  such  are  the  lothsum  habbits  there,  Sam,  I  can  never  respect 
your  brettheren,  as  I  have  done." 

Well,  there  we  was !  taken  slap  aback,  as  the  log-book  has  it,  &  not  able  to  box 
off,  cos  the  Squire  was  in  a  T< turning  rage  ;  till  at  last  Crossgrain  swore  he  would 
untwist  the  whole  yarn,  as  it  warn't  a  long  un.  "  I  'm  for  you  when  the  ship's 
paid  off,"  says  I, — "  Let's  hear  what  the  chap  jaws  about :  I  likes  life  in  a 
barkey,  for  sailors  is  no  more  immoral  nor  other  peeple,  &  if  they  is  a  little 
thortless  or  so,  don't  they  serve  the  country  with  manly  dilligense  &  attenshun, 
blow  high  or  blow  low,  &  risk  their  limbs  &  lives  every  hour?  Who  dare  say 
that  black's  the  white  of  their  eye  ?  A  man-of-war,  insteed  of  being  bellowed 
against  by  such  wimpering  lubbers,  is  what  any  Britton  may  be  proud  of,  as  a 
model  to  the  whole  world,  of  propper  dissiplin  &  cumfurt.  Giv  me  the  True 
Blue,  for  I  thinks  it  better  to  be  hanged  in  a  ship  than  dy  a  natrel  death  ashore, 
—so  now,  pay  out." — "  Pay  out,"  cries  Crossgrain, — "  why  it's  as  dark  as  a 
pump-well ;  lets  lite  up  furst,  &  pass  along  some  more  grog  and  backy,  we'll 
then  shut  the  dore  &  stow  snug,  for  the  ventriloquist  that's  stuck  in  the  window, 
will  carry  off  the  smoke." 

So,  wile  we  was  a  wating  for  the  glims,  the  Squire  says,  "  Why,  Sam,"  says 
he,  "  its  menshun'd  in  the  larst  number  of  the  Jarnal  as  you  cuts  such  a  shine 
in,  that  our  King  is  goin  to  let  the  sodgers  &  sailors  have  a  museehum  to  stow 


228  CORRESPONDENCE. 

their  curositys  in.'"  "  That 's  no  more  than  propper,"  says  I,  "  such  good  uns 
carnt  be  too  much  together ;  &  I  only  hopes  every  seaman  going  forren,  will 
tye  a  knot  on  his  lanniard,  that  he  mayn't  forget  to  bring  summut  for  'em." 
"  But  there  ;s  things  enufF  at  home  already,"  replies  Hearty,  "  if  every  body 
would  fork-out ;  there 's  one  of  the  Seccaterrys  of  the  Admirality  is  nown  to  have 
found  a  lea?  of  Noah's  log-book,  &  a  kedge-anchor,  as  belonged  to  the  Ark,  on 
the  Table  Mountain,  years  ago, — wont  he  hand  'em  over  ?"  "  Not  without  the 
Trusteesis  sound,  and  the  Museehum  is  corporated  with  a  Charter,"  drawls  out 
the  Quill-driver, — but  as  he  twigged  me  bending  my  springs,  he  clapped  his 
stopper  on. 

Here  a  cupple  of  dips  being  put  on  the  table,  Crossgrain  reads  the  little 
book  ; — but  Lord  !  the  Squire  needn't  have  put  his  back  up,  when  every  page 
tells  plainly  its  a  got-up  story,  &  no  reglar  log.  "  Is  it  likely,"  says  I,  "  as  a 
seasick  booby,  with  a  face  as  long  as  a  ropewalk,  should  be  stashund  at  the  cat- 
head look-out,  the  first  nite  he  was  afloat,  8c  in  a  craft  where  he  was  a  hutter 
stranger  ?"  "  No,"  ansurs  Crossgrain  ;  "  an  even  if  it  was  possable,  he  coudnt 
without  divyne  intewhition  have  hail'd  the  quarterdeck  with,  '  a  large  sail, 
broad  on  the  weather  bow;'  nor  have  made  out,  thro  the  gloome,  as  how  she 
was  on  the  starboard  tack.  And  then  again,  this  Johnny  Raw  swears  he  went 
aloft  in  the  gale  to  loose  a  topsail,  and  meantime  two  men  were  washed  off 
the  weather  fore-yard-arm  !"  "  Well,  Sir,  there  's  no  evidense  to  the  contrary," 
says  the  lawyer's  mate ;  "  You  be  d — d,"  says  I. 

"  It  struck  me,"  observes  the  Squire,  "  as  the  quotition  about  beggarly  loxes 
smelt  rather  of  a  garret  than  a  ship  ;  &  I  was  summut  surprized  at  seein  it  stated 
as  the  mutiny  at  the  Nore  hapned  in  1792,  as  well  as  the  hassershun  that  the 
Portugees  had  465  saint  days  in  the  year."  "  But,"  cries  Crossgrain, — "them  re- 
marks isn't  more  ignarent  than  the  yarn  where  the  master-at-arms  is  ordred  to 
git  a  pare  of  irons  reddy  ;  &  the  jabber  atwixt  the  reefer  &  tartar  of  a  captain, 
while  the  crew  was  a  splitting  there  sides  laffing  at  em,  coudnt  be  rote  by  a  man 
wot  had  ever  trod  the  deck  of  a  liner." — "  Then  again,"  says  old  Hearty, — "  I 
was  pauld  with  the  story  of  a  sailor's  chucklin  a  nun  under  the  chin,  thro  the  gra- 
tin  of  a  convent,  &  then  shakin  hands  with  her." — "  Believe  nun  of  that,"  says 
I;  "  nor  a  word  of  poor  Bathurst  and  the  swearing  merchant-seaman;  nor  the 
walking  the  plank  story ;  nor  the  drowning  turk  liting  his  water-prufe  pipe ;  nor 
the  squaring  yards  with  officers;  nor  the  actin  captain  cryin  &  axin  pardon  of 
the  ship's  cumpany." — "  If  that's  a  fact,"  hads  Crossgrain,  "  its  passin  strange, 
&  if  false,  its  stranger  still." — "  Then  you  think  it  a  farrago  of  falshood  from 
beginnin  to  end,"  says  the  Squire  ; — "Just  so,"  says  I. — "  That 's  libellous  whe- 
ther true  or  not,"  squeaks  the  Quill-driver.  "  Shut  your  meddlin  potaty-trap," 
says  I ;  "  or  I  '11  muzzle  you ;  for  you  are  ony  a  shore-shark,  and  can't  tell  the 
main-bowline  from  the  Captain's  buckles." 

Well  then,  honner'd  heditur,  the  feller  torks  straynge  stuff  about  Malta  har- 
bour, &  the  smitche  boat-songs ;  &  of  a  hadventur  in  Strada  Teatro,  which  hin- 
sults  the  undirstandin  in  every  way.  I  noes  Malta  too  well  to  hoist  in  such  a 
unnatrel  twister  I  thinks  I  now  feels  its  skorchin,  sweltrin  climet;  and  its 
bells,  and  cries,  and  clatter  of  the  devil's  own  noyses,  is  now  a  ringin  in  my  ear. 
When  you  goes  ashore,  all  the  beggars  clammer  with  perfessional  impertoonity, 
singin  out  "  nix  mangiarry,  nix  mangiarry,"  on  the  steps  that  leads  into  the 
town,  ansering  I  suppose,  to  our  Hungerford-stares.  Ay,  many 's  the  trip  I 
have  took  to  the  Cazalls,  through  Port  Bomb,  where  the  hired  orses  generally 
gets  rid  of  their  riders,  and  runs  into  town  for  others.  And  I  have  seen  their 
horringe  trees,  and  the  little  feelds  cultivated  like  mustard  &  cress  in  a  quadrant 
ease.  And  I  have  walkt  in  the  Brittanical  gardens  at  Florian,  where  all  the 
wimmen  was  in  faldets,  and  the  sodger-officers  as  bizzy  as  bees  in  a  tar-bucket, 
a  laying  out  their  kedges.  Then,  honner'd  Sir,  I  dined  on  suppersad,  or  bolony 
sasadge,  &  fouls  biled  with  larks,  &  pigeons,  &  other  pot  companions.  They 
says  the  powltry  is  fattened  by  sprinklin  bran  over  mannoor,  but  as  I  'm  not 
over  nice,  I  never  henquired  the  trooth. 


CORRESPONDENCE.  229 

One  thing  seems  queer  at  Malta, — all  the  peeple,  whether  raarchants,  or  sod- 
gers,  or  sinners,  or  gentilmen,  or  governors,  all  constantly  gapes  about  for  gally- 
packets  :  &  they  thinks  all  the  world  is  hinterested  about  them  &  their  corn-laws, 
&  their  levveys.  Then,  Sir,  all  the  Englishmen  sways  away,  and  lives  like 
double  allowance ;  and  all  their  wives  has  got  a  bocks  at  the  Oproar,  &  a  pue 
at  the  Church,  &  a  turkey  carpet,  &  a  shandilleer,  &  a  caleece, — &  they  danses, 
and  pik-nicks,  and  maskerades  it  like  mad  uns.  Wheniver  I  went  to  our  oner's 
house,  his  sarvents  was  always  a  clearing  away  for  a  shevo ;  &  he  was  a  jolly 
goer,  whot  was  hail-fellow  with  every  one,  &  larfed  at  expenses, — only  he  broke 
one  day,  and  then  nobody  cared  for  him. 

So,  when  I  swore  I  woud  rite  to  you  about  the  little  book,  the  Squire  told 
me  the  usual  way  of  cummencin  was  by  saing  summut  about  the  head  &  the 
heart  of  a  man,  to  whom  Tom  Pepper  was  a  fool, — and  you  noe  the  devil  kick- 
ed him  out  of  his  cabbin  for  bein  a  bigger  liar  than  himself.  "  No,"  says  I, 
"  that  fashun  may  do  for  a  butcher,  or  a  surjon,  but  I  '11  blow  him  up  in  heaps, 
from  clue  to  earin."  So,  Honner'd  Sir,  plese  to  hand  him  out. 

Your  humbel  Sarvent, 

(With  Speed.)  SAM  SPRIT. 

Marline  Spike-lane,  Dec.  20th,  1829. 


Colonel  Evans  and  India. 

MR.  EDITOR, — I  have  not  yet  seen  Colonel  Evans's  work,  but  I  read  the 
observations  on  it  in  the  United  Service  Journal,  with  a  strong  concurring  con- 
viction of  the  very  correct  view  which  the  Colonel  has  taken  of  the  question. 
Mr.  Elphinstone,  the  late  Governor  of  Bombay,  went  as  Ambassador  or  Envoy 
from  the  Bengal  Government  to  the  Court  of  Cabul,  in  the  year  1808-9,  when 
it  was  thought  likely  that  Buonaparte  might  be  looking  that  way ;  and  in  a  work 
Mr.  Elphinstone  afterwards  published,  some  details  are  given  of  the  distracted 
state  of  that  Government,  the  present  sovereign  of  which,  Suja  ul  Moolk,  is  still 
a  refugee  with  our  Government,  by  whom,  I  believe,  he  is  supported,  that  is, 
has  a  pecuniary  maintenance,  having  been  driven  from  his  country  by  intestine 
feuds  and  hostilities. 

Runjeit  Singh,  the  principal  Seikh  chieftain,  interposes,  by  his  authority  over 
the  Seikh  states  in  the  Punjaub,  a  country  of  the  Five  Rivers,  between  us  and 
Cabul ;  and  moreover  meddles  in  the  affairs  of  Cabul,  having  taken  the  op- 
portunity of  their  internal  feuds  to  do  so.  He  lately  sent  an  embassy  or 
commission  of  some  sort  to  St.  Petersburgh,  and  has  Russian,  French,  Sec. 
officers  in  his  service  for  improving  his  troops.  The  British  ministry  might  at- 
tempt to  enter  into  a  treaty  with  him,  having  for  its  object  the  reinstatement  of 
the  Government  and  authority  of  the  King  of  Cabul ;  but  if  Runjeit  Singh  de- 
murred, he  should  be  told  that  our  resolution  was  taken  and  must  be  carried 
into  effect,  which  would  be  done  without  any  interference  with  his  states,  pro- 
vided no  opposition,  secret  or  avowed,  was  offered  to  the  measures  deemed  ne- 
cessary for  strengthening  the  natural  and  proper  frontier  of  our  possessions  in 
Hindostan.  Most  likely  we  should  have  to  come  to  hostilities  with  this  arro- 
gant and  ambitious  chieftain  ;  but  that  should  not  frustrate  the  design.  He  is 
powerful  in  cavalry,  but  by  arms  and  by  political  management  in  holding  out 
encouragement  to  the  different  chiefs,  they  would  be  made  to  co-operate  or  be 
quiet. 

The  Indus  is  doubtless  the  proper  frontier  or  barrier  of  the  empire  of  India 
or  Hindostan,  and  the  British  Government  should  lose  no  time  in  saying  ckeck 
mate  to  all  who  might  look  across  that  river  from  the  westward,  by  re-establish- 
ing the  kingdom  of  Cabul,  and  supporting  by  all  requisite  means  the  authority 
and  government  of  the  proper  sovereign  of  that  country,  which  has  of  late  years 
tumbled  to  pieces  by  internal  discord ;  and  then  make  the  banks  of  the  Indus 
the  spot  on  which  our  empire  in  India  must  be  maintained  or  subdued.  It 
would  not  do  to  let  an  invading  army  get  a  footing  farther  into  the  interior ; 
we  must  plant  our  spear  where  Alexander  erected  his  altars. 


230  CORRESPONDENCE. 

Equipment  and  qualities  of  Eighteen- Gun  Brigs. 

MR.  EDITOR, — Having  served  some  years  in  severe,  as  well  as  sunny  climes 
in  an  Eighteen-gun  Brig,  and,  like  most  other  officers  who  have  done  so,  being 
much  attached  to  them  as  brigs,  I  am  induced  to  trespass  on  your  attention  the 
following  queries  : — As,  without  doubt,  tangible  is  preferable  to  nominal  force, 
could  not  the  two  long  iron  six-pounders,  with  which  these  vessels  are  supplied, 
be  well  exchanged  for  two  additional  thirty-two  pounder  carronades,  and  a  light 
brass  six-pounder  be  given  in  lieu  of  the  boat's  carronade,  which,  when  a  chase 
gun  is  required,  could  be  handed  up  on  the  forecastle  and  fired  over  all  ?  The 
long  sixes  will  not  bear  without  yawing  two  points,  are  always  holding  water 
when  the  vessel  is  carrying  sail,  are  as  heavy  as  the  thirty-two  pounder  carro- 
nades, and  are,  comparatively  speaking,  insignificant  as  broadside  guns. — Are 
not  the  large  poops,  as  now  fitted,  detrimental  to  flushed  vessels  in  sailing  on  a 
wind  ?  The  eddy  wind  out  of  both  main-sails,  rushing  along  the  deep  waste,  is 
forced  under  this  deck,  and  forms  a  resisting  power  to  the  impetus  of  the  vessel ; 
this  in  a  measure  can  be,  and  always  is  avoided,  by  opening  the  stern  and  lee 
ports,  but  even  then  the  air  is  compressed  in  making  its  escape ; — were  they  not 
better  as  first  launched  without  a  poop,  at  any  rate  with  a  small  low  one  between 
the  round  houses,  resembling  an  arm  chest,  and  used  for  that  purpose  ?*  The 
remainder  of  the  small-arms  were  never  better  placed  than  in  the  gun-room, 
whence  its  name  ;  pistols,  blue  lights,  rockets,  &c.  in  the  cabin  ;  nought  but  excess 
of  refinement  has  expelled  them :  the  snatches  on  either  quarter  with  which  they 
were  originally  fitted  were  extremely  useful  for  a  spring  as  occasion  required. 

Could  not  an  iron  tiller  be  fitted  to  work  under  a  shifting  deck,  and  that  deck 
be  strong  enough  to  fight  the  two  after-carronades  on,  which,  with  the  two  fore- 
most carronades,  should  be  on  trucks,  for  the  convenience  of  moving  them  ? — with 
the  wooden  tiller  and  its  ropes,  it  is  impossible  to  work  stern  chasers. 

Could  not  the  boat  be  dropped  to  within  eighteen  inches  of  the  coverings  of 
the  hatchways,  lowering  the  weight?  there  would  be  room  for  a  carronade  to 
pass  under  on  a  grating. 

Could  not  the  pinnaces  for  this  class  of  vessel  carry  their  breath  aft,  so  as  to 
enable  them  better  to  carry  an  anchor  out  ? 

Are  not  great  advantages  derived  from  keeping  the  carronades  athwart,  the 
fighting  bolts  always  in,  and  ready  for  quarters  ?  The  vessel  will  sail  better,  and 
be  less  distressed  with  the  weight  off  her  gunwails,  will  be  easily  trimmed  by 
training  aft,  or  forward,  with  the  beam  of  the  Eighteen-gun  Brigs  :  this  is  no  im- 
pediment to  working  them,  and  the  fighting  bolts  are  with  difficulty  shipped, 
when  chasing  in  heavy  weather.  I  shall  conclude  with  a  few  observations  rela- 
tive to  the  vessel  in  which  I  served.  She  was  one  of  the  largest,  measuring  395 
tons ;  we  had  on  board  forty-five  tons  of  iron  ballast,  two  chain  cables,  three  of 
hemp,  hawsers,  messengers,  &c.  and  when  complete  with  provisions  and  water, 
she  stowed  thirty-nine  and  three-quarter  tons  of  the  latter.  Thus  circumstanced, 
she  was  lively  and  buoyant ;  nor  was  she  ever  crank,  even  when  run  to  a  single 
day's  allowance  for  the  crew,  of  bread,  water,  &c.  She  was,  however,  particularly 
delicate  in  her  trim,  never  sailing  when  light,  although  she  preserved  her  stiff- 
ness ;  it  would  make  a  difference  of  a  knot  and  a  half  on  all  points  in  a  top-gal- 
lant breeze.  Her  best  trim  was  with  the  eight  tanks  filled  abaft  the  fore  hatchway, 
and  the  casks  making  about  thirty-one  tons  of  water,  with  two  months  provi- 
sions, her  draft  of  water,  fore  10  feet  10  inches,  aft  14  feet  4  inches,  by  the 
stern  3  feet  6  inches.  Mid-ship  port,  4  feet  11  inches  or  five  feet. 

Thus  weighted,  she  sailed  well  on  all  points,  the  boom  main-sail  varying 
ever  from  3  feet  8  inches  to  3  feet  4  inches  by  the  stern;  over  or  under  this, 


"  It  has  been  said,  the  poops  were  built  for  sheltering  the  men.  I  have  invariably 
found  that  they  prefer  the  shelter  of  the  forecastle  ;  the  wind,  (as  I  before  observed,) 
and  with  it  the  rain,  beats  under  the  former.  No  one  from  the  exposure,  can  be  placed 
on  this  deck  in  action  ;  and  what  is  worse,  it  is  a  good  landing  for  the  enemy's  boarders. 


CORRESPONDENCE.  231 

she  immediately  became  dull.  The  rake  of  the  masts  is  of  great  consequence  ;  the 
fore-mast  upright,  the  main-mast  raking  as  much  as  possible,  without  interfer- 
ing with  the  set  of  the  square  main-sail.  Although  the  main  boom  may  be 
reduced  in  diameter,  as  recommended  by  Commander  Pearse,  for  the  purpose 
of  sailing,  still  it  must  be  remembered,  that  the  spars  of  vessels  of  war  ought  to 
be  sufficiently  stout  to  bear  a  shot  or  two  without  falling.  Many  of  the  forego- 
ing observations  have  probably  been  discussed  and  considered  by  the  committee 
of  experienced  officers  which  sat  at  Portsmouth  last  summer,  and  there  may  be 
nothing  new  in  what  I  have  been  stating.  You,  however,  Mr.  Editor,  not 
only  give  us  the  opportunity,  but  have  shewn  us  the  utility  of  communicating 
and  circulating  our  ideas.  I  am,  Sir,  your  obedient  servant, 

R. 


Correction  of  an  Error  in  the  "  Annals  of  the  Peninsular  Campaigns." 

MR.  EDITOR, — Allow  me,  through  the  medium  of  the  United  Service  Jour- 
nal, to  correct  a  misstatement  of  some  occurrences  in  the  battle  of  Vittoria, 
(unintentional  I  am  convinced,)  that  appears  in  the  "  Annals  of  the  Peninsular 
Campaigns." 

In  the  account  of  that  day  as  given  in  the  work  in  question,  are  the  following 
words,  vol.  3,  p.  299  :  "  Two  brigades  of  horse  artillery  were  then  moved  for- 
ward to  the  front,  and  thus  supported,  the  centre  columns  continued  their  ad- 
vance in  fine  order.''  Again,  in  the  same  volume,  page  301,  "  the  attack  on 
Abechuco  was  no  less  successful ;  under  cover  of  the  fire  of  two  brigades  of 
horse  artillery,  Colonel  Halket's  brigade,  of  the  German  Legion,  advanced  to 
the  attack,  and  drove  the  enemy  from  the  village,"  &c.  &c.  Now,  Sir,  had  the 
author  of  the  Annals  turned  to  the  gazette  of  that  day,  he  would  have  seen  that 
the  artillery  spoken  of  here  consisted  of  Capt.  Dubourdieu's  brigade  of  nine 
pounders,  and  of  Capt.  Ramsay's  troop  of  horse  artillery,  under  cover  of  whose 
fire  the  above-mentioned  corps  advanced,  and  not  under  the  cover  of  two  bri- 
gades of  horse  artillery.  Justice  to  the  memory  of  that  gallant  young  man, 
(Capt.  Dubourdieu)  now  no  more,  requires  this  introduction  of  his  name ;  also, 
the  following  extract  from  the  letter  of  the  (then)  Marquis  of  Wellington,  on 
the  conduct  of  the  corps  of  artillery  at  that  memorable  battle  :  "  The  British 
artillery,  throughout  the  whole  of  the  day,  was  most  judiciously  placed  by 
Lieut.-Colonel  Dickson,  and  was  well  served ;  the  Marquis  considered  the 
whole  army  as  particularly  indebted  to  that  corps.'' 

I  remain,  &c. 

J.  D. 

*£*  To  the  facts  above  stated,  as  well  as  to  the  gallantry  and  promise  of  the 
officer,  Capt.  Dubourdieu,  who  fell  on  the  occasion  alluded  to,  we  bear  willing 
testimony. — ED. 


Late  Occultalions  of  Stars. 

Mn.  EDITOR, — In  consequence  of  the  increasing  interest  with  which  the  ob- 
servations of  the  occultations  of  fixed  stars,  by  the  moon,  are  regarded,  I  send 
you  those  of  last  night.  The  question  put  by  the  Astronomical  Society,  as  to  the 
reason  why  they  should  be  projected  on  the  lunar  disc,  has  been  the  means  of 
producing  various  ingenious  theories,  while  at  the  same  time  a  valuable  series 
of  geographical  points  will  be  determined,  and  many  data  afforded  for  ascer- 
taining the  true  figure  of  the  earth.  The  projection  on  the  disc  is  now  undeni- 
able, from  the  simultaneous  evidence  of  many  astronomers ;  but  it  may  arise 
from  adjusting  the  visual  focus  to  the  star  only,  by  which  it  may  be  retained  on 
the  retina  of  the  eye,  in  the  manner  observable  in  the  turning  toy.  Such  of 


232  CORRESPONDENCE, 

your  correspondents,  therefore,  as  are  in  possession  of  telescopes,  had  better 
attend  to  this  point,  for  it  is  still  involved  in  considerable  mystery. 

Tuesday,  January  5th,  1830. 

75  Tauri.  An  instantaneous  immersion  at  7  hours,  12  minutes,  18'88  se- 
conds, sidereal  time.  The  star  vanished  with  all  its  lustre.  The  emersion  was 
not  looked  for  on  account  of  the  proximity  of  99  Tauri  to  the  dark  lunar  disc. 

99  Tauri.  Immersion  at  8  hours,  20  minutes,  31*  18  seconds.  The  objects 
•were  beautifully  clear,  and  the  star  particularly  round  at  the  instant  of  disap- 
pearance. The  emersion  was  not  seen  on  account  of  the  ice,  which  repeatedly 
formed  over  the  eye-piece  of  the  telescope. 

163,  Piazzi  IV.  (?)  Immersion  at  8  hours,  32  minutes,  27' 18  seconds.  This 
was  a  small  star  of  about  the  eighth  magnitude.  It  appeared  bluish,  and  seemed 
to  lose  much  of  its  lustre  at  the  moment  of  apparent  contact. 

Aldebaran.  Immersion  at  10  hours,  41  minutes,  53' 18  seconds.  The  objects 
were  clear  and  well  denned,  though  much  difficulty  was  experienced  in  keeping 
the  telescope  free  from  ice.  The  star  vanished  very  suddenly,  and  at  the  mo- 
ment appeared  to  have  a  diminished  redness.  At  about  half-past  four  in  the 
morning,  the  moon  was  setting  amongst  vapours  in  the  western  horizon,  where 
her  disc  became  very  ruddy,  and  in  undulating  motion.  At  11  hours,  31  mi- 
nutes, sidereal  time,  the  star  had  not  reappeared ;  and  at  that  instant  a  hazy 
cloud-bank  arose,  which  precluded  farther  observation. 

I  hope  this  may  prove  of  interest  to  some  of  your  numerous  readers.  The 
telescope  was  a  five  feet  achromatic,  of  3f  inches  aperture,  by  Tully.  It  was 
used  in  the  open  air,  with  the  power  of  134,  adjusted  to  the  moon.  The  ther- 
mometer fell,  during  the  observations,  from  26  Farenheit,  to  24*3 ;  the  barometer 
was  stationary  at  30'05  inches,  and  the  hygrometer  varied  from  848  to  850  parts. 
A  cold  W.N.W.  breeze  was  blowing,  but  the  instrument  was  perfectly  steady. 
The  moon's  age  was  12  days,  and  her  motion  northerly. 

I  am,  dear  Sir,  yours  truly, 

Crescent,  Bedford,  Jan.  6th,  1830.  W.  H.  SMYTH. 


Royal  Marine  Artillery. 

MR.  EDITOR, — Feeling  confident  that  it  is  your  intention  to  be  correct  in  all 
matter  you  present  to  the  readers  in  the  United  Service  Journal,  I  am  induced 
to  request  your  attention  to  an  article  in  your  November  Number,  page  548. 

"  The  most  satisfactory  experiment,  &c.  &c." 

I  believe  I  am  correct  in  stating,  the  only  experiment  of  that  nature  exhibited 
before  His  Royal  Highness  the  Lord  High  Admiral  at  Portsmouth,  was  the  one 
executed  by  the  Royal  Marine  Artillery,  under  Lieut.  Stevens  of  that  corps,  the 
particulars  of  which  are  detailed  in  a  letter  copied  into  Mr.  Cow's  book  on  the 
subject,  at  page  71.  From  comparing  the  time  and  other  particulars  mentioned 
in  your  article,  it  appears  to  be  the  experiment  you  alluded  to,  although  erro- 
neously stated  to  have  taken  place  from  a  frigate.  From  my  knowledge  of  the 
Marine  Artillery,  I  know  they  are  not  desirous  of  puffing,  and  would  dislike 
being  puffed  (a  system  creeping  into  the  Service  lately  and  much  to  be  regretted), 
but  still  their  merits,  whatever  they  may  be,  ought  not  to  be  given  to  others. 

I  remain,  Sir,  with  the  best  wishes  for  the  prosperity  of  the  United  Service 
Journal,  Your  most  obedient  servant, 

F.  P. 

December  27th,  1829. 


233 


THE  EDITOR'S  PORTFOLIO. 

BISM ARK'S  TACTICS  AND  MANOEUVRES  OF  CAVALRY. — A  Second  Edition  of 
Major  Beamish 's  able  translation  of  Count  Von  Bismark's  LECTURES  ON  CAVALRY 
TACTICS,  with  the  ELEMENTS  OF  MANOEUVRES  by  the  latter  officer,  has  just  been 
published.  In  addition  to  his  copious  and  valuable  notes  to  the  work,  some  far- 
ther observations  on  the  much-discussed  movement  by  Threes  have  been  prefixed 
to  the  new  edition  by  the  Translator,  who  has  already  enumerated  the  principal  ob- 
jections to  the  employment  of  this  operation  in  cavalry  manoeuvres.  Our  readers 
of  that  arm  need  scarcely  be  told,  that  one  of  the  new  features  of  Bismark's  Sys- 
tem is  the  wheeling  by  sub-divisions  in  lieu  of  the  old  method  by  threes.  We 
propose  resuming  this  subject,  as  connected  with  the  revised  regulations,  now  under 
experiment,  of  our  own  service. 

LITERARY  AND  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY  OF  QUEBEC. — We  have  been  favoured  with 
a  proof  copy  of  the  First  Volume  of  Selections  from  the  Transactions  of  the  LITE- 
RARY  AND  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY  OF  QUEBEC.  This  Institution,  which  owes  its 
origin  to  the  enlightened  views  and  liberality  of  the  Earl  of  Dalhousie,  late  Go- 
vernor-General of  British  North  America,  was  founded  in  January  1824,  and 
united,  in  June  1829,  with  the  SOCIETY  FOR  THE  ENCOURAGEMENT  OF  ARTS  AND 
SCIENCES  IN  CANADA.  The  Volume  under  notice  is  the  first  attempt  to  record 
the  results  of  the  Society's  labours,  and,  at  this  early  stage  of  its  establishment,  offers 
a  miscellany  of  much  promise,  both  as  regards  its  peculiar  and  general  objects; — 
the  one  being  connected  with  researches  in  the  Geology,  Mineralogy,  Geography, 
and  Natural  History  of  our  vast  Colonies  in  North  America ;  the  latter  having  in 
view  the  advancement  of  Literature  in  those  rising  countries.  Amongst  the  papers, 
we  observe  an  elaborate  article  on  the  Geology  of  Lake  Superior,  by  Commander 
H.  W.  Bayfield,  R.N.  who,  we  understand,  is  one  of  the  most  active  members  of 
the  Society.  We  have  also  noticed  a  Journal  by  Lieut.  Baddeley,  containing  de- 
tailed observations  on  the  Geognosy  of  a  part  of  the  Saguenay  country, — Notices 
by  Major  Mercer,  R.A.  &c.  Illustrations  of  the  Geological  formations  and  other 
objects,  are  appended.  It  is  highly  creditable  to  the  officers  of  the  United  Service, 
to  find  them  every  where  forward  in  promoting  the  objects  of  science  and  the 
public  good. 

THE  HISTORY  OF  MARITIME  AND  INLAND  DISCOVERY. — The  Cabinet  Cy- 
clopaedia maintains  its  promise.  Under  favour  of  its  learned  Editor,  we  must, 
however,  beg  leave  to  question  the  course  of  "  most  admired  disorder"  in  which 
the  works  comprised  in  the  Cabinet  are  destined  to  appear.  For  the  regu'ar, 
rather  than  the  interrupted,  succession  of  the  volumes  treating  of  the  same  subject, 
the  "  Ayes/'  we  are  persuaded,  would  preponderate,  if  put  to  the  public  vote. 
Yet,  though  the  thread  of  Sir  Walter's  Scottish  History  be  broken  to  our  hope  in 
the  present  instance,  we  readily  yield  our  due  commendation  to  the  merits  of  "  Ma- 
ritime and  Inland  Discovery,"  the  first  volume  of  which  has  appeared.  Com- 
pressing into  a  small  compass  the  most  celebrated,  rare,  or  curious  accounts  of 
Travel  and  Discovery  from  the  earliest  down  to"  the  middle  ages,  this  volume  is 
undoubtedly  rich  in  geographical  as  well  as  general  information,  and  the  work  pro- 
mises to  be  especially  interesting  and  valuable  to  our  professional  readers. 

THE  PURSUIT  OF  KNOWLEDGE  UNDER  DIFFICULTIES. — Although,  generally 
speaking,  we  think  that  the  march  of  education,  and  cheap,  if  not  "useful,"  know- 
ledge has  been  pushed  to  the  verge  of  extravagance  and  counter-utility,  we  freely 
admit  the  plain  and  practical  usefulness  of  the  little  volume  under  the  above  title. 
As  an  incentive  to  honest  industry,  rational  improvement,  and  legitimate  ambition, 
its  principle  is  unexceptionable,  though  the  selection  of  biographical  illustrations  is 
scarcely  so  judicious  as  might  have  been  expected  from  the  wide  field  presented. 
The  scientific  details  in  Franklin's  Life  strike  us  as  being  superfluously  minute,  as 
well  as  less  clearly  and  familiarly  shown  than  suits  the  object  of  the  "  Library  of 
Entertaining  Knowledge." 

U.  S.  JOURN.  No.  14.  FEB.  1830.  R 


234  EDITOR'S  PORTFOLIO. 

MILITARY  AND  NAVAL  PORTRAITS. — MR.  ROTHWELL. — It  belongs  to  pur 
vocation  to  advocate,  in  common  with  our  compeers  in  the  walk  of  General  Lite- 
rature, the  interest  of  art  and  the  claims  of  Artists.  Mr.  Rothwell,  a  young  pain- 
ter of  extraordinary  merit,  from  the  Sister  Island,  has  recently  been  induced  to 
settle  in  London.  We  were  amongst  the  very  first  to  notice  at  Mr.  Colnaghi's  the 
admirable  portrait,  by  this  Artist,  which  has  since  attracted  so  much  attention,  and 
our  private  commendation  of  that  promising  performance,  may  have  had  some 
slight  influence  on  the  establishment  and  encreasing  distinction  of  the  modest  can- 
didate by  whom  it  was  executed.  Since  the  lamented  demise  of  Sir  Thomas  Law- 
rence has  left  a  gap  in  his  peculiar  style  of  the  Art,  we  really  do  not  know  any 
artist  who  promises  more  fairly  to  supply  it.  Our  chief  object,  however,  in  the 
present  notice,  is  to  make  known  and  recommend  Mr.  Rothwell  as  an  admirable 
Portrait  Painter,  to  the  Officers  of  the  United  Service,  who,  from  the  uncertain 
nature  of  their  duties  and  destiny,  are,  perhaps,  of  all  classes,  the  most  justified  in 
resorting  to  this  mode  of  self-representation. 

COMMANDER  FORSTER'S  SCIENTIFIC  VOYAGE. — We  have  already  noticed  in 
Part  I.  page  113,  the  arrival  of  His  Majesty's  sloop  Chanticleer  at  Monte  Video, 
and  the  different  places  visited  since  that  vessel  left  Falmouth.  Some  accounts  of 
the  farther  operations  of  Commander  Forster  and  his  officers,  since  they  left  Monte 
Video,  until  their  arrival  at  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope,  have  been  received.  It  seems 
that  the  privations  experienced  by  all  on  board  were  of  the  most  serious  descrip- 
tion, which  was  heightened  by  the  severe  weather  they  met  with.  The  whole  were 
placed  on  two-thirds,  with  a  reduced  allowance  of  biscuit,  but  which,  with  the  true 
characteristic  of  seamen,  was  patiently  submitted  to.  Off  Staten  Island,  they  ex- 
perienced some  severe  westerly  gales,  and  shipped  several  heavy  seas,  but  without 
sustaining  much  damage.  In  October  1828,  they  anchored  in  a  secure  part  of  the 
island,  when  no  time  was  lost  in  finding  a  suitable  place  for  landing  the  instru- 
ments. The  ground  being  cleared,  the  various  mathematical  instruments  were  set 
up,  and  Commander  Forster  commenced  his  observations  on  the  dip  of  the  needle, 
&c.  &c.  He  also  directed  that  a  survey  of  the  island  should  be  made,  and  dis- 
patched Lieut.  E.  N.  Kendal*  in  a  boat,  with  a  party  of  men  for  that  purpose. 
This  having  been  effected,  and  the  observations  completed,  preparations  were  made 
for  their  departure,  and  on  Christmas-day,  they  sailed  from  Staten  Island.  On  the 
morning  of  the  6th  of  January,  they  were  enveloped  in  a  dense  fog,  which  had 
lasted  for  three  days,  and  upon  its  clearing  up,  were  surprised  to  see  about  7000 
feet  of  land,  towering  above  the  clouds,  at  a  distance  of  four  or  five  miles.  It  is 
represented  as  having  a  most  magnificent  appearance;  but  they  were  suddenly 
roused  from  their  contemplations  by  a  stiff  breeze,  that  caused  them  to  lose  no 
time  in  handing  top-gallant  sails,  and  top-sails.  The  gale  was  accompanied  by 
hail,  sleet,  and  snow,  and  during  its  continuance,  the  thermometer  was  consider- 
ably below  the  freezing  point.  To  add  to  their  perilous  situation,  the  ship  was 
surrounded  by  ice-bergs,  and  enveloped  in  a  very  dense  fog.  Providentially  they 
steered  clear  of  the  immense  masses  of  floating  ice.  They  saw  no  pack  or  field 
ice.  The  gale  having  subsided,  and  clear  weather  soon  following,  they  counted 
upwards  of  eighty  bergs,  many  of  immense  size.  Whales,  penguins,  and  many 
other  aquatic  birds  were  gamboling  about  in  all  directions.  Land  was  seen  in  many 
quarters,  and,  from  the  situation  in  which  the  Chanticleer  then  was,  no  doubt  re- 
mained of  its  being  a  new  discovery,  as  part  of  it  could  never  have  been  visited 
before.  A  boat  was  hoisted  out,  and  a  party  went  on  shore  to  take  possession. 
It  proved  to  be  a  mass  of  Syenite  rock,  covered  with  snow,  and  served  for  the 
abode  of  penguins,  seals,  &c.  Desolation  seemed  in  every  direction,  and  the  whole 
had  a  most  inhospitable  and  dreary  appearance.  Having  made  such  observations 
.as  appeared  necessary,  and  named  the  various  places,  they  quitted  this  part,  and 
proceeded  to  execute  their  other  orders.  It  is  highly  creditable  to  the  commander 

This  is  the  officer  who  was  attached  to  Dr.  Richardson  in  the  survey  of  the  Northern 
Coast  of  America,  from  the  Mackenzie  to  the  Copper  Mine  River,  and  thence  over  land  to 
Bear  Lake,  during  Capt.  Sir  John  Franklin's  last  expedition. 


EDITOR'S  PORTFOLIO.  235 

and  officers,  that  they  sustained  no  loss  during  the  various  severe  trials  they  expe- 
rienced. Not  a  man  died  ;  nor  did  any  accident  occur,  except  to  Mr.  Caught,  the 
Master,  which  was  of  so  serious  a  description,  as  to  compel  him  to  invalid  on  the 
Chanticleer  reaching  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope.  Previous  to  reaching  this  place  in 
July,  the  scurvy  had  begun  to  make  its  frightful  appearance,  and  Commander 
Forster,  with  some  of  the  officers  and  men,  were  showing  symptoms  of  this  insi- 
nuating disease.  By  attention,  and  the  plentiful  supply  of  fresh  provisions  and 
vegetables,  they  obtained  at  the  Cape,  they  had  all  entirely  recovered.  A  few  days 
after  their  arrival,  a  seaman  fell  overboard,  and  was  drowned,  being  the  only  life 
lost  since  they  quitted  England.  Commander  Forster  was  at  the  Cape  of  Good 
Hope,  when  the  Java,  Rear-Admiral  Gage,  from  India,  left  that  place,  and  on  the 
completion  of  his  observations,  &cc.  intended  to  proceed  to  Ascension,  St.  Helena, 
Maranham,  and  thence  to  the  West  Indies.  It  is  supposed  that  the  places  to  be 
visited,  and  the  stay  necessary  at  each  for  the  promotion  of  science,  will  prevent 
the  return  of  the  Chanticleer  to  England  till  next  year. 

REDUCTIONS  IN  THE  DOCK-YARDS. — The  reductions  that  are  to  take  place  in  the 
Dock-yards  in  the  present  year  are  said  to  be  upon  an  extended  scale.  At  Dept- 
ford,  all  the  hands  are  to  be  surveyed,  with  a  view  to  transfer  those  fit  for  working, 
and  are  good  hands,  to  the  other  Dock-yards ;  and  such  as,  from  age  and  infirmities, 
are  no  longer  able  to  perform  their  duties  efficiently,  and  have  served  the  required 
time,  are  to  be  superannuated  on  pensions,  varying  according  to  circumstances, 
from  £10  to  £25  per  annum.  At  Woolwich,  the  Rope-yard  is  to  be  abolished, 
and  such  rope  as  may  be  in  store,  and  hemp  for  manufacturing,  is  to  be  removed 
to  Chatham  Dock-yard.  A  survey  of  the  men  is  also  to  take  place,  and  super- 
annuations, the  same  as  at  Deptford,  to  be  carried  into  effect.  The  men  employed 
as  watchmen  are  to  be  entirely  removed,  and  the  duty  performed  nightly  by  the 
Royal  Marines.  Ever  since  the  period  when  Earl  St.  Vincent  presided  over  the 
Navy,  the  artificers  have  been  allowed  sixpence  per  diem  as  chip-money,  in  lieu 
of  the  privilege  of  conveying  chips  to  their  families;  which  indulgence,  until  then, 
had  existed  from  the  establishment  of  the  Dock-yard,  but  is  now  to  be  wholly 
abolished,  by  which  a  great  annual  saving  will  ensue. 

EXAMINATION  OF  NAVAL  STORE-HOUSES.  —  An  examination  of  the  several 
store-houses  in  the  various  Dock-yards  has  recently  taken  place,  by  order  of  the 
Commissioners  of  the  Navy,  and  it  appears  that  many  articles,  entirely  private  pro- 
perty, have  been  occasionally  deposited  in  them  by  naval  officers,  on  the  ships 
they  belonged  to  being  paid  off.  Some  belong  to  individuals  who  are  now  dead, 
and  several  packages  have  been  permitted  to  remain  in  these  places  for  thirty  years, 
•without  any  notice  being  taken  of  the  circumstance.  It  is  understood  that  letters 
have  been  sent  by  the  Resident  Commissioner,  to  such  officers  as  it  can  be  as- 
certained the  property  belongs  to  for  the  same  being  removed. 

RIVER  THAMES. — It  is  a  curious  fact,  that  no  complete  and  authenticated  survey 
of  the  River  Thames  has  ever  been  published.  The  Board  of  Admiralty,  with  an 
anxious  desire  to  supply  this  vacancy,  have  issued  directions  for  a  regular  survey 
of  this  noble  and  magnificent  river,  from  London  Bridge  down  to  its  junction  with 
the  sea,  and  which,  it  is  understood,  will  commence  as  soon  as  the  weather  permits. 
The  Lord  Mayor  has  been  applied  to  upon  the  subject,  with  a  request  that  the 
necessary  directions  may  be  given  to  the  Harbour  Masters,  and  other  officers  under 
the  direction  of  the  Corporation,  to  render  every  assistance  and  facility  for  the  com- 
pletion of  this  desirable  work,  the  execution  of  which  is  entrusted  to  Commander 
F.  Bullock,  an  officer  well  known  by  his  maritime  surveys  on  the  Newfoundland 
coast,  when  commanding  the  Snap,  and  in  several  other  places. 

CAPT.  SIR  EDWARD  PARRY. — The  Ship  William,  Young,  Master,  arrived  .at 
the  Cape  of  Good  Hope,  from  London,  on  the  20th  October  last,  with  Capt.  Sir 
Edward  Parry,  his  Lady  and  suite,  on  board.  The  William  had  been  chartered 
by  the  Australian  Agricultural  Company,  and  was  to  sail  from  the  Cape,  for 
Sydney,  early  in  November,  with  stores,  &c.  for  the  Company's  establishment^  of 
which  Sir  Edward  Parry  had  been  appointed  the  chief  resident  Commissioner. 

MEN-OF-WAR'S  BOATS. — A  new  mode  of  ^constructing  boats  for  ships  of  war, 

a  2 


236  EDITOR'S  PORTFOLIO. 

has  been  invented  by  Mr.  Johns,  of  Plymouth  Dock-yard.  There  are  no  tim- 
bers used,  all  the  planks  coming  up  from"  the  keel  to  the  gun-wale  diagonally,  not 
very  stout,  but  rendered  strong  by  being  again  crossed  by  others  also  diagonally 
placed,  but  in  the  opposite  direction.  The  boat  so  constructed  is  stronger  than 
the  ordinary  one  in  use,  the  seams  never  open  in  straining,  which  prevents  leakage  ; 
and  another  great  advantage  is,  that  she  is  only  half  the  weight  of  one  on  the  old 
construction  of  the  same  size.  There  has  been  one  on  trial  attached  to  the  Britan- 
nia, the  flag-ship ;  and  although  having  been  in  constant  use  for  eighteen  months, 
it  has  not  required  any  other  repair  than  the  gun-wale  streak.  The  planks  are  all 
fastened  together  by  copper  nails  thickly  set.  The  reports  of  their  utility  over  the 
other  boats  have  been  so  favourable,  that  all  boats  are  ordered  to  be  built  on  this 
plan  in  future. 

SPARKLES  IN  THE  SEA. — The  phosphorescent-like  lights  observed  in  the  Mex- 
ican sea,  shine  with  greater  brilliancy  (in  April)  than  I  had  noticed  them  in  any 
other  part  of  the  ocean ;  and  this  I  can  assert  without  mistake,  as  I  bestowed  great 
attention  to  the  subject,  and  had  the  acquiescence  of  others  :  some  of  these  lights 
were  very  large,  and  flashed  like  the  priming  of  a  cannon,  sometimes  at  a  long 
distance  from  the  vessel.  I  observed  that  the  little  shining  sparkles  were  here  con- 
fined to  the  sides  of  the  vessel  and  her  wake,  and  that  the  waves  when  they  broke 
into  foam  did  not  sparkle,  which  is  quite  different  from  what  we  had  noticed  before 
in  the  passage  out,  and  in  the  Caribbean  sea.  The  colour  of  the  water  in  the  sea 
of  Mexico  is  a  dark  indigo,  darker,  or  more  intense  than  that  of  the  ocean  gene- 
rally. The  colour  of  the  sea  in  the  Florida  stream,  in  the  channel  of  that  name, 
and  along  the  line  of  American  coast,  is  a  fine  blue,  not  so  intense  as  that  of  the 
sea  of  Mexico,  or  of  the  ocean  generally.  Contrary  to  Dr.  Franklin's  assertion,* 
the  sparkles  are  seen  in  the  water  of  the  Florida  stream,  as  in  other  parts  of  the 
ocean.  I '.. 

CURRENT  SETTING  UPON  THE  COAST   OF  PORTUGAL. — The  Tom   and  Jerry, 

commanded  by  Lieut. ,  R.N.  sailed  from  Liverpool  on  29th  Dec.  1827,  and 

experienced  continued  gales  from  t'le  \V.  and  S.W.  until  the  22d  Jan.  1828,  when 
it  became  calm ;  this,  however,  was  of  short  duration,  the  wind  rising  again  from 
the  west,  continuing  to  blow  hard  until  the  26th,  when  it  shifted  to  the  N.E.  and 
E.N.E.  On  the  5th  of  Feb.  she  came  in  sight  of  Porto  Santo,  after  a  passage  of 
five  weeks  and  three  days ;  which  voyage  has  often  been  made  in  seven  or  eight 
days !  The  easterly  current  during  the  tedious  contention  with  adverse  gales  for 
thirty-two  days,  from  the  departure  from  Scilly  Lights,  (which  were  seen  at  eight 
P.M.  on  the  3d  Jan.  bearing  S.E.  six  leagues,)  had  set  the  vessel  no  less  than 
5°  13',  which  was  determined  by  the  chronometer,  and  the  making  of  the  land  ! 
Between  the  latitudes  45°  05'  N.  and  44°  52'  N.  in  twenty-four  hours,  the  vessel  was 
set  forty-five  miles  to  the  eastward.  From  44°  52'  to  43°  44',  thirty  miles  in  the 
twenty-four  hours  ;  and  thirty  miles  in  twenty-four  hours  the  two  succeeding  days, 
to  latitude  40°  36' :  in  these  three  days,  the  current  set  due  east,  there  being  no 
difference  in  the  observed  latitudes  and  those  by  account.  The  next  day  (27th 
Jan.)  the  current  set  fifteen  miles  easterly,  latitude  39°  16'.  On  the  3d  Feb.  the 
current  set  ten  miles  to  the  eastward  ;  on  the  5th,  Porto  Santo  was  seen  S.  by  W. 
forty-six  miles,  and  unfortunately  on  that  day,  by  an  accident,  the  chronometer 
stopped.  After  passing  Madeira,  the  current  set  to  the  westward,  verified  by  lu- 
nars,  and  the  making  the  land  (27th  Feb.)  of  Descada.  The  difference  between  the 
longitude  by  account,  and  that  by  lunar,  which  by  the  land-fall  was  correct  to  a 
mile,  was  eighty-eight  miles  only ;  which  from  the  time  we  experienced  the  trade- 
winds,  gives  the  average  of  a  westerly  current  five  and  a  half  miles  in  twenty-four 

f  The  Doctor's  words  are,  "  Having  since  crossed  this  stream  (Florida)  several  times 
in  passing  between  America  and  Europe,  1  have  been  attentive  to  sundry  circumstances 
relating  to  it,  by  which  to  know  when  one  is  in  it ;  and  besides  the  gulf  weed  with  which 
it  is  interspersed,  I  find  that  it  is  always  warmer  than  the  sea  on  each  side  of  it,  and  that 
it  does  not  sparkle  in  the  night." 


EDITOR'S  PORTFOLIO.  237 

miles.  This  surface  current  of  the  trades,  depends  on  the  strength  of  the  wind  ;  in 
1813,  during  a  voyage  to  Jamaica,  we  found  the  average  eight  miles  a  day.  J£. 

Fucus  OF  THE  MEXICAN  SEA,  $cc. — The  Fucus  Natans,  vulgo,  *  gulf-weed/ 
found  in  the  Mexican  sea  in  April,  was  in  flower,  and  completely  covered  with 
young  bernicles.  The  globular  fruit-like  appendages,  appear  to  be  intended  by 
Nature  as  floats  to  sustain  the  plant  upon  the  surface,  as  they  are  hollow  and  filled 
with  air,  and  have  connecting  tubes.  In  the  latitudes  25°  to  28°  in  this  sea,  we 
met  with  the  fucus  in  parallel  lines  S.S.E.  and  N.N.W.  It  flowers  like  the  fern 
and  other  cryptogamea,  on  the  leaves.  In  calms,  ihefucus  floats  near  the  surface, 
some  of  the  leaves  appearing  above  water ;  that  which  we  examined  in  the  water 
of  the  Florida  stream,  was  old,  brown,  and  covered  with  bernicles,  in  a  much 
greater  degree  than  any  we  had  before  seen,  from  which  we  may  infer  that  it  does 
not  originate  here,  as  is  supposed  by  some  persons.  I  have  some  doubts  about  its 
being  produced  upon  the  surface  of  the  water,  as  I  have  seen  many  pieces,  some 
of  these  of  large  size,  coming  up  from  the  deep ;  looking,  therefore,  at  the  particu- 
lar nature  of  this  marine  plant,  unless  all  or  nearly  all  of  its  air  bladders  were 
broken,  the  mere  action  of  the  waves,  could  not,  I  conceive,  sink  them  below  a 
few  feet  from  the  surface ;  and  I  am  sure,  I  have  watched  pieces  ascend  to  the 
surface  from  a  depth  of  two  and  three  fathoms,  during  a  calm,  and  in  light  winds, 
and  then  float ;  which  they  could  not  do  if  the  air  bladders  were  destroyed.  I  am 
of  opinion  that  they  grow  on  the  rocks  at  the  bottom  of  the  ocean,  and  that  by  some 
means  the  stem  becomes  separated  from  the  rock,  and  the  plant  immediately 
ascends  by  the  aid  of  its  air  bladders,  designed  by  Nature  for  this  purpose  :  I  have 
never  been  able  to  trace  any  roots,  or  pieces  of  stone  adhering  to  the  plant,  but  all 
the  pieces  appear  at  the  extremity  of  the  main  stem  to  have  been  broken  short  off. 
Although  I  state  this  as  a  mere  opinion,  I  do  not  mean  to  deny  the  possibility  of 
its  generating  on  the  surface  of  the  ocean,  as  an  analogous  circumstance  respecting 
a  land  vegetable  has  come  under  my  observation  :  I  mean  the  "  Love  Bush"  of 
Jamaica,  which  is  generated  in  air,  and  lives  independent  of,  or  without  connection 
with,  the  ground;  this  curious  plant  has  some  resemblance  to  coarse  threads  of  raw  silk, 
is  of  an  orange  yellow  colour,  and  grows  on  a  prickly  bush,  without  root,  leaf,  branch, 
or  perceptible  flower,  fruit,  or  seed  !  It  may  be  propagated  by  carefully  taking  a 
handful  of  the  threads  and  throwing  them  upon  a  certain  sort  of  bush,  the  name  of 
which  I  have  forgotten  ;  the  young  riegresses  have  a  kind  of  superstitious  feeling 
connected  with  this  plant,  which  they  conceive  has  the  power,  by  its  life  or  death, 
of  imparting  to  them  whether  a  fancied  swain  entertains  a  reciprocal  affection  for 
them  or  not.  The  northern  limit  of  the  fucus  nalans  is  marked  in  the  chart  at 
33°  on  the  east  side  of  the  Atlantic  ;  but  Lieut.  Mallard,  R.  N.  met  with  compact 
parallels  of  this  weed,  as  far  as  the  eye  could  reach,  in  latitude  39°  50'  N.  and  lon- 
gitude by  chronometer  33°  46'  W.  on  a  return  voyage  from  the  Pacific.  On  a 
voyage  from  Cuba,  the  last  piece  of  fucus  was  seen  in  latitude  43o  51'  N.  and  lon- 
gitude 43°  20'  W.  on  the  5th  June,  1828.  In  the  Caribbean  sea,  to  the  south  of 
St.  Domingo  or  Hayti,  we  met  with  a  different  species  of  fucus,  in  much  larger 
bunches,  and  having  larger  leaves,  and  full  of  air  bladders  ;  it  was  handsome,  but 
lost  its  beauty  on  being  dried.  In  the  Florida  channel  we  also  met  with  a  distinct 
sort  of  fucus,  it  was  of  lighter  colour,  and  much  longer  than  the  fucus  natans.  It 
may  be  observed,  in  closing  these  remarks,  that  the  sea-weed  extends,  like  other 
floating  bodies,  in  longitudinal  lines,  and  not  transversely,  to  the  set  of  a  current ; 
thus,  in  the  Florida  channel,  where  the  stream  runs  three  miles  an  hour,  ihefuci 
were  in  line  first  N.  half  E.  and  as  the  channel  widened,  N.  by  E.  half  E.  M. 

SUPPOSED  SERIES  OF  SUB-MARINE  BANKS  FROM  NEWFOUNDLAND  TO  THE 
ENGLISH  CHANNEL. — From  the  Great  Bank  of  Newfoundland  to  the  English 
channel,  it  was  found  that  whenever  we  approached  towards  the  Vigias,  or  dangers 
laid  down  in  the  charts,  the  water  changed  from  the  deep  blue  of  the  ocean  to 
green  ;  in  some  instances  to  a  light  pea  green ;  and  this  colour  was  not  the  effect 
of  any  change  in  the  state  of  the  atmosphere,  but  remained  the  same  under  the 
different  alterations  of  sun-shine, cloudy  weather,  and  haze.  These  changes  were  so 


238  EDITOR'S  PORTFOLIO. 

remarkable,  that  they  became  the  subject  of  conversation  on  board,  and  occupied  my 
attention  particularly.  On  an  inspection  of  the  chart,  I  came  to  the  conclusion  that, 
as  this  part  of  the  north  Atlantic,  lying  between  Newfoundland  and  the  English 
channel,  crosses  the  meridian  of  the  volcanic  islands  of  Iceland  and  the  Azores, 
there  are  connecting  ramifications  between  the  subterranean  fires  of  Iceland  and 
those  of  St.  Michael  of  the  Azores,  and  that  the  spaces  of  green  water*  over  which 
we  sailed  in  this  route,  were  indications  of  the  superior  elevation  of  the  bottom  of 
the  ocean  in  the  lines  of  communication  between  the  two  volcanic  lands  above 
named ;  and  the  coincidence  of  the  water  changing  colour  as  we  approached  the 
different  rocks,  shoals,  and  islets,  placed  in  the  chart  in  this  part  of  the  Atlantic, 
(some  of  which  have  been  verified)  supported  the  probability  of  the  conclusion  I 
had  drawn.  Assuming,  therefore,  that  these  banks  (which  I  conceive  to  be  de- 
tached, that  is  to  say,  having  deep  water  between  them  from  N.  to  S.)  exist,  and 
are  the  lines  or  conductors  of  volcanic  matter  from  Iceland  to  the  Azores  ;  we  may 
readily  account  for  the  appearance  and  disappearance  of  such  islands,  rocks,  &c. 
as  Buss  Island,  the  rocks  seen  by  Sir  Charles  Knowles,  those  looked  for  by  Ad- 
miral Rodney,  westward  of  Ireland,  Jaquett  Island,  the  Devil's  Rock,  and  the 
Eight  Stones  north  of  the  Madeiras,  &c.  &c.  because  we  have  undoubted  proofs 
that  sub-marine  volcanoes  throw  up  islands  and  rocks  from  a  very  great  depth,  as 
in  the  instance  of  Sal-rina  island  off  St.  Michael's ;  and  that  islands  disappear 
from  the  same  cause,  as  instanced  in  the  submersion  of  Goulerman's  islands  on  the 
coast  of  Iceland,  and  Robers  isle  at  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope.  I  consider,  there- 
fore, that  from  the  longitude  of  10°  W.  to  the  Banks  of  Newfoundland,  and  from 
the  Madeiras  to  Iceland,  that  is,  from  32°  N.  to  65°  N.  the  ocean  comprised  within 
that  area,  is  the  seat  of  the  different  branches  of  sub-marine  volcanic  matter  in  the 
north  ;  and  this  may  account  for  the  frequent  shocks  of  earthquakes  felt  in  Great 
Britain  and  Portugal.  As  far  as  my  own  ideas  go  concerning  volcanoes,  I  am 
willing  to  believe,  that  throughout  the  whole  earth  they  are  connected  by  subterra- 
nean and  sub-marine  tubes  or  channels,  and  this  hypothesis  is  borne  out  by  facts 
so  plain,  as  to  be  almost  demonstrative  with  regard  to  earthquakes,  which  philoso- 
phers consider  as  occasioned  by  subterranean  fire  and  water  creating  an  explo- 
ding gaseous  fluid.  Upon  this  view  of  the  subject,  we  might  carry  our  line  from 
the  Madeiras  to  the  Canaries,  proceeding  on  to  the  Cape  Verds,  St.  Helena,  f  &c. 
£c.  and  it  has  often  struck  me,  with  respect  to  the  Atlantide  Island  of  the  Ancients, 
if  such  ever  existed,  that  it  occupied  that  space  of  the  ocean  lying  between  Porto 
Santo  and  the  Azores,  and  that  these  islands  formed  the  extremes,  the  centre  part 
having  sunk  into  the  bosom  of  the  deep  by  the  agency  of  volcanic  fire.  I  may 
close  these  remarks  by  observing,  that  the  captain  (an  officer  of  the  navy,  possess- 
ing experience  and  scientific  knowledge)  of  the  vessel  in  which  I  was,  appeared  at 
first  sceptical  with  respect  to  my  hypothesis,  but  at  last,  from  his  own  attentive 
observations,  became  fully  convinced  of  its  probability.  7E. 

REMARKS  ON  THE  FALL  OF  TEMPERATURE  IN  THE  WATER,  ON  APPROACH- 
ING SOUNDINGS  FROM  A  DEEP  SEA. — On  the  2d  of  June,  1828,  a  strong  gale 
from  the  S.W.;  small/z/CMs  natnns  floating  on  the  waves,  and  the  American  larus, 
or  striped-winged  gull,  and  Proceltaria  Pelagica,  or  stormy  petrel,  called  by 
sailors  '  Mother  Carey's  Chickens,'  were  disporting  amidst  the  foaming  of  the 
sprays,  and  the  roaring  wind.  At  eight  A.M.  the  temperature  of  the  water  was 
68°  of  Fahrenheit ;  heavy  seas  breaking  over  the  vessel.  At  noon,  the  latitude,  by 
observation,  was  41°  23'  N.  and  the  longitude,  by  account,^  51°  39'  W ;  placing 

*  It  may  be  worthy  of  notice,  as  a  circumstance  strengthening  my  opinion,  that  the 
Medusae,  Polypi,  &c.  were  infinitely  more  abundant  in  these  spaces  of  green  water,  than 
in  those  of  a  blue  colour  ;  indeed,  very  few  of  the  larger  species  of  these  animals  were  seen 
in  the  latter,  they  were  generally  of  the  small  orbicular  kind  ;  whereas  in  the  green  water 
they  were  frequently  from  three  to  five  feet  diameter,  of  an  infinite  variety  of  shapes  and  of 
the  most  brilliant  colours. 

t  All  those  islands  are  of  volcanic  origin. 

\  This  longitude  was  an  approximation  to  the  true,  verified  soon  after  by  lunar. 


EDITOR'S  PORTFOLIO. 

our  position  about  a  degree  south  of  the  tail  of  the  Great  Bank  of  Newfoundland. 
The  sympsiometer  *  stood  at  30°  06' ;  the  thermometer  in  the  air  70°,  and  the  tem- 
perature of  the  water  62°.  At  one  P.M.  the  air  suddenly  became  very  cold,  and  the 
colour  of  the  water  changed  to  green,  with  a  low  haze,  like  steam,  resting  upon  the 
surface,  indicating  soundings.  At  one  hour  thirty  minutes  P.M.  tried  for  sound- 
ings with  sixty  fathoms  of  line,  no  bottom  ;  passed  a  quantity  offucus  in  line  north 
and  south ;  cold  sensibly  increasing.  At  two  P.M.  the  temperature  of  the  water 
had  fallen  to  58° ;  altered  the  course  from  east  to  E.N.E.  (until  eight  P.M.)  in 
hopes  of  striking  soundings.  At  four  P.M.  foggy  ;  the  air  54°,  (fallen  sixteen  de- 
grees since  noon,)  and  the  water  52°.  (fallen  ten  degrees.)  At  eight  P.M.  the  air 
52*,  and  the  water  58°,  (fourteen  degrees  since  noon,)  no  soundings  with  seventy 
fathoms  of  line,  At  midnight,  air  54°,  water  50°.  At  two  A.M.  (3d  June)  the  air 
62°,  water  58°;  and  at  eight  A.M.  the  air  was  at  64°  and  the  water  62°.  The  de- 
ductions to  be  drawn  from  these  observations  are,  that  there  appears  to  be  deep 
soundings  nearly  a  degree  south  of  the  tail  of  the  Great  Bank,  where  forty  fathoms 
is  marked  upon  the  chart.  That  the  transition  from  warm  air  and  sea,  to  cold,  is 
sudden  and  palpable  on  crossing  this  bank ;  and  it  may  be  farther  remarked,  that 
from  a  strong  gale,  the  wind  lessened  so  much,  as  to  become  at  one  time  light, 
and  the  sea  considerably  less  turbulent.  The  air  felt  so  cold,  and  there  was  such 
a  diminution  in  the  atmosphere  and  water,  that  the  captain  considered  it  as  cer- 
tain that  ice  of  some  description  was  near,  but  hid  from  view  by  the  fog,  in  which 
opinion  I  fully  concurred.  It  will  be  seen  that  the  temperature  of  both  the  air  and 
water,  gradually  rose  as  we  advanced  to  the  eastward  ;  and  at  eight  the  next  morn- 
ing, the  sea  had  regained  the  same  degree  of  temperature  that  had  been  indicated 
at  the  noon  of  the  preceding  day  to  that  on  which  we  reached  the  green  water, 
but  the  air  was  still  six  degrees  colder.  It  has  been  frequently  remarked  by  atten- 
tive voyagers,  that  the  temperature  of  the  water  over  banks  of  the  ocean,  is  colder 
than  that  of  the  air  and  of  the  deep  sea.  This,  as  I  have  shown  above,  was  very 
remarkable  on  the  southern  extreme  of  the  Great  Bank  of  Newfoundland  :  had  we 
been  on  the  bank,  it  is  probable  that  the  difference  would  have  amounted  to  twenty 
degrees,  as  has  been  experienced  ;  with  us  it  only  amounted  to  fourteen  degrees ; 
but  the  difference  of  temperature  between  the  deep  sea,  the  air,  and  the  water  over 
banks,  varies  exceedingly  in  different  parts  of  the  world,  and  is  not  every  where  so 
palpably  evident  as  on  the  Newfoundland  Bank.  The  great  difference  between  the 
temperature  of  the  deep  sea  south  of  the  Bank,  and  the  water  over  the  Bank  itself, 
has  been  attributed  to  the  warmth  of  the  Florida  stream,  which  is  said  to  flow  past 
it.  On  approaching  soundings  in  the  English  channel,  the  temperature  of  the  air 
varied  from  60°  to  66°,  (from  the  15th  to  the  22d  June,)  and  that  of  the  water, 
from  62°  to  59°,  On  the  20th,  it  was  62°;  on  the  21st,  59°;  and  on  the  22d, 
when  we  struck  soundings  in  seventy-five  fathoms,  it  was  also  59°,  being  a  fall  of 
three  degrees :  I  think  it  probable  that  on  the  21st  we  were  in  deep  soundings. 
The  colour  of  the  water  on  the  extreme  of  the  Bank  gave  no  indication  of  approach 
to  soundings.  I  have  not  sufficient  data  to  enable  me  to  offer  a  satisfactory  eluci- 
dation of  the  cause  of  the  remarkable  difference  in  the  change  of  temperature  of  the 
sea,  observed  in  passing  the  Newfoundland  Bank,  arid  that  which  stretches  west- 
ward from  the  entrance  of  the  English  channel :  we  passed  the  former  in  latitude 
41°  23',  and  the  change  indicated  at  the  entrance  of  our  channel  was  in  50°  4',  a 
difference  of  521  miles  ;  and  even  if  the  circumstance  of  the  Florida  stream  passing 
near  the  tail  of  the  Great  Bank  were  fully  established,  I  am  of  opinion,  that  it 
could  not  retain  its  tropical  temperature  sufficiently  high,  in  a  distance  of  more 
than  a  thousand  miles,  as  to  create  a  difference  of  fourteen  or  twenty  degrees  be- 
tween it  and  the  water  over  the  Bank.  In  the  latitude  of  30°,  where  the  current 
set  us  fifty-eight  miles  N.  by  E.  in  the  twenty-four  hours,  the  temperature  of  the 
water  in  the  stream  was  793°,  and  that  of  the  air  78°  ;  on  the  1st  of  June,  the  day 

*  An  instrument  contrived,  by  means  of  hydrogen  gas  and  oil,  to  indicate  the  changes 
on  the  pressure  of  the  atmosphere.  It  is  extremely  sensitive,  if  I  may  use  the  expression, 
and  a  sad  bore  to  weak  nerves. 


EDITOR'S  PORTFOLIO. 


before  we  experienced  the  change  on  the  extremity  of  the  Great  Bank,  the  tempe- 
rature of  the  water  was  72°,  and  that  of  the  air  70°;  giving  7£°  of  variation  in  the 
water,  and  8°  in  that  of  the  air:  on  the  tropical  line,  off  the  Havannah,  the  tempe- 
rature of  the  stream  was  at  75°,  whilst  the  air  was  at  70°  at  noon.  From  these  obser- 
vations it  appears,  that  the  water  of  the  stream  was  warmer  in  30°  N.  than  on  the 
tropic,  by  4^° ;  I  know  not  what  could  create  this  difference  in  a  distance  of  450 
miles,  so  contrary  to  expectation,  except  that  the  wind  was  blowing,  in  the  latter 
case  from  the  N.  and  NW.  and  in  the  former  from  S.S.E.  to  S.W.  :  it  will  be  seen 
too,  that  in  a  difference  of  latitude  of  1020  miles,  that  is,  from  23^<>  to  40^0,  the 
temperature  of  the  air  was  precisely  the  same,  and  a  difference  only  of  3°  in  that  of 
the  water  of  the  Florida  stream  and  the  water  south  of  the  Great  Bank.  Had  we 
actually  seen  ice  when  we  experienced  the  sudden  change  of  the  air  and  water  on 
the  tail  of  the  Bank,  that  circumstance  would  have  accounted,  in  a  great  measure, 
for  that  change  ;  but  not  having  seen  any,  although  we  had  no  doubt  of  there  being 
some  in  our  immediate  vicinity,  I  cannot  give  this  as  certain;  but  I  am  inclined 
rather  to  admit  this  as  the  cause,  than  the  warmth  of  the  Florida  stream  creating  it. 
I  shall  now  proceed  to  state  the  circumstances  which  occurred  on  approaching 
soundings  in  the  voyage  to  the  port  of  Vera  Cruz,  &c.  For  several  days  before  we 
made  the  Caribbean  Islands,  (which  was  on  the  27th  Feb.)  the  temperature  of  the 
water  had  been  uniformly  at  77°,  being  from  one  to  three  degrees  warmer  than  the 
atmosphere;  the  day,  however,  we  arrived  within  the  islands,  the  temperature  of 
the  water,  instead  of  falling,  rose  one  degree,  that  is,  to  78°,  whilst  the  air  was 
76°  and  77°.  There  are  soundings  off  Nevis,  and  also  on  the  Aves  Bank;  and  it 
may  be  observed,  that  many  of  the  islands  here,  such  as  Guadaloupe,  Nevis,  St. 
Christopher,  &c.  are  volcanic  lands,  which  may  probably  account  for  the  rise  of 
the  thermometer  in  the  water ;  and  I  have  no  doubt  operate  as  a  cause  in  pro- 
ducing, on  some  banks,  a  contrary  effect,  as  in  the  present  case,  to  that  usually  ex- 
perienced. From  the  Grand  Cayman  Isle,  to  the  westward  of  Jamaica,  to  the 
Catouch,  or  Campeche  Bank,  the  temperature  of  the  water  was  79°,  the  air  varying 
from  77°  to  80°.  On  striking  soundings  in  twenty-seven  fathoms,  the  thermometer 
in  the  water  fell  to  78|° ;  the  next  day,  in  thirteen  and  twenty-five  fathoms,  it  fell 
to  76°,  and  on  our  quitting  the  Bank,  it  rose  to  780.  It  may  be  proper  to  remark 
here,  that  during  a  strong  north,  we  found  that  the  thermometer  in  the  sea  of 
Mexico,  fell  from  79°  air,  78°  water,  to  73°  air,  and  75°  water,  a  diminution  of 
six  degrees  in  the  air,  and  three  in  the  water ;  but  at  Vera  Cruz,  during  a  severe 
north,  the  temperature  of  the  air  fell,  in  seven  hours,  ten  degrees ;  that  is,  from 
79°  to  69°.  The  fall  of  the  thermometer  on  the  Campeche  Bank,  in  the  first  in- 
stance, was  so  trifling,  that  unless  strict  attention  had  been  paid,  the  circumstance 
might  have  escaped  notice.  On  reaching  and  sounding  in  forty  fathoms,  on  the 
Dry  Tortugas  Bank,  the  20th  April,  the  air  was  73°  and  the  water  74°.  The  day 
before,  it  was  the  same,  (we  were  then  on  the  outer  edge  of  the  bank) ;  on  the 
18th,  the  water  was  at  72°;  on  the  17th  and  16th  it  was  at  77°,  and  had  not  been 
lower  than  76°  since  leaving  Vera  Cruz,  so  that  there  was  a  fall  of  three  degrees 
from  the  deep  sea  to  soundings  :  some  cause  unknown,  no  doubt,  created  the  irre- 
gularity (that  of  its  falling  to  72°  on  the  18th)  above  noted  ;  we  may,  probably, 
have  been  passing  over  a  spit  of  the  bank,  or  a  detached  bank,  which  would  occa- 
sion a  fall  in  the  temperature,  the  ground  here  being  imperfectly  known,  and  erro- 
neously laid  down.  When  we  had  got  into  Florida  stream,  the  thermometer  in 
the  water  rose  one  degree,  that  is,  from  74°  to  75°,  the  air  was  at  70°,  the  water 
being  guile  warm  to  the  hand ;  the  wind  was  variable  from  N.  to  N.E.  and  the 
colour  of  the  sea  dark  blue  ;  we  anchored  in  Havannah  the  next  morning.  J£. 

SAND  BANK  BETWEEN  HALIFAX,  NOVA  SCOTIA,  AND  THE  BERMUDA  ISLES. — 
Ihe  following  account  of  a  Sand-bank  above  water,  in  the  North  Atlantic  Ocean, 
cannot  be  too  widely  circulated,  as  the  danger  lies  exactly  in  the  tract  of  our  home- 
ward-bound West  Indiamen,  and  other  vessels  from  America ;  and  it  is  probable 
that  some  of  the  many  missing  ships  have  thereon  terminated  their  voyage.  On 
22d  Aug.  1827,  the  brig  Joseph  Hume,  of  Greenock,  Rattray,  Master,  on  her  pas- 


EDITOR'S  PORTFOLIO.  241 

sage  from  Mobile  to  Liverpool,  discovered  a  sand-bank  in  Latitude  39°  N.  and 
Longitude  64°  20'  W.  As  the  vessel  passed  within  a  quarter  of  a  mile  of  the  dan- 
ger, the  white  sand  was  seen  above  water,  and  soundings  at  that  distance  was  ob- 
tained in  20  fathoms  water,  sandy  bottom.  From  a  bird's-eye  view  which  the 
Mate  (Mr.  Alexander  Nunn),  took  of  the  bank,  it  appeared  to  be  of  a  horse-shoe 
form,  the  opening  facing  the  S.W.;  the  extent  of  the  bank  was  estimated  at  not 
more  than  half  a  mile,  or  three  quarters  at  most.  This  dangerous  bank  is  situated 
north  of  the  Bermudas,  about  387  miles,  and  certainly  should  be  surveyed  by  a 
vessel  of  war,*  and  its  exact  cite  determined  with  certainty.  The  above  account 
was  communicated  by  Capt.  James  Potter,  of  the  bark  Science,  of  Greenock  :  he 
received  the  information  from  his  chief  mate,  Mr.  Nunn,  who  at  the  time  of  the 
discovery,  requested  of  the  master  permission  to  go  for  a  few  buckets  of  sand,  but  he 
would  not  grant  it.  Capt.  Potter  observes  that,  "  as  this  dangerous  bank  lies  di- 
rectly in  the  track  of  all  vessels  pursuing  a  north-easterly  course  from  the  Florida 
Channel,  I  deem  it  my  duty  to  give  it  the  earliest  publicity,  in  hopes  that  it  will 
be  the  means  of  saving  many  valuable  lives,  and  much  property.  Many  of  our  ves- 
sels from  Jamaica,  Honduras,  New  Orleans,  &c.  are  supposed  to  have  foundered 
at  sea,  when  this  bank  may  have  caused  the  loss  of  several,  as  it  lies  with  out- 
stretched arms  to  receive  them."  May  not  the  Busy,  Contest,  Acorn,  and  others 
of  his  Majesty's  ships,  which  are  supposed  to  have  foundered  at  sea,  have  been 
wrecked  and  overwhelmed  upon  this  bank  ? 

THE  DEVIL'S  ROCK  IN  THE  NORTH  ATLANTIC,  1829. — Capt.  Swainson,  of 
the  St.  George,  of  Liverpool,  has  furnished  some  information  respecting  the  "  De- 
vil's Rock,"  which  is  of  importance  to  mariners.  It  is  near  the  mouth  of  the  Eng- 
lish Channel,  and  laid  down  in  the  charts  as  doubtful.  Capt.  Swainson  says, 
"  Contrary  winds  led  me  more  to  the  westward  than  the  accustomed  track  to  Ma- 
deira, and  on  Saturday,  the  27th  June,  I  observed  at  noon,  in  Latitude  47°  30'  N. 
and  Longitude  by  chronometer  13°  19'  W.  Having  a  fine  breeze,  I  steered  S.S.W. 
by  compass,  and  at  five  o'clock  fell  in  with  breakers,  and  a  rock,  almost  even  with 
the  water's  edge,  so  that  we  saw  it  distinctly  when  the  water  receded  from  it,  being 
then  only  two  miles  distant.  I  immediately  got  the  longitude  by  the  chronometers, 
and  with  the  distance  run  from  noon,  made  this  danger  to  lie  in  46°  26'  N.  and  in 
longitude  13°  18'  W.  I  have  not  the  least  doubt  of  my  longitude  being  correct,  as 
I  have  had  my  chronometers  many  voyages  to  India,  and  they  have  always  proved 
right."  This  dangerous  rock  has  been  verified  by  the  Master  of  the  Fortitude, 
of  Dublin,  and  his  observations  place  it  in  latitude  46°  33'  N.  and  longitude 
13°  3'  W.  which  is  a  difference  of  7'  in  the  latitude,  and  15'  in  the  longitude,  as 
given  by  Capt.  Swainson,  whose  observations,  however,  are  more  to  be  depended 
upon,  on  account  of  his  practice  as  an  observer,  and  the  tried  correctness  of  his 
chronometers.  It  appears  that  Capt.  Marryatt,  of  H.  M.  S.  Ariadne,  who  was 
sent  to  seek  this  rock,  has  returned  unsuccessful ;  nevertheless,  we  are  disposed  to 
place  every  reliance  on  Capt.  Swainson's  testimony,  and  therefore  believe  in  its 
existence.  Our  reason  is  this  :  if  rocks  and  shoals  in  parts  of  the  sea,  near  land, 
traversed  by  thousands  of  vessels,  for  two  or  three  centuries  previous  to  their  dis- 
covery, have  eluded  the  notice  of  the  mariners  during  that  length  of  time,  how  dif- 
ficult it  must  be  to  strike  exactly  upon  the  site  of  a  mere  speck  in  the  midst  of  the 
ocean,  even  though  the  position  given  of  it  should  approximate  to  the  truth  !  A 
deviation  of  two  or  three  miles  from  the  true  position,  would,  perhaps,  prevent  the 

*  There  has  also  lately  been  discovered  a  shoal  near  the  Azores,  and  one  South  of  Ber- 
muda :  it  is  understood  that  men-of-war  have  been  sent  to  explore  these  dangers.  Capt. 
Marryatt  was  sent  to  look  for  the  former ;  we  hope  the  results  will  be  made  public,  and  not 
closetted  up  at  the  Hydrographic  Office,  as  all  other  hydrographical  notices  have  hitherto 
been.  An  annual  work  on  this  subject,  emanating  from  that  Office,  would  really  be  a 
treat,  and  inspire  the  nautical  world  with  hope,  that  the  store  of  useful  information  now 
mouldering  away  on  the  shelves  and  in  the  drawers  of  the  Admiralty  would  not  be  lost  to 
the  nation. 


242  EDITOR'S  PORTFOLIO. 

appearance  of  so  small  an  object,  especially  if  the  water  should  happen  to  be 
smooth,  and  the  sky  overcast ;  indeed,  under  such  a  circumstance,  a  vessel,  pro- 
vided there  be  water  sufficient,  might  even  pass  within  a  few  yards  of  the  rock 
without  perceiving  it. — A  singular  circumstance,  in  point,  was  related  by  an  officer, 
as  having  occurred  in  some  part  of  the  Mediterranean.  A  frigate,  (I  believe  the 
Undaunted,)  whilst  cruising,  was  becalmed  :  the  weather  being  fine,  the  midship- 
men obtained  leave  to  bathe,  and  one  of  them  on  jumping  off  the  quarter,  was 
brought  up  by  a  rock  a  few  feet  under  the  surface  of  the  water,  against  the  perpen- 
dicular side  of  which  the  ship  was  resting!  It  is  well  known  that  the  Rochal, 
westward  of  St.  Kilda,  although  standing  some  yards  above  the  surface  of  the 
ocean,  was  for  a  very  long  time  considered  doubtful. 

ROCK  IN  THE  NORTH  ATLANTIC. — The  ship  Indemnity,  in  her  voyage  from 
Demerara  to  London,  discovered  a  rock,  at  30m.  P.M.  (date  not  given,)  on  the 
starboard-beam,  distant  about  three  ships'  lengths.  The  vessel  was  at  this  time  go- 
ing two  and  a  half  miles  per  hour,  with  a  heavy  swell  from  the  N.W. :  as  each  suc- 
ceeding swell  rose,  it  was  entirely  covered,  but  at  intervals  it  appeared  several  feet 
above  water,  and  perfectly  perpendicular.  From  the  mast-head  it  was  seen  through 
the  transparent  fluid,  to  a  great  depth  below  the  surface,  and  appeared  to  be  cone- 
shaped.  At  the  preceding  noon,  the  observed  latitude  was  43°  20'  N.  and  longi- 
tude by  chronometer  25°  10'  W.  The  account  is  signed  by  R.  Woodall,  Master; 
F.  E.  Chalmers,  Mate;  and  by  Messrs.  W.  Meach,  G.  Rendell,  M.  Elkin,  Pas- 
sengers.— The  position  of  this  rock  is  320  miles  north  of  the  Island  of  St.  Mi- 
chael of  the  Azores.  There  are  rocks  marked  on  the  charts  to  the  S.E.  and  to  the 
N.N.W.  of  it.  The  space  wherein  this  rock  was  seen,  is  decidedly  volcanic,  and  it 
is  not  at  all  improbable,  that  the  rock  may  submerge ;  in  the  event  of  which,  the 
well-attested  authority  above  would  be  questioned ;  and  there  are  some  well-in- 
formed people  so  incredulous  in  these  matters,  that  perhaps  nothing  short  of  ocular 
proof,  or  the  striking  of  a  vessel  against  such  a  danger,  would  satisfy  them.  I  have 
no  doubt  that  many  an  honest  skipper's  veracity  has  been  impugned  on  occasions 
of  this  nature,  when  perfectly  consonant  with  truth.  Those  persons  who  are  apt 
to  question  or  disbelieve  off-hand,  the  accounts  given  by  navigators  of  rocks, 
shoals,  banks,  islets,  and  breakers,  seen  in  the  North  Atlantic,  and  attribute  such 
appearances  to  scales  of  fish,  currents,  dead  whales,  &c.  &c.  should  have  been  pre- 
sent "  at  the  arrival  and  departure"  of  the  short-lived  Island  of  Sabrina,  when 
such  a  demonstrable  fact  would  have  informed  them  of  the  possibility  of  islands 
and  rocks  rising  out  of  the  bosom  of  the  deep  one  day,  and  disappearing  the 
next ! 

DANGEROUS  RIDGE  OF  BREAKERS. — The  Canton  Register  states  that  Capt. 
Endicott,  of  the  ship  Suffolk,  on  his  last  outward-bound  passage,  had  discovered 
a  dangerous  ridge  of  breakers,  bearing  S.  58°  E.  by  compass,  from  Lady  Donkin's 
monument,  (which  stands  over  the  town  of  Port  St.  Elizabeth,  in  Algoa  Bay,  south 
coast  of  Africa,)  distant  about  seven  or  eight  leagues  :  it  lies  directly  in  the  way  of 
all  homeward-bound  Indiamen  making  the  land  hereabouts ;  its  existence,  there- 
fore, cannot  be  too  soon  made  public. 

LIVERPOOL  TELEGRAPH. — The  Telegraph  station  at  Liverpool  communicated, 
in  September  1829,  with  that  at  Holyhead,  distant  156  miles,  and  received  an 
answer  in  35  seconds,  being  the  shortest  time  in  which  it  has  ever  been  done. 

OBSERVATORY  AT  ST.  HELENA. — An  Observatory  has  lately  been  established 
at  the  Island  of  St.  Helena.  Its  geographical  situation  leads  us  to  believe  that 
it  may  be  eminently  conducive  to  the  progress  of  Astronomy. 

SHOALS  IN  THE  AUSTRALASIAN  AND  INDIAN  SEAS. — The  ship  Marquis  of 
Lansdown,  bound  from  Sidney,  New  South  Wales,  to  Calcutta,  touched  on  a  new- 
ly discovered  shoal  off  Cape  Direction,  on  the  eastern  coast  of  New  Holland,  on 
8th  June,  1827;  and  again  touched  on  a.  shoal  off  Suban  Island,  in  the  Strait  of 
Riho,  on  19th  July  following.  She  got  off  from  both  shoals  without  damage. 

SHORT  PASSAGES.— H.  M.  S.  Herald,  made  the  passage  from  the  Caycos,  or 
windward  passage  of  the  Bahamas,  to  soundings  in  the  English  Channel  in  the 


EDITOR'S    PORTFOLIO. 


243 


short  space  of  nineteen  days :  an  abstract  of  her  log  for  that  time,  noting  the 
winds,  &c.  would  be  of  service  to  mariners. — H.  M.  S.  Undaunted  arrived  at 
Portsmouth,  in  December  1828,  from  St.  Helena,  in  twenty-six  days,  one  of  the 
shortest,  if  not  the  shortest  run  ever  made. — We  have  been  assured  that  H.  M.  S. 
Newcastle,  ran  from  Halifax,  Nova  Scotia,  to  Portsmouth,  in  the  astonishing  short 
space  of  time  of  twelve  days !  This  is  speed  with  a  vengeance. — The  American 
brig,  American,  Moor,  Master,  arrived  at  St.  Jago  de  Cuba  from  Philadelphia  in 
eight  days,  which  is  the  shortest  passage  ever  made  between  those  places. — Oct. 
1828. — H.  M.  S.  Barham,  52,  Vazee,  sailed  from  Bermuda  on  1st  Dec.  1828,  arid 
arrived  at  Nassau,  New  Providence,  on  the  5th,  having  run  the  distance  between 
the  two  islands  in  the  short  space  of  four  days ;  her  velocity  must  have  been 
about  200  miles  a  day. 

STANDARD  PROPORTIONS  OF  FOREIGN  ARTILLERY. — In  Germany,  as  well  as 
Sweden  and  Norway,  the  ancient  Nuremberg  standard  was  formerly  employed  for 
the  weights  and  measures  required  in  the  arsenals :  to  this  standard  the  old  mili- 
tary writers  usually  referred ;  it  appears  to  have  been  equivalent  to  the  present 
Nuremberg  foot,  Nilrnberger  Stadtschuck,  equal  exactly  to  10-5323  English  inches, 
and  the  weight  of  the  shot  was  one-eighth  less  than  it  ought  to  have  been,  accord- 
ing to  the  diameter  of  the  bore  of  the  piece.  Such,  at  least,  is  the  opinion  express- 
ed by  the  German  writers.  The  Danish  engineers,  however,  think,  that  in  the  an- 
cient artillery  no  allowance  was  made  for  the  windage  of  the  guns,  and  that  the 
shot  were  made  to  fit  exactly.  It  appeal's  that  at  the  commencement,  or  towards 
the  end  of  the  seventeenth  century,  in  the  northern  arsenals,  a  standard  was  em- 
ployed under  the  name  of  the  Nuremberg  Standard,  though  it  differed  from  it  a 
little.  Since  that  time,  unison  shot,  weighing  24  pounds,  or  a  leaden  bullet  weigh- 
ing 36,  has  been  six  inches  in  diameter ;  and  the  following  table  exhibits  the  differ- 
ence of  the  calibres  of  the  guns,  and  the  diameters  of  the  shot  in  various  European 
states. 


Diameter 

Diameter 

Diameter 

Diameter 

Calibres.            States.            shown  in 

of  the  shot 

Calibres. 

States.           shown  in 

of  the  shot 

inches. 

in  Rhe- 

inches. 

in  Rhe- 

nish in. 

nish  in. 

24  Pounders.     Austria    .    .    • 

5-741 

5-491 

6  Pounders. 

Bavaria  .    .    .    3-580 

3-460 

.    .    .    .        Prussia    .    ..    • 

5-700 

5-500 

.    .    .    . 

Wurtemberg    .    3-607 

3-492 

....        Saxony    .    .     • 

5-718 

5-498 

1  Denmark   (an-  >  3.600 

3-476 

....        Bavaria   .    .    • 

5-660 

5-500 

t     cient  weight)  J 

f  Denmark    (an- 
*    *    '     "     \     cient  weight) 

j-5-715 

5-517 

.... 

5  Grand    Duchy  ?  -...TQ, 
<                           *  T  3  581 
<     of  Hesse    .    ) 

3-461 

18  Pounders.      Austria    .    .    . 

5-216 

4-989 

3  Pounders. 

Austria    .     •     .    2-870 

2-745 

.    .    f    .        Saxony    .    .    . 

5-196 

4-994 

.... 

Prussia    .     .    .    2-860 

2-759 

....        Bavaria   .     .    • 

5-150 

4-990 

.... 

Bavaria  .     .     .    2-870 

2-750 

f  Denmark    (an- 
*     '     '     *     \     cient  weight) 

j-5-192 

5-013 

.... 

(  Denmark  (an-  )  O.QKT 
i     cient  weight)  5 

2-759 

12  Pounders.     Austria    .    .     . 

4-551 

4-358 

24  C                           "•) 

0-250 

.    .    .    .        Prussia    .    .    . 

4-540 

4-360 

In  the  largest 

18  I      The  windage  J 

0-227 

.     .     .    .        Saxony   ... 

4-472 

4-364 

bore  of  cannons 

12<  pounds  for  the  ) 

-     0-204 

.    .    .     .        Bavaria  .    .    . 

4.480 

4-360 

of   .... 

6  1  least  shot  is      .  ] 

0-157 

.     .     .     .        Wurtemberg    . 

4-504 

4-381 

3  I                              J 

0-125 

{Denmark  (an- 
cient weight) 

j-4-536 

4-379 

In  the  small- 

24 f                              1 
18         The  windage  | 

0-141 
0-137 

f  Grand    Duchy 
•    •    •    •    \     of  Hesse    . 

j-4-473 

4-353 

est  bore  of  can- 
nons of    ... 

12<  pounds  for   the  \ 
6     largest  shot  is 

>     0-091 
0-080 

6  Pounders.      Austria    .    .    -. 

8-016 

3-459 

§1 

0-098 

....        Prussia    .     .     . 

3-600 

3-460 

The   Rhynland  foot  is  equal  to  12-36  English 

....        Saxony  .    . 

3-572 

3-463 

inches. 

THEORY  OF  THE  INFLAMMATION  OF  POWDER. — Capt.  Suensen,  of  the  Danish 
artillery,  has  published  a  theory  of  the  inflammation  of  gunpowder,  of  which, 
though  he  disclaims  being  the  author,  it  having  been  taught  for  a  long  time  in  the 
military  schools  of  Denmark,  he  has  been  held  responsible  for  it,  and  the  subject 
has  given  rise  to  much  discussion  on  the  Continent : — the  following  is  the  theory. 
The  surfaces  of  the  powder  are  inflamed  successively,  but  in  so  short  a  time,  that, 


244, 


GENERAL    ORDERS,    CIRCULARS,    &C. 


with  an  ordinary  charge,  most  of  the  grains  of  powder  are  inflamed  before  the  lul- 
let  makes  any  sensible  movement ;  the  complete  combustion  of  the  grains  requires, 
on  the  contrary,  a  certain  time,  the  duration  of  which  depends  on  the  size  and  the 
goodness  of  the  grains,  the  intensity  of  the  fire,  and  the  quality  of  the  surrounding 
These  causes  also  exercise  an  influence  on  the  number  of  grains  inflamed. 


air. 


GENERAL  ORDERS,  CIRCULARS,  £c. 


TO    THE    ARMY. 


MEMORANDUM. 

Horse  Guards,  Dec.  15,  1829. 

The  King  having  been  pleased  to  permit 
the  officers  of  the  infantry,  to  wear  a  black 
waistbelt  over  the  blue  coat  on,  and  off  duty, 
and  under  the  red  coattee  off  duty,  and  hav- 
ing also  been  pleased  to  order,  that  the  sash 
shall  in  future  be  worn  upon  occasions  of 
duty  only,  over  the  blue  great  coat,  or  the 
red  coattee, — Lord  Hill  considers  it  neces- 
sary, in  order  to  prevent  misconception,  to 
particularise  the  occasions  on  which  the  offi- 
cers shall  wear  the  blue  great  coat,  and  red 
coattee,  and  those  on  which  they  shall  be 
considered  as  being  on  or  off  duty. 

The  blue  great  coat  may  be  worn  upon  all 
duties  off  parade  ;  namely,  drills,  ball-prac- 
tice, working  parties,  fatigue  duties,  inspec- 
tions of  barracks,  hospitals,  and  articles  of 
necessaries,  at  regimental  Courts  Martial, 
and  Courts  of  Inquiry,  and  committees,  or- 
derly duty,  and  in  times  of  peace  upon  the 
march.  Upon  these  occasions  the  sash  will 
invariably  be  worn. 

When  the  officer  is  not  engaged  in  any 
duty,  the  great  coat  must  be  worn  with  the 
black  waist-belt  over  it,  and  the  sword,  but 
without  the  sash. 

The  red  coattee  will  be  worn  on  all  pa- 
rades, with  or  without  arms,  at  divine  ser- 
vice, on  guards  and  pickets,  public  field  days, 
general  inspections,  funeral  parties,  general, 
district,  and  garrison  Courts  Martial  and 
Courts  of  Inquiry. 

Upon  these  occasions  the  red  coattee,  and 
white  cross  belt,  with  the  sash,  to  be  always 
worn. 

The  red  coattee  and  black  waist-belt  un- 
der it  to  be  worn  invariably  at  the  mess,  and 
in  the  evening,  without  sash. 

Upon  no  occasion  is  the  officer  to  appear 
in  barracks  or  quarters,  whether  in  the  blue 
great  coat,  or  the  red  coattee,  without  his 
sword,  as  nothing  can  be  more  unmilitary 
and  objectionable  than  the  practice  of  walk- 
ing about  without  it. 

A  sealed  pattern  of  the  waist-belt  is  de- 
posited at  the  office  of  Military  Boards,  21, 
Spring-  gardens. 


Field  officers  and  other  mounted  officers 
may  wear  the  sword  suspended  by  slings  to 
the  waist,  but  not  of  such  length  as  to  suffer 
the  sword  to  trail  on  the  ground. 

The  General  Commanding-in-Chief  takes 
this  occasion  to  recall  to  the  attention  of  ge- 
neial  officers,  and  commanding  officers  of  re- 
giments, of  the  distinctions  laid  down  for  the 
epaulettes  of  regiment  officers,  and  desires, 
wherever  any  variation  is  found  to  exist 
from  the  patterns  deposited  for  regulation, 
that  they  may  be  at  once  prohibited. 

There  will  be  no  objection  to  the  use  of 
box  epaulettes,  provided  they  conform  in 
every  other  respect  to  the  sealed  patterns 

By  command  of  the  Right  Hon.  Gen. 
Lord  Hill,  Commanding-in-Chief, 

H.  TAYLOR,  Adj. -Gen. 


GENERAL    ORDER. 

Horse  Guards,  Jan.  1,  1830. 
His  MAJESTY  having  been  pleased,  by 
His  Royal  Warrant,  bearing  date  14th  Nov. 
1829,  to  authorize  certain  alterations  in  the 
mode  of  discharging  Soldiers,  the  General 
Commanding-in-Chief  deems  it  proper  to 
issue  the  following  Orders  to  the  Army  in 
consequence. 

1.  Non-commissioned  officers  or  private 
soldiers  are  not  to  be  discharged  without  the 
authority  of  the  General  Commanding-in- 
Chief,  signified  through  the  Adjutant-Gene- 
ral. 

2.  Previously  to  any, soldier  being  pro- 
posed for  discharge  on  account  of  unfitness 
for   service,  the  commanding  officer  of  the 
corps  is  to  make  a  full  report  of  the  case  to 
the  general  officer,  under  whose  orders  he 
is  stationed,  that  he  may  peisonally  inspect 
the  man,  assisted  by  the  superior  medical 
officer  under  his  command  ;  and  if  his  opi- 
nion coincide  with  that  of  the  commanding 
officer  and   the   regimental  surgeon,  he    is 
to  certify  the  same  at  the  bottom  of  a  return, 
which  return  is  then  to  be  transmitted  direct 
to  the  Adjutant-General  by  the  command- 
ing officer,  for  the  purpose  of  being  laid  be- 
fore   the    General    Commanding-in-Chief, 
whose  instructions  relative  to  the  disposal  of 


GENERAL    ORDERS,    CIRCULARS,    &C. 


245 


the  man  will  be  communicated  to  the  com- 
manding officer. 

3.  If  the  regiment  be  stationed  in  Ireland, 
the  return  is  to  be  transmitted  to  the  Deputy 
Adjutant-General  in  Dublin,  for  the  pur- 
pose of  being  laid  before  the  General  Officer 
commanding  the  Forces  in  that  part  of  the 
United  Kingdom. 

4.  Before  a  soldier  is  henceforward  per- 
mitted to  leave  the  corps  to  which  he  be- 
longs, preparatory  to  his  removal  from  the 
service  under  any  circumstances  whatever, 
whether  of  unfitness  for  duty,  or  at  his  own 
request,  a  regimental  board  must  be  assem- 
bled, to  investigate,  verify,  and  record,  the 
following  particulars,  viz.  : — 

1st.  His  services. 

2nd.  His  disability. 

3rd.  His  character. 

4th.  His  accounts  and  claims, 
according  to  the  mode  prescribed  in  the  re- 
gulations annexed  to  His  Majesty's  warrant 
before-mentioned. — The  Board  is  to  be  com- 
posed of  three  officers,  viz.  the  major  of  the 
regiment,  or  the  second  in  command,  as  pre- 
sident, and  two  captains  as  members. 

5.  From  the  proceedings  of  this  Board, 
the  discharge  of  the  soldier  is  to  be  filled  up, 
and  when  signed  by  the  president,  and  coun- 
tersigned by  the  commanding  officer,  is  in 
every  case  to  be  transmitted,  together  with  a 
duplicate  of  the  proceedings  of  the  Board,  to 
the  Adjutant-General. 

6.  Every   soldier,   on  being   finally  dis- 
charged, is  to  be  furnished  with  a  parchment 
certificate,  which  must  be  confirmed  in  the 
Adjutant-General's  department,  before  it  is 
delivered  to  the  man. 

7.  When   soldiers    are  sent  home   from 
foreign  stations  for  the  purpose  of  being  dis- 
charged, the  general  or  other  officer  com- 
manding will  take   care,  that  the  medical 
staff  officers  have  had  full  opportunity  of  in- 
vestigating the   cases,  before  the  men  are 
permitted  to  embark.    He  will  also  take  care 
that  the  same  course,  with  regard  to  the  pre- 
vious assembling  of  a  regimental  board,  and 
the  preparation  of  the  prescribed  documents, 
be  pursued,  and  that  the  several  discharges, 
parchment  certificates,  and  duplicates  of  the 
proceedings  of  the  Board  be  forwarded,  care- 
fully sealed  up,  to  the  commandant  of  the 
invalid  depot  at  Chatham,  which  place  is 
the  destination  of  all  invalids  returning  from 
foreign  stations. 

8.  The  serious  evils  which  have  resulted 
to  the  public,  as  well  as  to  individuals,  from 
the  very  careless  and  incorrect  manner  in 
which  the  regimental  records  have  been 
kept,  and  discharges  filled  up,  having  been 
fully  ascertained  and  placed  beyond  ques- 
tion, by  the  investigations  recently  insti- 
tuted, and  now  in  course  of  progress, 


throughout  the  whole  army,  the  General 
Commanding-in-chief  feels  it  incumbent 
upon  him  to  require  officers  in  command, 
and  all  others  concerned,  to  give  the  strictest 
attention  to  the  preparation  of  the  documents 
now  required,  for  the  accuracy  of  which  in 
every  respect  they  will  be  held  personally 
responsible  ;  and  Lord  Hill  trusts  that  there 
will  be  no  occasion  or  opportunity  ^  in  future, 
for  recurrence  to  measures  which  are  pain- 
ful to  his  feelings,  in  proportion,  as  they 
expose  the  misconduct  of  individuals,  and 
reflect  discredit  upon  the  army  at  large. 

9.  In  cases  where  soldiers   serving    on 
foreign  stations  may  be   desirous  of  being 
discharged  on  the  spot,  the  general  or  other 
officer  commanding  shall,  if  he  see  fit,  for- 
ward their  applications  to  the  Adjutant-Ge- 
neral, together  with  all  the  prescribed  do- 
cuments, in  the  same  manner  as  if  the  men 
were  on  their  way  home,  on  the  receipt  of 
which  documents  the  pleasure  of  the  Gene- 
ral Commanding-in-chief  will  be  signified. 

10.  With  regard  to  soldiers  who  may  be 
allowed,  under  certain  conditions  and  limi- 
tations, to  obtain  their  discharges  at  their 
own  request,  the  General  Commanding-in- 
chief  desires  that  commanding  officers,  in  re- 
commending individuals  for  this  indulgence, 
will  be  careful  always  to  give  the  preference 
to  men  according  to  the  goodness  of  their 
character  ;  a  course  which,  if  steadily  pur- 
sued, cannot  fail  to  operate  as  a  strong  in- 
ducement to  good  conduct. 

11.  In  the  cases  of  soldiers  who  are  pre- 
pared to  pay  the  regulated  compensation  for 
their  discharge,  the  mode  of  application  now 
in  use  may  be  continued  ;  but  in  the  cases 
of  men  with  length  of  service  giving  them  a 
claim  to  pension  on  that  account,  who  may 
be  desirous  of  obtaining  free  discharges,  with 
or  without    gratuity,   commanding    officers 
will  allow  a  period  of  thirty  days  to  inter- 
vene between  the  receipt  of  the  soldier's  ap- 
plication, and  its  transmission  to  the  Adju- 
tant-General,  in  order  to  afford  the  man 
sufficient  time  to  reconsider  the  step  he  is 
about  to  take,  and  to  withdraw  his  request, 
if,  on  mature  deliberation,  it  shall  appear  to 
him  imprudent  or  unadvisable.     It  will  also 
be  the  duty  of  the  commanding  officer  to 
assist  the   man   with  the  best  information 
and  advice  in  his  power  on  so  important  a 
point,  and  it  is  presumed  that  every  com- 
manding  officer   will    discharge    this  duty 
with  the  utmost  alacrity,  and  in  the  most 
conscientious  manner. 

12.  His  Majesty  having  been  graciously 
pleased  to  authori/e.the  General  Command- 
mg-in-chief  to  exercise  his  discretion  as  to 
the  extent,  to  which  this  indulgence  is  to  be 
granted,  Lord  Hill  will  be  inclined  to  give 
it  the  utmost  limits  which  may  appear  to 


MONTHLY    NAVAL    REGISTER. 


him  consistent  with  a  due  regard  to  the  wel- 
fare of  the  service  at  large,  and  the  particu- 
lar circumstances  and  situation  of  the  corps, 
from  which  the  applications  are  made  :  and 
commanding  officers  are  to  keep  a  record, 
according  to  the  order  of  date,  of  all  appli- 
cations which  may  be  made  to  them  for  dis- 
charges, stating  distinctly  and  fully  in  each 
the  character  and  claims  of  the  individual ; 
a  copy  of  which  record  shall  be  transmitted 
to  the  Adjutant-General  at  the  termination 
of  each  half  year,  for  the  information  and 
guidance  of  the  General  Commanding-in- 
chief,  with  reference  to  any  applications 
which  may  be  addressed  direct  to  head- 
quarters. 


The  General  Commanding-in-chief  thinks 
it  unnecessary  farther  to  enlarge  the  present 
orders,  especially  as  the  instructions  issued 
from  the  War  Office,  touching  the  financial 
bearings  of  the  measure  in  question,  are  so 
detailed  ;  and  his  Lordship  requires  a  dili- 
gent perusal  or  these  instructions,  and  a 
strict  observance  of  them,  from  officers  in 
command,  and  from  all  others  in  any  way 
connected  with  the  interior  economy  and 
discipline  of  regiments. 

By  command  of  the  Right  Honourable 
The  General  Commanding-in-Chief, 
H.  TAYLOR,  Adjt.-Gen. 

For  conditions  under  which  discharges 
may  be  obtained,  see  page  112,  No.  13. 


CHANGES  IN  THE  STATIONS  OF  CORPS 

SINCE    OUR    LAST. 


62d  Foot  .  .  from  .     Limerick to 

73d  Ditto  .  .  from  .     Gibraltar to 

74th  Ditto  .  .  from  .  Bermuda  (on  arrival)     £.  to 

95th  Foot  .  »  from  .  Malta     .     .     .     ,  to 


Chatham,  for  India. 

Malta. 

Cork. 

Corfu. 


The  Depot  of  the  98th  is  about  to  be  withdrawn  from  the  Irish  establishment. 


MONTHLY  NAVAL  REGISTER. 


ARRIVALS  AND  SAILINGS. 

December  20.  PORTSMOUTH. — Arrived  H.  M. 
Steam-Vessel,  Echo,  Lieut.  Bissett. 

FALMOUTH. —  Sailed  H.  M.  P.  Barracouta, 
Lieut.  R.  B.  James,  for  the  West  Indies,  and  H. 
M.  P.  Opossum,  Lieut.  T.  Hannam,  for  St.  Do- 
mingo. 

21.  PLYMOUTH. — Arrived  H.  M.  S.  Ariadne, 
(28)  Capt.  Marryatt,  C.B. 

22.  PORTSMOUTH. — H.  M.   S.  Volage,  went 
out  of  Harbour  and  anchored  at  Spithead. 

SHEERNESS. — Sailed  H.  M.  S.  Alligator,  (28) 
Capt.  C.  P.  Yorke. 

PLYMOUTH.— Sailed  H.  M.  S.  Pylades,  (18) 
Com.  P.  D.  Hay. 

FALMOUTH. — Arrived  H.  M.  P.  Marlborough, 
J.  Bull,  from  Lisbon. 

23.  PLYMOUTH. — Arrived  H.  M.  S.  Espiegle, 
(18)  Com.  R.  Elliott,  from  the  West  Indies.  Sailed 
H.  M.  C.  Bramble,   Lieut.   Haswell.      H.  M.  S. 
Ariadne     Capt.  F.  Marryatt,  C.B.  taken  into  Ha- 
moaze,  to  refit. 

PORTSMOUTH. — H.  M.  S.  Alacrity,  (10)  Com. 
J.  Nias,  taken  into  harbour  to  pay  off. 

24.  PORTSMOUTH. — H.  M.   S.   Galatea,  (42) 
taken  into  harbour  to  refit. 

25.  FALMOUTH. —  Sailed   H.  M.   P.  Marlbo- 
rough, J.  Bull,  for  Lisbon. 

26.  PORTSMOUTH.— Sailed  H.  M.  S.  Volage, 


(28)  Capt.  Lord  Colchester,  for  the  South  Ameri- 
can  Station.  Arrived  H.  M.  C.  Sylvia,  Lieut. 
Morgan. 

SHEERNESS. — Arrived  H.  M.  C.  Basilisk, 
Lieut.  B.  Watts. 

27.  PORTSMOUTH — Arrived  H.  M.  C.  Snipe, 
Lieut.  Purcell. 

PLYMOUTH.  — Arrived  H.  M.  C.  Bramble, 
Lieut.  Haswell. 

28.  PLYMOUTH. — Sailed  H.  M.  S.  Espeigle 
(18)  Com.  R.  Elliott. 

29.  PORTSMOUTH. — Arrived   H.  M.  C.  High- 
flyer.    Sailed  the  Supply,  Transport. 

PLYMOUTH.— H.  M.  S.  Hyacinth,  (18)  Com. 
R.  M.  Jackson,  left  Hamoaze  and  anchored  in  the 
Sound. 

30.  PORTSMOUTH.  —  Sailed  H.  M.  C.  Snipe, 
Lieut.  Purcell. 

31.  PORTSMOUTH. — Arrived  H.  M.  S.  Espei- 
gle,  (18)    Com.   R.   Elliott,  and  proceeded  into 
harbour  to  pay  off. 

FALMOUTH. —  Arrived  II.  M.  C.  Bramble, 
Lieut.  Haswell,  and  H.  M.  P.  Lord  Melville,  J. 
Furse,  from  Buenos  Ayres.  Sailed  12th  October, 
and  from  Monte  Video  on  17th  October. 

Jamtary  1, 1830.  FALMOUTH. — Sailed  H.  M.  C. 
Bramble,  Lieut.  Haswell,  for  Lisbon. 

2.  PLYMOUTH. — Sailed  H.  M.  S.  Britomart, 
(10)  Com.  Johnson. 


MONTHLY    NAVAL    REGISTER. 


PALMOUTH.  • —  Arrived  H.  M.  P.  Spbynx, 
Lieut.  Passingham,  from  Brazil.  Left  Pernam- 
buco  on  18th  September.  Bahia  on  25th  Septem- 
ber, and  Rio  on  27th  October. 

SHEERNESS. — Sailed  H.  M.  C.  Basilisk,  Lieut. 
R.  Watts. 

3.  PLYMOUTH. — Sailed   H.  M.   S.   Royalist, 
(10)  Lieut.  Nash,  and  Leveret,  Lieut.  Worth. 

4.  FALMOUTH. — Arrived  H.  M.  P.  Swallow, 
Lieut.  Baldock,  from   Carthagena.      Sailed    8th 
November;  Jamaica,  17th;  and   Crooked  Island, 
26th. 

5.  PORTSMOUTH. — Arrived  H.  M.  C.  Raven, 
Sailed    the    Countess    of    Harcourt,    Transport, 
Lieut.  Poad,  and  Raines,  Transport,  Lieut.  Burd- 
wood. 

6.  PORTSMOUTH. — Arrived  H.  M.  C.  High- 
flyer. 

FALMOUTH. — Arrived  H.  M.  P.Rennrd,  Lieut. 
Dunsford,  from  the  Mediterranean.  Left  Gibral- 
tar on  12th,  and  Cadiz  on  14th  December. 

SHEERNESS. — Arrived  H.  M.  C.  Industry. 

7.  FALMOUTH. — Arrived  H.  M.  P.  Sandwich, 
A.  Schnyler,  from  Lisbon. 

8.  PORTSMOUTH. — Arrived   H.   M.   S.  Java, 
(52)    Capt.  Carroll,  C.B.  from  the  East    Indies. 
Left  Trincomalee  on  7th  August,  and  Madras  on 
15th.    Arrived  the  Lord  William  Bentinck,  Tran- 
sport,   Lieut.    Grigg,    from    the    Mediterranean. 
Left  Malta  on  18th  November,  and  Gibraltar  10th 
December.    Sailed   H.  M.  C.  Raven,  and  H.  M. 
C.  Arrow,  Lieut.  Thrackstone. 

PLYMOUTH.— Sailed  H.  M.  S.  Hyacinth,  (18) 
Com.  R.  M.  Jackson,  for  the  West  India  Station. 

FALMOUTH. — Sailed  H.  M.  P.  Duke  of  York, 
Lieut.  R.  Snell,  for  the  Mediterranean. 

SHEERNESS. — Arrived  H.  M.  C.  Swan,  Lieut. 
Goldie. 

9.  FALMOUTH. — Sailed  H.  M.  P.  Camden,  J. 
Tilly,  for  Halifax   and   Bermuda,  and  H.  M.  P. 
Magnet,  J.  Porteous,  for  Lisbon. 

10.  PORTSMOUTH. — Arrived  H.  M.  C.  Snipe, 
Lieut.  Pnrcell.    Sailed  H.  M.   C.   Arrow,  Lient. 
Thrackstone,  and  Sparrow,  Lieut.  Moffatt. 

11.  FALMOUTH.— Sailed  H.  M.  P.  Lady  Wel- 
lington, Lieut.  W.  Lngg,  for  Jamaica. 

12.  PLYMOUTH. — Arrived  H.  M.  S.  Royalist, 
(10),  Lieut.  Nash. 

13.  PLYMOUTH. — Sailed  H.  M.  S,  Royalist, 
(10),  Lieut.  Nash. 

PORTSMOUTH.  —  Sailed  H.  M.  C.  Cracker, 
Lieut.  Roepel. 

SHEERNESS.  —  Arrived  H.  M.  C.  Industry. 
Sailed  H.  M.  C.  Swan,  Lieut.  Goldie. 

14.  PORTSMOUTH. — Sailed  H.  M.  C.  Sylvia, 
Lieut.  Morgan. 

SHEERNESS. — Sailed  H.  M.  C.  Industry.  Ar- 
rived H.  M.  C.  Antelope,  Lieut.  Loveless. 

16.  PLYMOUTH. —  Sailed  H.  M.  C.   Starling, 
Lieut.  Harrison. 

17.  SHEERNESS.  —  Arrived   H.  M.  C.   Hope, 
Lieut.  Newton. 


MISCELLANEOUS. 

Our  present  register  records  the  return  of  Rear- 
Admiral  W.  H.  Gage,  in  his  Majesty's  Ship  Java, 


from  the  East  Indies,  having  been  succeeded  in 
the  command  of  that  station  by  Rear-Admiral  Sir 
Edward  Owen,  K.C.B.  in  his  Majesty's  Ship 
Southampton.  Admiral  Gage  left  England  in 
the  Java,  in  the  beginning  of  1826;  and  was  pre- 
ceded in  that  command  by  Vice-Admiral  the  Hon. 
Sir  H.  Blackwood,  Bart.  K.C.B.  Admiral  Gage 
struck  his  flag  on  the  9th  ult.  and  the  Java  pro- 
ceeded into  Portsmouth  harbour  to  be  paid  off. 

By  the  return  of  the  Java,  we  learn  that  Sir 
Edward  Parry  left  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope  for 
Port  Stevens,  in  Australia,  on  the  24th  of  Oct. 
last.  The  Chanticleer,  Capt.  Forster,  was  about 
to  leave  the  Cape  for  St.  Helena,  at  the  same 
time. 

His  Majesty's  Ship  Volage,  Capt.  Lord  Col- 
chester, sailed  from  Portsmouth  to  join  the  South 
American  station,  on  the  26th  Dec. 

His  Majesty's  Sloop  Alacrity,  Commander 
Nias,  was  paid  off  at  Portsmouth  on  the  6th  Jan. 
The  Alacrity  has  been  employed  three  years  on 
the  Mediterranean  station. 

His  Majesty's  Sloop  Espiegle,  Commander  R. 
Elliott,  lately  returned  from  the  West  Indies,  was 
paid  off  at  Portsmouth  on  the  15th  Jan.  The 
Espiegle  was  taken  out  to  the  West  Indies  by 
Commander  R.  A.  Yates,  in  the  early  part  of 
1826,  and  has  since  continued  on  that  station. 

His  Majesty's  Ship  Winchester,  fitting  at  Chat- 
ham for  the  West  India  station,  received  her 
powder  on  board  atGillingham,  on  the  1st  of  Jan. 
and  is  on  her  way  to  Portsmouth,  where  she  will 
receive  the  flag  of  Vice-Admiral  E.  G.Colpoys, 
and  proceed  to  her  destination. 

His  Majesty's  Sloop  Hyacinth,  Commander 
R.  M.  Jackson,  sailed  from  Plymouth  on  the  8th 
of  Jan.  for  the  West  India  station. 

By  recent  accounts  from  the  West  Indies,  we 
hear  that  H.  M.  S.  Blossom,  Commander  R. 
Owen,  arrived  at  Nassau  on  the  10th  of  Nov. 
Sir  James  Carmichael  Smyth,  Governor  of  the 
Bahamas,  took  his  passage  in  the  Blossom  for 
New  Providence. 

His  Majesty's  Ship  Worcester,  a  fine  frigate 
pierced  for  52  guns,  was  launched  from  Deptford 
Dock-yard  on  the  20th  of  Dec.  last. 

His  Majesty's  Sloop  Reindeer,  was  commis- 
sioned at  Plymouth  by  Lieut.  H.  P.  Dicken,  on 
the  1st  of  Jan.  for  the  Packet  service. 

It  is  fully  expected  that  a  partial  naval  promo- 
tion will  take  place  on  the  approaching  23d  of 
April.  It  is  also  expected  that  the  long  agitated 
measure,  authorizing  the  sale  of  the  commissions 
of  Post  Captains,  and  Commanders  of  his  Majes- 
ty's Fleet,  will  be  ordered  in  the  course  of  the 
ensuing  Session.  It  is  said  to  have  already  re- 
ceived the  consent  of  the  Privy  Council.  A  re- 
tired list  of  commissioned  officers  to  an  extensive 
number  is  also  spoken  of. 

A  minute  and  elaborate  survey  of  the  river 
Thames  is  about  to  be  commenced  by  Commander 
F.  Bullock,  who  has  been  lately  appointed  to  this 
duty  by  the  Admiralty.  This  officer  commanded 
the  Snap  Surveying  Vessel,  on  the  coast  of  New- 
foundland, not  very  long  ago ;  where  he  was 
employed  for  some  years,  and  did  not  return  un- 
til he  had  completed  the  charts  of  the  dangerous 
and  rocky  eastern  shore  of  that  island.  The  pre- 


248 


M0NTHLY    NAVAL    REGISTER. 


sent  survey  of  the  Thames,  it  is  expected,  will 
extend  from  above  London  Bridge,  and  will  in- 
clude the  channels  at  the  entrance  of  the  river  as 
far  as  the  North  Foreland.  Some  interesting  ob- 
servations connected  with  the  removal  of  the  Lon- 
don old  Bridge,  are  expected  to  result  from  this 
survey. 

We  congratulate  our  naval  friends  on  some  re- 
cent salutary  measures  ordered  by  the  Admiralty, 
respecting  the  manning  of  his  Majesty's  ships. 
Amongst  these  is  the  system  of  widow's  men  being 
totally  abolished.  A  trifling  reduction  in  the  com- 
plement of  seamen  for  each  class  of  ships  has  also 
been  ordered,  which  is  in  most  part  compensated 
for  by  the  addition  of  Marines.  The  usual  num- 
ber of  seamen  employed  during  the  last  year  is  to 
be  preserved,  by  which  means  the  Admiralty  will 
have  it  in  their  power  to  keep  more  ships  in  com- 
mission, thereby  employing  more  officers,  ami  a 
trifling  increase  in  their  complements  may  be 
easily  effected  in  case  of  any  future  emergency. 
We  hope  this  measure  will  lessen  tin:  ravages  of 
dry  rot  amongst  the  ships  in  ordinary,  by  season- 
ing them  well  at  sea. 

A  process,  of  a  very  interesting  nature,  is  about 
to  be  commenced  by  Mr.  Lloyd,  for  ascertaining 
the  mean  height  of  the  river  Thames  at  London 
Bridge,  above  that  of  the  sea  at  Sheerness.  The 
method  of  determining  it  will  be  by  means  of  the 
level,  and  the  absolute  height  will  be  obtained  hy 
successive  stations  along  the  high  road  between 
the  two  places.  The  result  of  this  is  expected  to 
afford  some  curious  particular  illustrative  of  re- 
moving the  old  bridge.  Mr.  Llojd  has  lately 
achieved  a  splendid  undertaking  of  this  nature,  hi 
carrying  a  chain  of  these  observations  across  the 
Isthmus  of  Panama  ;  and  thereby  measuring  the 
absolute  comparative  level  of  the  Pacific  and  At- 
lantic Oceans,  a  fact  which  had  long  been  desired 
for  our  acquaintance  with  the  physical  formation 
of  America,  and  one  which  had  been  a  subject  of 
much  speculation.  Mr.  Lloyd's  experience  in 
such  a  process,  under  the  difficulties  necessarily 
attendant  on  a  rocky,  mountainous  country,  with 
a  vertical  sun,  has  no  doubt  fully  qualified  him 
for  the  performance  of  the  task  with  the  advan- 
tages he  will  command  in  his  own. 

His  Majesty's  Ship  Galatea,  refitting  at  Ports- 
mouth, is  expected  to  convey  Commissioner 
Briggs  to  Malta. 

The  following  commissioned  officers  have  been 
lately  admitted  to  pursue  their  studies  at  the 
Royal  Naval  College  :— Capt.  Hon.  W.  Wellesley, 
Commander  J.  Hindmarsh,  Lieutenants  A.  M. 
Atkinson,  G.  Ellerby,  F.  Bed  well,  A.  Miles. 

The  crew  of  H.  M.  S.  Espiegle  have  presented 
their  late  Commander  C.  R.  Drinkwater,  with  a 
sword  and  pair  of  epaulettes,  in  testimony  of  their 
esteem  for  him  whilst  serving  under  his  com- 
mand :  a  circumstance  both  gratifying  to  the  feel- 
ings of  this  officer,  and  creditable  to  the  character 
of  his  crew. 

It  has  long  been  contemplated  to  employ  steam 
navigation  for  the  conveyance  of  foreign  mail's. 


COMMANDERS. 


H.   M.   Steam-Vessel   Meteor,   Lieut.  W.  H.  Sy- 
mons,  is  to  proceed  to  the  Mediterranean  on  tin 
service. 

A  report  has  reached  us  of  the  loss  of  H.  M.  S. 

Ptlorus  (18),  Commander  M.  Quin,  in  the  Mediter- 

•Jttbean;  which,  although  no  official  accounts  have 

befn  received  of  it,  we  are  apprehensive  is  well 

founded. 

PROMOTIONS. 

CAPTAINS. 

Hayes,  G. 
Paget,  C. 
Tozer,  A. 

Blake,  J.  P. 
Boteler,  J.  H. 
Luckraft,  A. 

Jill;--.'!,    II. 

LIEUTENANTS. 
Carey,  Hon.  P.  P. 
St.  Vincent  King,  G. 

APPOINTMENTS. 

COMMANDERS. 

Bayfield,  H.  W.  Hussar,  Supernumerary. 

l!i  M,  Hon.  T.  William  and  Mary  Yacht. 

Bullock,  F.  Survey  of  Thames. 

Luckraft,  A.  Canielion. 

Russ-.'ll,  Lord  E.  Wolfe. 

Walling,  J.  W.  H  \perion. 

I.TKl'Tl'.N.A  NTS. 

Collins,  1>.  E.  Hussar,  Siipernumcpu -y. 

Corbett,K.  Arhdne. 

Darby,  A.  Hyperion. 

Dawson,  W.  (a)  Royal  George. 

Dicken,  H.  P.  Reindeer. 

Fowke,T.  T.  Can 

Hall,  H.  Kamillies. 

Stewart,  J.  II  \  perion. 

Turner,  J.  H.  Galatea, 

MASTERS. 

Emulus. 

Galatea. 

North  Star 

Childers. 

Pike. 
BURGEONS. 

Barhairi. 

Ditto. 

War  spite. 

Barham. 

North  Star. 
ASS1STANT-SURGKONS. 


Hale,  F. 
Hollovvay,  T. 
Parsons,  G. 
Wilson,  II. 
Yule,  J. 

Dunn,  T. 
M'Ghie,  J. 
Kels.,11,  H. 
Smith,  E.  A. 
Scott,  R. 

Blythe,  A. 

Both  well,  W. 
H  a  r  rower,  Dr.  R.  L. 
M' Donald,  W.  B. 
M'Mahon,  H.  W. 
Stevens,  J. 
Toms,  P. 


(  Chatham  Division  of 
\      Marines. 
Barham. 
St.  Vincent. 
Pylades. 
Royal  Charlotte. 
Reindeer. 
Barham. 


MARINES. CAPTA  i  N  . 

Burton,  A.  Winchester. 


265 

i 

COLLOQUIES    WITH    FOLARD. 

NO.  I. 

"  '  I  wish,  Trim,'  said  my  Uncle  Toby,  '  I  wish  I  was  asleep.'  " 

TIU&IUAM  SHANDY. 

LET  me  confess  my  weakness  !     It  lias  become 

— "  my  custom  always  of  the  afternoon  " — 

while  sitting  in  mine  easy-chair,  and  before  a  sea-coal  fire,  to  fall,  it 
may  be  for  a  good  half  hour,  or  by  the  mass  a  while  longer,  into  a  kind 
of  doze  or  trance,  which,  believe  me,  of  all  the  forms  of  sleep  under 
Heaven — and  blessed,  as  Sancho  has  said,  was  he  who  first  invented 
sleep  in  any  form, — is  the  most  delicious  and  refreshing.  And,  more- 
over, seeing  that  it  clears  the  head,  composes  the  ruffled  spirit,  and  in- 
vigorates the  mind  after  the  distractions  of  the  day,  it  may  be  lauded 
also  as  the  most  thought-inspiring  and  intellectual  in  its  quality.  That 
it  is  brief,  and  snatched,  as  it  were,  by  stealth  from  the  day- season  of 
care,  and  enjoyed  with  the  half-closed  consciousness  of  a  too  insecure 
and  transient  bliss,  doth  both  sweeten  its  influence  and  enhance  its 
fruition.  Therein  doth  it  but  resemble  the  whole  sum  of  earthly  plea- 
sure— fleeting,  stolen  at  intervals  from  the  thousand  ills  that  compress 
us  in  this  mortal  coil,  and  possessed  with  the  sad  assurance  of  fore- 
coming  loss .  it  is,  in  a  word,  but  the  type  of  human  happiness.  In  one 
respect  only  does  this  gentle,  evening,  fireside  sleep,  lack  the  closeness 
of  comparison  as  the  sweetest  epitome  of  terrestrial  pleasure  :  it  is  ever 
innocent  and  healthful !  A  point  of  faith  which,  at  a  befitting  season 
— that  is,  after  I  have  so  slept — I  am  prepared  stoutly  to  maintain,  in 
the  true  spirit  of  an  ancient  disputant,  against  all  comers  whatsoever — 
against  the  canons  of  medicine  and  the  fathers  of  physic. 

Only  if  I  were  a  married  man,  should  I  have  any  compunctious 
visitings  on  the  propriety  and  advantage  of  this  custom.  In  the  cheer- 
ful family  circle,  to  shut  the  dull  oblivious  ear  to  the  gentle  tones  of 
womankind,  or  the  merry  peal  of  laughing  prattlers,  were — if  wedlock 
be,  indeed,  as  some  have  found  or  fabled — at  best  a  discourteous  and 
churlish  insensibility :  to  say  nought  of  the  wilful  loss,  which  it  were 
heresy  to  doubt,  of  waking  pleasure.  But  for  me  that  am,  "  God  bless 
the  mark !"  but  an  antiquated  bachelor,  with  no  domestic  joys,  no  sil- 
very notes  to  charm  mine  ear,  or,  it  may  be,  no  shriller  pitch-pipe  to 
fright  me  from  my  slumbers — why  I,  a  lone  animal  in  a  green  old  age, 
deserted,  and — save  when  the  presence  of  mine  ancient,  true,  and 
warm-hearted  camarado  lights  up  the  solitude  of  my  cottage — with  no 
companionship  but  mine  own  poor  thoughts,  why  surely  I  may  fairly 
and  freely  indulge  either  my  wakeful  or  my  sleeping  humours.  And 
chiefly  do  I  love  that  hour  of  wintry  even-tide,  when,  the  old  soldier's 
frugal  meal  dispatched,  the  curtains  of  my  sanctum  close  drawn,  the 
hearth  clean  swept,  the  wind  howling,  or  the  rain  pattering  on  the  ex- 
ternal world,  I  wheel  my  chair  to  front  the  genial  blaze,  discuss  in  its 
rays  the  ruby  brightness  of  some  three  or  four  temperate  glasses,  and 
sink  first  to  reverie — and  next  to  sleep.  It  is  then  that  the  troubled 
lucubrations  and  musings  of  the  day  steal  again  over  the  involuntary 
sense  with  a  gentle  and  a  softer  flow,  falling  upon  "  the  mind's  ear" 

U.  S.  JOURN.  No.  15.  MARCH,  1830.  x 


266  COLLOQUIES    WITH    FOLARD. 

like  the  murmuring  sound  of  distant  waters,,  or  blending  the  shreds 
and  patches  of  incongruous  realities  into  many-coloured  visions  of 
strange  and  fantastic  semblance. 

It  is  only  when  I  have  been  occupied  during  the  day  upon  the  most 
arduous  enterprise  of  my  life — my  great  forthcoming  work  on  the  Pike, 
— that  the  engrossing  pursuit  of  that  all  important  theme  has  robbed 
me  of  the  repose  which  appertains  to  this  hour  of  peace  ;  and  upon 
such  occasions  am  I  wont  to  court  my  evening  slumber  over  the  pages  of 
some  gentle,  even-tenoured  author.  With  this  intent  it  lately  chanced, 
— after  I  had  been  deep  busied  through  a  rainy  morning  in  the  memo- 
rable controversy  between  my  old  favourite,  Folard,  and  his  antagonists 
— that,  perplexed  with  conflicting  doubts  and  by-gone  conclusions.,  and 
having  vainly  sought  to  dismiss  them  in  my  accustomed  slumber,  I  had 
recourse  to  a  book  which  had  just  been  sent  to  me  from  our  village 
club.  'Twas  a  volume  of  the  Colloquies  between  Sir  Thomas  More 
and  the  accomplished  Montesinos  of  Keswick.  With  a  charmed  and 
soothing  interest  did  I  peruse  the  mystic  philosophy  of  their  spiritual 
symposium  :  yet  not  without  sundry  misgiving  dubitations  on  the  ve- 
racious report  of  those  wondrous  interviews.  "  Can  such  communings 
be,"  cried  I  aloud,  "  and  are  there  really 

' more  things  in  heaven  and  earth — 

Than  are  dreamt  of  in  our  philosophy  ?' 

Would  that  I,  too,  might  hold  converse  in  the  flesh  with  the  departed 
worthies  of  my  craft — would  that  I  might,  face  to  face,  discourse  with 
the  venerable  Commentator  on  Polybius,  touching  certain  passages  in 
his  theory." 

The  words  were  scarcely  uttered,  when  incontinently  I  seemed  to 
fall  into  a  deep  and  heavy  slumber,  and  I  beheld,  as  plainly  as  thou 
seest  me,  a  form  seated  over  against  me  in  the  morocco-cushioned  chair, 
which  I  intuitively  recognised  for  the  martial  presence  of  the  Chevalier 
de  Folard. 

I  know  not  how  it  was,  but  I  have  preserved  no  distinct  recollection 
either  of  the  entrance  of  the  Chevalier,  or  of  the  first  interchange  of  sa- 
lutations, or  yet  of  the  commencement  of  our  colloquy.  I  can  only  re- 
member that,  as  I  was  vainly  preparing  to  muster  up  my  poor  small 
stock  of  French  to  welcome  him  in  its  most  courteous  phrases,  he  at 
once,  and  strange  it  seemed,  relieved  my  pains  by  addressing  me  in 
marvellous  proper  English. 

"  Then,"  he  proceeded,  "  in  fact,  Montesinos, — " 

"  Your  pardon,  Chevalier,"  interrupted  I,  bowing  rather  stiffly ; 
"  my  name  is  not  Montesinos :  I  had  some  reason  to  hope,  as  I  have 
already  passed  an  unworthy  tribute  to  your  memory  in  certain  fugitive 
trifles,  that  my  real  appellation  might  not  be  altogether  unknown  to 
you." 

"  It  is  my  turn  to  apologise,"  said  my  companion,  but  with  a  cool, 
civil,  sarcastic  smile,  that  was  infinitely  disconcerting.  "  You  have 
the  advantage  of  me  :  but,  sooth  to  say,  the  periodicals  and  other  ephe- 
merals  do  so  seldom  reach  us  where  I  come  from,  that, — that,  in  short, 
my  good  friend,  I  shall  be  happy  to  be  informed  in  what  manner  I  have 
had  the  honour  to  become  your  debtor." 

And  here  I  cannot  help  stopping  to  remark,  that  the  Chevalier  did 


COLLOQUIES    WITH    FOLARD.  267 

certainly  appear,  throughout  our  whole  colloquy,  either  exceedingly 
ignorant  of  many  matters  in  which  he  might  be  supposed  to  be  tho- 
roughly instructed,  or  else  provokingly  intent  upon  concealing  his 
knowledge  j  nor  can  I  recollect  to  have  extorted  from  him  a  single  idea 
which  I  had  not  previously  gleaned,  either  from  his  own  writings  or 
other  books  and  sublunary  authorities.  But  this  uncommunicative  hu- 
mour must  be  common,  I  suppose,  to  such  visitants ;  for  I  have  observ- 
ed the  same  characteristic  in  Montesinos'  friend,  Sir  Thomas  More. 
Though  it  is  remarkable  that,  by  the  report  of  the  poet  himself,  the 
defunct  Chancellor  was  much  better  acquainted  with  his  deserts,  than 
the  defunct  Chevalier  was  with  mine: — but  this  was  doubtless  owing 
to  the  celebrity  of  Montesinos. 

Passing  from  this  humiliating  comparison,  it  were  to  little  purpose 
that  I  should  relate  how  successfully  I  at  length  persuaded  the  Che- 
valier of  my  claims  to  his  respect,  of  the  extent  of  his  own  obligations 
to  my  eulogies,  and  of  the  probability  that  his  fame  would  be  still  far- 
ther extended  through  my  labours.  Suffice  it  to  say,  that  we  soon  be- 
came excellent  friends :  though  I  could  not  avoid  noticing  that  he 
drank  no  wine,  and  rather  coldly  repulsed  all  my  offers  of  corporeal 
refreshment. 

fe  I  highly  approve  of  your  project,"  said  the  Chevalier,  "  provided 
that,  like  myself,  you  deduce  all  the  principles  of  modern  strategy  from 
the  practice  of  classical  antiquity." 

"  Therein, — I  pray  you  bear  with  my  ignorance,  my  dear  Chevalier, 
but, — therein  I  confess  1  cherish  some  doubts,  which  I  would  fain  have 
resolved  from  your  own  lips.  Besides,  the  theory,  with  all  due  de- 
ference to  your  own  immortal  work  be  it  spoken,  the  theory  has  become 
somewhat  obsolete  and  old-fashioned ;  and  I  question  whether  the 
world  would  now  endure  to  hear  it  revived.  I  fear  me,  I  should  only 
be  laughed  at  for  my  pains  :  I  fear  me,  Chevalier,  that  the  study  of 
the  martial  science  of  antiquity  is  scarcely  cultivated  with  becoming 
ardour  by  our  militaires  of  these  days." 

"  The  greater  the  pity,"  exclaimed  my  companion,  "  that  the  en- 
during lessons  of  strategy  bequeathed,  even  to  your  times,  by  the  great 
masters  of  antiquity,  should  have  ceased  to  be  studied  with  the  delight 
and  veneration  which  they  are  so  well  calculated  to  inspire.  Your  con- 
temporaries, I  presume,  still  worship  the  poesy,  the  eloquence,  the 
philosophy  of  the  classical  ages :  but  I  tell  you,  that  not  the  revival  of 
learning  and  taste  was  more  attributable  to  these  treasures  of  the 
schools,  than  was  the  revival  of  the  military  art  to  the  immutable  prin- 
ciples of  strategy  which  are  to  be  gathered  from  the  pages  of  Xeno- 
phon  and  Polybius  and  Caesar.  The  scholars  and  poets  of  the  sixteenth 
century  did  nut  ply  'the  labour  of  love'  more  devotedly  to  imbue  their 
minds  in  classical  lore,  than  did  the  greatest  captains  of  the  age  which 
followed  to  form  their  science  upon  the  institutions  and  practice  of  an- 
tiquity. The  famous  Prince  Maurice  of  Nassau,  who  ought  to  be 
regarded  as  the  first  restorer  among  the  moderns  of  the  military  art, 
for  he  first  restored  the  infantry  to  its  true  value  as  an  arm " 

"  You  forget  the  Bohemian  bands  of  John  Zisca,  Chevalier,"  inter- 
rupted I  boldly,  "  and  the  stalwart  Swiss  :  it  was  little,  I  guess,  that 
either  had  heard  of  the  Greek  phalanx  of  pikes,  when  they  learned  to 
set  shoulder  to  shoulder,  and  overthrew  the  pride  of  the  old  chivalry," 

T  2 


268  COLLOQUIES    WITH    FOLARD. 

"  Mere  unwieldy  masses,  with  the  sturdy  power  of  repulsion  in 
them,  it  is  true :  but  sans  all  capability  of  locomotion.  For  Zisca  and 
his  tactics,  you  can  know  nought  of  them,  whatever  rve  may  in  the  other 
world :  but,  for  the  defective  skill  of  your  Switzers,  witness  the  battle 
of  Marignano — that  combat  of  giants,  as  old  Trivulzio  called  it — in 
which  they  suffered  even  the  slow  working  artillery  of  those  times  to 
mow  them  down  by  hundreds  and  thousands,  won  the  battle  without 
knowing  how  to  seize  the  victory,  and  finally  retired,  as  they  had  ad- 
vanced, with  the  same  undaunted  countenance,  and  the  same  inability 
to  move  off  a  right  line.  No,  I  had  not  forgotten  the  Swiss  phalanx  : 
but,  certes,  the  brave  mountaineers  were  no  tacticians ;  and  I  was  pro- 
ceeding to  observe  that  Maurice  of  Nassau  was  the  true  restorer  of 
science,  because,  of  all  the  moderns,  he  first  taught  infantry  how  to 
move ;  and  his  confession  is  extant,  that  his  principles  were  borrowed 
from  those  of  the  Roman  art.  So,  also,  the  great  Gustavus  Adolphus, 
in  whom  all  the  best  qualities  of  a  hero  were  blended  with  the  learn- 
ing of  a  scholar,  but  followed  in  the  footsteps  of  Maurice,  and  like  him 
used  the  experience  of  antiquity  to  aid  the  inspiration  of  his  own 
genius.  His  example  and  those  of  our  Due  de  Rohan  and  Monte- 
ciiculi,  who  in  their  writings  avowedly  cite  the  ancients  for  their 
model,  all  combine  to  prove  that  the  Swedish,  the  French,  and  the 
German,  the  most  celebrated  schools  of  warfare  in  the  first  half  of 
the  seventeenth  century,  were  each  founded  on  the  same  classical  ori- 
ginal." 

"  But  you  say  nothing  of  the  Spanish  and  Italian  infantry,  those 
formidable  bands  which  existed  long  before  the  days  of  Maurice  and 
Gustavus.  Their  organization  at  least  knew  nothing  of  the  pedantries 
of  ancient  science :  yet  for  one  hundred  and  thirty  years  they  were  the 
terror  of  Europe,  until — " 

"  Yes,  until  the  battle  of  Rocroi,  which  may  truly  be  designated  as 
the  crisis  of  the  struggle  between  the  rude  tactics  of  the  middle  ages, 
and  that  of  the  system  which  revived  the  strategical  science  of  anti- 
quity. On  that  fatal  day,  the  flower  of  the  Spanish  and  Italian  bands, 
drawn  up,  according  to  the  practice  of  their  service,  in  one  dense  and 
almost  immoveable  mass,  without  support  or  reserve,  were  assailed  by 
the  reiterated  onsets  of  an  enemy  far  inferior,  doubtless,  in  unyielding 
steadiness  and  veteran  discipline,  but  arrayed  on  the  Roman  model, 
and  directed  by  the  youthful  genius  of  a  Conde.  They  were  annihi- 
lated ;  and  with  them  fell  the  power  and  the  martial  reputation  of 
Spain  :  from  that  hour  to  this  she  has  never  had  an  army.  It  is  evi- 
dent that,  amidst  the  improvement  in  military  science  which  marked 
the  progress  of  the  seventeenth  century,  no  change  had  been  introduced 
into  the  organization  of  those  Spanish  bands.  Their  high  reputation 
in  Europe, — which,  by  the  way,  is  curiously  exhibited  in  the  universal 
reception  of  the  terms  of  their  language  into  the  martial  vocabulary  of 
every  nation  of  the  times — might  naturally  render  them  bigoted  to  the 
system  under  which  their  glory  had  been  acquired." 

"  Quite  characteristic,  too,  of  the  Castilian  pride  and  obstinacy,  to 
disdain  imitation." 

"  Perhaps  it  was  :  their  infantry  had  been  originally  exercised  in  the 
Italian  wars  of  Ferdinand  the  Catholic,  and  Charles  the  Fifth ;  and 
its  success  on  the  same  brilliant  theatre  is  generally  ascribed  to  the 


COLLOQUIES    WITH   FOLARD.  269 

system  upon  which  it  was  trained  by  Pietro  Navarro.  By  that  system 
it  triumphed  over  the  gallant  gens-d' armerie  of  France,  with  their 
attendant  rabble  rout  of  undisciplined  foot,  as  the  mountaineers  of  Uri 
and  Underwald  had  triumphed  before ;  and  in  that  system  did  its 
leaders  persevere  for  nearly  a  century  and  a  half  to  its  final  ruin. 
They  seem  to  have  taken  no  note  of  time  ;  and  for  aught  that  can  be 
discovered  to  the  contrary,  they  fought  in  the  same  array  at  Ravenna 
and  at  Pavia,  at  Nordlingen  and  at  Rocroi." 

"  It  is  strange,"  said  I,  "  how  keen  and  intense  an  interest  is  always 
awakened  within  me  by  but  a  word  which  recalls  that  memorable 
epoch  in  warfare — distinguish  it  as  you  will — that  epoch  commencing 
with  the  invasion  of  Italy  by  Charles  VIII.  of  France,  and  ending 
only  with  the  close  of  the  Thirty  Years'  War.  Your  mention  of  Nord- 
lingen, par  exemple ;  how  many  images  of  the  old  strategy  doth  not 
that  mere  sound  in  an  instant  conjure  up.  Horn,  the  illustrious  Duke 
Bernard  of  Weimar,  and  their  Swedish  regiments,  the  veterans  of  Gus- 
tavus  j  the  king  of  Hungary,  and  John  de  Wert,  and  their  German 
Imperialists,  the  relics  of  Tilly  and  Waldstein ;  the  Cardinal-Infant  of 
Spain,  Ottavio  Piccolomini,  and  those  Spanish  and  Italian  bands, 
flushed  with  the  pride  of  a  century  of  victories,  who  with  their  gallant 
young  prince — far  less  priest  than  soldier — were  boldly  traversing 
Germany  from  the  Milanese  to  the  defence  of  the  Low  Countries : — 
there  to  find  the  common  grave  of  their  existence  and  reputation. 
Yes !  the  battle  of  Nordlingen  does  indeed  swell  to  the  memory  with 
all  the  pride,  pomp,  and  circumstance  of  glorious  war : — yet  its  fame 
owes  much  to  the  power  of  association  and  the  genius,  not  of  arms,  but 
of  art.  Did  you  ever,  my  dear  Chevalier,  see  Rubens'  picture  of  that 
field  ?" 

"  In  faith,  I  have,"  said  my  companion,  "  and  few  sights  had,  in  the 
flesh,  more  power  to  quicken  the  current  of  my  blood." 

"  It  is,  indeed,  a  very  jewel  of  a  battle-piece,  not  to  be  looked  upon 
without  lively  emotion;  and  I  rejoice  that  it  is  numbered  among  the 
treasures  of  this  land,  for  it  adorns  the  splendid  abode  of  our  monarchs, 
the  royal  halls  of  Windsor.  Remember  you  that  group,  their  eager 
anxious  gaze  intently  fixed  on  the  progress  of  the  fight :  the  young 
King  of  Hungary,  his  fair-haired  cousin  prince,  that  strange  compound 
of  cardinal  and  hero,  before  the  full  age  of  manhood, — and  black  John 
de  Wert,  the  very  opposite  of  both  in  years,  mien,  and  aspect  ?" 

"  I  remember  that  group  full  well :  yet,"  added  the  Chevalier,  with 
a  smile,  "  Nordlingen  has  better  claims  to  historical  remembrance  than 
a  few  square  feet  of  well  painted  canvass.  It  was  the  only  occasion  on 
which  the  old  Spanish  infantry  were  put  to  trial  against  the  Swedish 
regiments — and  the  issue  was  a  complete  overthrow  and  a  bloody  rout 
to  the  veterans  of  Gustavus." 

"  Yet  the  result  scarce  tallies  with  yonr  own  theory,  Sir  Knight : 
since,  by  that,  the  Swedish  array  and  the  revived  tactics  of  antiquity 
should  have  had  the  mastery." 

"  To  that  very  end,  Senhor  Soldado,  would  I  adduce  it  for  notice : 
lest,  without  explanation,  the  event  should  be  misconstrued  into  a  proof 
of  the  superiority  of  the  Spanish  to  the  Swedish  tactique ;  while  in 
fact  it  was  only  a  chance  exception  to  the  general  merits  of  the  two 
systems.  The  battle  of  Nordlingen  was  fought  only  some  eight  or 


270  COLLOQUIES    WITH    FOLARD. 

nine  years  before  the  fatal  field  of  Rocroi  ;*  and  the  two  trials  might 
seem  to  entail  opposite  conclusions  on  the  value  of  the  Spanish  array. 
Yet  the  circumstances  of  each  differed  too  widely  to  admit  of  our  as- 
signing equal  weight  to  the  events  in  the  opposite  balance.  At  Ro- 
croi, your  Spaniards  had  the  fairest  field — namely  a  plain — for  the  ac- 
tion of  their  phalanx  ;  superior  numbers ;  a  commander  of  veteran  ex- 
perience in  their  school,  the  old  Conde  de  Fuentes ;  and  at  least  as 
strong  an  incentive  for  their  gallant  bearing  in  the  memory  of  ancient 
renown,  as  their  opponents  had  in  the  presence  of  a  prince  of  the  blood. 
And  their  destruction  is  referred  by  all  contemporary  authorities  to 
the  inherent  vice  of  their  tactics.  But,  at  Nordlingen,  the  Swedes 
fought  under  every  disadvantage ;  they  were  weakened  and  dispirited 
by  the  feuds  of  their  leaders,  Horn  and  Weimar ;  and  their  enemies 
were  far  superior  in  number,  strongly  posted,  and  animated  to  enthu- 
siasm by  the  presence  of  the  two  gallant  young  princes,  who,  at  the 
head  of  the  German  and  Spanish  soldiery,  represented  in  the  field  on 
the  same  day  the  imperial  and  royal  branches  of  the  house  of  Austria. 
You  remember  the  tribute  which  their  contemporary  Gualdo,  in  the 
plain  and  simple  language  of  a  soldier,  has  rendered  to  the  gallant 
emulation  of  the  King  of  Hungary  and  the  Cardinal-Infant.  '  They 
won  immortal  glory  in  this  battle;  to  the  wonder  of  all  men,  were 
always  amidst  the  musket-shot,  void  of  fear ;  and  replied  to  the  counsel 
of  those  who  would  have  had  less  exposure  of  their  persons :  '  Let  such 
princes  as  are  afraid  keep  them  within  their  royal  palaces,  and  not 
come  to  an  army/  No;  the  battle  of  Nordlingen  proves  nothing 
either  against  the  strategical  system  of  Gustavus,  or  in  favour  of  that 
of  the  Spaniards.  To  say  nothing  of  the  disparity  of  numbers  and  po- 
sition, it  was  lost  by  the  dissensions  of  Horn  and  Weimar,  and  won  by 
the  gallantry  of  the  Austrian  princes,  and  the  enthusiasm  which  their 
conduct  inspired  in  their  generals  and  followers.  The  battle  of  Nord- 
lingen was,  however,  one  of  the  most  memorable  and  brilliant  in  the 
period  of  which  you  have  been  speaking." 

"  The  whole  of  that  period  is,  to  my  apprehension,  the  most  attract- 
ive in  the  military  history  of  the  world.  Whatever  may  be  our  dif- 
ferent views  of  the  origin  of  the  modern  science,  we  shall  at  least  agree, 
on  the  mere  question  of  time,  in  referring  its  rise  and  gradual  improve- 
ment to  that  same  memorable  epoch,  which  embraces  the  sixteenth  and 
the  first  half  of  the  following  century." 

"  Assuredly  :  on  that  question  there  cannot  be  two  opinions.  And 
if  you  survey  the  history  of  that  period,  you  will  observe  that,  through- 
out it,  Europe  always  afforded  some  great  arena,  on  which  the  essays 
of  the  art  were  continuous  and  the  advance  of  science  incessantly  pro- 
gressive. The  scene  might  vary ;  but  on  each  the  actors  of  successive 
systems  were  put  to  the  encounter,  until,  in  the  collision,  those  princi- 
ples of  strategy  were  evolved,  which  have  become  the  recognised  foun- 
dation of  all  modern  tactics.  In  the  course  of  that  century  and  a  half, 
there  may  be  marked  three  distinct  and  successive  schools  of  warfare, 
of  which  ITALY — the  Low  COUNTRIES — and  GERMANY,  afforded  in 
turn  the  chief  theatre^ 

'  Thus,  when  the  formation  of  a  regular  infantry  had  superseded  the 

*  A.  D.  1634—1643. 


COLLOQUIES    WITH   FOLARD.  271 

feudal  array  of  the  middle  ages,  it  was  in  Italy  that  the  nations  of  Eu- 
rope— the  Swiss,  the  French,  the  Germans,  and  the  Spaniards— strove 
for  the  mastery ;  and  the  native  levies  of  that  fair  and  ill-fated  land, 
obeying  her  destiny,  which  in  the  language  of  her  poet  was, 

t  Per  servir  sempre,  o  vincitrice,  o  vinta/* 

conquering  or  conquered,  still  to  be  enslaved,  mingled  in  the  quarrel  of 
the  stranger  but  as  the  hirelings  of  the  strife.  Through  the  long  con- 
test which  terminated  in  the  subjugation  of  Italy  to  the  imperial  arms, 
the  Spanish  infantry,  by  the  superiority  of  their  organization  and  dis- 
cipline, the  genius  of  their  commanders,  and  the  constancy  and  valour 
which  were  their  national  qualities,  were  left  the  victors  of  a  hundred 
fields;  and  their  achievements,  which  were  emulated  and  shared  by 
their  Italian  subject-allies,  raised  their  character  to  the  highest  renown 
throughout  Europe.  It  was  then  that  from  Italy  were  drawn  those 
forces  and  tactics  which,  in  the  last  half  of  the  century,  were  put  to 
trial  on  a  more  northern  theatre.  When  the  cruel  bigotry  of  that  ty- 
rant Philip  II.  drove  his  Flemish  subjects  to  revolt,  the  flower  of  the 
veteran  Spanish  and  Italian  infantry  were  transported  from  the  Milan- 
ese to  the  Low  Countries ;  and  the  long  wars  in  those  provinces  be- 
came the  second  school  of  modern  strategy,  to  which  the  martial  spirits 
of  every  nation  in  Europe  thickly  resorted.  There,  were  that  consum- 
mate general  Alessandro  Farnese,  the  renowned  Duke  of  Parma,  and 
his  not  unworthy  successor  Spinola,  with  the  Spanish  and  Italian  vete- 
rans, opposed  by  the  two  accomplished  heroes  of  Nassau,  father  and 
son,  the  first  William  and  the  still  more  illustrious  Maurice,  trained 
by  whose  genius  the  raw  levies  of  the  patriots,  and  the  gallant  bands 
of  gentlemen  who  thronged  to  his  camp  from  every  Protestant  country 
of  Europe,  were  taught  to  contend  on  equal  terms  with  their  more  ex- 
perienced opponents.  In  that  contest  were  exercised  also  various 
bodies  of  Swiss  and  German  troops,  as  well  as  many  of  the  distinguish- 
ed officers  of  the  latter  nation  who  afterwards  served  in  the  religious 
wars  of  their  own  country." 

"  There  also,  forget  not,  so  please  you,  Chevalier,  were  the  valour 
of  my  countrymen  and  the  martial  talents  of  several  of  their  leaders 
signally  illustrated :  Willoughby,  and  Sidney,  and  Norris,  and  Vere. 
Since  the  conquests  of  our  fifth  Harry  were  won  and  lost,  the  English 
had  mingled  little  in  the  wars  of  the  continent ;  and  for  lack  of  foreign 
adventure,  their  military  spirit  had  partaken  something  of  the  same 
rust  with  their  arms.  Except  in  the  victory  of  St.  Quentin,  they  had 
scarcely  won  a  foreign  trophy  since  the  beginning  of  the  century,  until, 
in  the  school  of  Maurice,  these  '  English  auxiliaries'  of  the  Low  Coun- 
try wars  won  immortal  honour.  Witness  the  successful  sieges  of  Ger- 
truydenburg  and  Groningen,  the  heroic  defence  of  Ostend,  and  the 
victories  at  Turnhout  and  Nieuport,  in  the  latter  of  which — the  best 
achievement  of  Maurice, — the  English  infantry  under  Vere  led  the  van 
of  the  Confederates,  overthrew  and  routed  the  Spanish  veterans,  and 
slaughtered  five  thousand  of  their  number." 

"  True :  yet  how  does  even  the  memory  of  these  Italian  and  Low  Coun- 
try wars  sink  and  dwindle  into  nothingness,  before  the  transcendant  in- 

*    FlLICAJA. 


272  COLLOQUIES  WITH  FOLARD. 

terest  of  the  Thirty  Years'  conflict  which  succeeded  in  Germany  !  And 
this  it  was  which  formed  the  third  school  in  the  rise  of  modern  military 
science ;  beyond  all  comparison  the  most  illustrious  and  extensive  of 
the  three.  For,  what  a  host  of  great  names  and  great  achievements 
crowd  the  stage  on  that  gigantic  theatre  of  strategy :  Gtistavus,  Wei- 
mar, Banner,  Horn,  and  Torstenson ;  Tilly,  Waldstein,  De  Wert,  and 
Pappenheim ;  Piccolomini  and  Montecuculi  j  Rohan,  Conde,  Turenne. 
In  that  age  was  Germany  but  one  vast  battle-field,  in  which  the  sol- 
diership of  every  nation  of  Europe  was  sternly  tried  to  the  utterance  : 
the  Swede,  with  his  volunteer  confederates,  the  Englishman  and  the 
Scot ;  the  Austrian,  the  Saxon,  Bavarian,  Bohemian,  Hungarian,  and 
the  wild  Croat ;  the  Frenchman  and  the  Switzer ;  the  Spaniard, 
the  Italian,  and  the  Walloon.  That  was  indeed  the  stirring  age  of 
battle  and  beleaguer  ;  the  age  to  which,  if  you  would  trace  the  founda- 
tion of  modern  science,  your  research  and  your  study  must  be  intently 
given." 

"  And  yet,  Chevalier,  when  that  foundation  has  been  traced,  the  re- 
sult of  the  search,  according  to  your  theory,  would  but  lead  us  back  to 
the  ages  of  classical  antiquity." 

"  Certainly,  as  I  contended  in  my  own  age,  the  general  principles  on 
which  Maurice  and  Gustavus,  and  the  greatest  commanders  who  imme- 
diately followed  them,  based  the  conduct  of  their  art,  were  avowedly 
borrowed  from  the  science  of  antiquity.  The  general  principles  of 
strategy  only,  observe  me:  for  the  details  of  their  operations  were 
varied  by  the  changes  introduced  through  gunpowder  and  its  artillery, 
by  the  opposite  forms  of  ancient  and  modern  polity  and  morals,  by  the 
different  constitution  of  ancient  and  modern  society  and  civilization, 
by,  in  short,  the  thousand  accidents  of  time  and  fate.  But  still,  under 
all  these  external  appearances  of  dissimilarity,  I  maintain,  that  at  bot- 
tom your  moderns  have  been — even  by  their  own  confessions — but  the 
mere  imitators  of  the  ancient  strategists." 

"  But  granting,  as  you  contend,  that  the  principles  of  all  modern 
strategy  were  originally  borrowed  by  the  great  generals  of  the  seven- 
teenth century  from  the  practice  of  the  ancients,  to  what  purpose,  may 
it  not  be  answered,  should  a  man  at  this  time  of  day  burrow  like  a 
mole  into  the  darkness  of  antiquity,  or  smother  himself  in  the  rubbish 
of  forgotten  controversy,  merely  to  discover  what  no  one  will  care  to 
hear, — as,  whether  or  not  the  Quincunx  continued  to  be  the  Roman 
order  of  battle  after  the  Punic  wars — whether  the  Legion  or  the  Pha- 
lanx presented  the  preferable  array — whether  the  Ballista  or  the  Cata- 
pulta  respectively  threw  stones  and  darts,  or,  mutatis  mutandis,  darts 
and  stones  ?  To  what  purpose,  in  these  gunpowder  ages,  should  we 
perplex  ourselves  in  fanciful  inquiries,  whether  the  dense  masses  of 
Tilly  and  Waldstein  imitated  the  close  order  of  '  The  Ten  Thousand/ 
or  the  smaller  and  more  manageable  battalions  of  Gustavus  were  mo- 
delled on  the  cohorts  of  Caesar — whether  our  trenches  and  cavaliers 
are  but  the  repetition  of  vineas  and  aggeres,  and  our  parallels  and  ap- 
proaches but  a  tame  copy  of  an  ancient  beleaguer  ?  If  the  elements  of 
modern  strategy  were  indeed  derived  from  the  principles  of  ancient 
warfare,  the  improvement  of  the  art  has  long  since  obliterated  the 
traces  of  a  common  origin :  if  the  modern  practice  has  proceeded  from 
the  example  of  antiquity,  it  will  assuredly  never  return  to  it.  The 


COLLOQUIES    WITH    FOLARD.  273 

rapidity  of  our  operations  sets  at  nought  all  the  rules  and  calculations 
which  applied  to  the  heavy  movements  of  an  infantry  encumbered  with 
Armour;  the  distant  effect  of  our  lire-arms,  by  which  alone  the  event  is 
decided  in  nine  cases  out  of  ten,  without  any  actual  collision  of  masses, 
would  render  nugatory  every  attempt  to  restore  an  order  of  battle  de- 
signed only  for  combatants,  with  whom  to  close  was  the  only  means  of 
engaging ;  but  above  all,  the  prodigious  projectile  power,  the  vast  range, 
and  the  tremendous  execution  of  our  artillery,  have  immensely  extended 
the  arena  of  battle,  and  enlarged  the  compass  and  theatre  of  action,  far 
beyond  all  the  most  gigantic  conceptions  or  provisions  of  your  ancient 
strategy.  Of  the  ancient  sieges,  we  will  say  nothing :  for  what  man 
in  his  senses  ever  thought  of  comparing  the  elaborate  and  aimless 
efforts  of  their  most  powerful  engines,  with  the  stupendous  but  simple 
operation  of  a  ten-inch  mortar,  or  a  four-and-twenty  pounder  of  the 
battering  train  ?" 

I  paused  :  for  I  suddenly  recollected  that  in  my  warmth  I  had  rudely 
jostled  the  favourite  hobby  of  my  companion.  He  perceived  my  em- 
barrassment, and  by  his  good-humoured  bearing  immediately  re-as- 
sured me : 

"  Fear  not,  my  good  friend,  that  you  should  offend  those  prejudices 
which  once  bound  me  fast  in  the  flesh.  In  the  intermediate  state  of 
existence  which  I  now  enjoy,  though  we  retain  our  habits  of  mind  and 
stores  of  knowledge,  the  dispositions  and  affections  which  we  brought 
from  your  world,  yet  we  have  this  advantage  over  our  former  selves, 
that  we  are  divested  of  all  those  passions  which  cloud  the  intellects 
and  warp  the  understandings  of  men ;  and  thus  having  a  clearer  and 
more  comprehensive  survey  of  every  subject,  we  are  enabled  to  exert 
our  reason  on  causes  and  consequences,  unfettered  by  our  earthly 
prejudices/' 

I  listened  with  profound  reverence  to  this  admirable  metaphysical 
account  of  the  soul's  condition  in  Limbo :  though,  upon  since  looking 
at  the  dialogues  of  Montesinos,  I  verily  believe  my  ghost  must  have 
stolen  the  whole  passage  from  his  brother  shadow  the  Chancellor. 

"  Perceiving  wherein  I  judged  rightly,  and  wherein  I  erred,"  con- 
tinued the  Chevalier,  "  I  am  now  prepared  to  concede  to  you  that,  in 
the  matter  of  the  beleaguer,  the  ancients  did  lack  something  of  the  re- 
finement and  rapidity  of  modern  science.  Yet  how  deeply  interesting 
are  all  the  details  of  their  sieges — how  enchaining  the  narrative  of 
their  herculean  labours — their  gigantic  constructions — their  artful  chi- 
canes !  We  have  nothing  to  compare  to  it  in  our  times :  a  modern 
army  would  not  throw  up  in  twenty  weeks  such  an  agger  as  Caesar's 
legionaries  were  wont  to  raise  in  as  many  days." 

"  Very  possibly :  and  these  things  may  be  matters  of  wonderment 
and  interest  to  the  mere  military  antiquarian  :  it  may  only  still  be 
asked  you,  to  what  practical  purpose  should  they  engage  the  attention 
of  the  professed  military  student  ?  What  has  the  modern  soldier  to  do 
with  antiquity  ? — 

*  What's  Hecuba  to  him,  or  he  to  Hecuba?'  " 

"  Perhaps  not  much :  yet  I  know  not  why  the  usages  and  science  of 
other  ages  should  not,  in  his  vocation,  be  a  subject  of  rational  curiosity 
to  the  soldier,  as  well  as  to  the  follower  of  any  other  pursuit.  To  trace 


274  COLLOQUIES    WITH    FOLARD. 

the  origin  and  progress  of  art,  is,  in  every  other  branch  of  know- 
ledge, held  to  be  a  laudable  and  useful  occupation :  tending  to  method- 
ize and  improve  our  conceptions,  to  enlarge  our  views,  and  to  assist  and 
stimulate  our  intelligence.  And  why  not  equally  in  the  profession  of 
arms  ?  Credit  me,  there  are  worse  employments  for  the  soldier's  '  hours 
of  idlesse'  than  the  inditing  of  even  a  passing  commentary  on  the  revo- 
lutions of  the  art." 

"  The  Chevalier  de  Folard,"  replied  I,  "  might  need  to  offer  no 
apology  for  treating  of  the  high  concernments  of  the  ancient  strategy. 
The  distinguished  services  of  fifteen  campaigns,  and  the  qualities  of 
soldiership  which  won  the  esteem  and  confidence  of  the  hero  of  his  age — 
the  Twelfth  Charles  of  Sweden — avouched  his  title  for  the  office.  But 
for  the  humble  and  unknown  to  venture  in  his  footsteps,  were  to  en- 
counter the  reproach  of  the  sophist,  who  presumed  to  lecture  on  the  art 
before  the  renowned  Carthaginian — or  to  be  justly  accused,  like  Mi- 
chael Cassio,  of  '  mere  bookish  theorick — prattle  without  practice/ ' 

"  Yes,  if  the  study  and  observation  of  the  past  were  indeed  to  be 
justly  confounded  with  the  pretence  of  offering  instruction  on  the  mo- 
dern science.  But  it  needs  no  high  pretension  to  unfold  the  historical 
progress  of  the  art,  not  from  set  dissertations  and  treatises  which  are 
fit  only  to  moulder  in  the  dust  of  departed  miscellanies  and  obsolete 
encyclopedias,  but  in  the  living  pages  of  the  old  writers :  of  those 
commanders  of  imperishable  renown,  who  have  themselves  bequeathed 
to  your  times  the  authentic  impress  of  their  minds  and  achievements — 
the  lessons  of  their  genius  embodied  in  the  simple  record  of  their  glo- 
ries ;  of  those  actors  of  inferior  note,  yet  still  their  worthy  companions 
or  faithful  followers — the  sharers,  the  witnesses,  or  at  least  the  hearers 
of  their  deeds,  whose  pens,  animated  by  the  excitement  of  their  theme, 
have  left  the  world  the  genuine  portraitures  of  their  great  leaders, 
familiarized  men's  perceptions  with  the  lineaments  of  the  mighty  dead, 
and